BEH 225 Week 8 - Diagnosis and Treatment (1100 words) in APA format
BEH 225 Week 8 - Diagnosis and Treatment (1100 words) in APA format
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Antisocial Personality Disorder 1 Assignment: Diagnosis and Treatment Your Name Here Axia College University of Phoenix BEH 225 Instructor, Name Month and Day Antisocial Personality Disorder 2 Diagnosis and Treatment There are innumerable psychological disorders that are defined and redefined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). For the measure of this exercise, I have chosen to focus upon one that contrasts my socialistic personality Antisocial Personality Disorder. This disorder not only affects the person diagnosed with the disease but also is omnipresence in societies. This is the reason that trends in diagnosis and treatments change so much it is extensively studied. The most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (the fourth edition, text revision or DSMIVTR, 2000) classifies APD as one of four “Cluster B Personality Disorders” along with borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. “Antisocial Personality Disorder is also known as psychopathy, sociopathy or dyssocial personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a diagnosis applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the rights, safety, or feelings of others. Dr. Robert Hare, an authority on psychopathy and the originator of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, claims that all psychopaths have APD but not all individuals diagnosed with APD are psychopaths.” (Gale encyclopedia of, 2003, p. 68) Individuals whom are diagnosed with this disorder (APD) have a propensity to harm themselves and other members of the populace. This may be because someone with this disorder lacks strong ethical and moral standards. This behavioral pattern of is observed in children or young adolescents and said behavior readily persists well into adulthood; tending to position the mentally ill being in constant conflict with today’s society. Predictably, the sociopath will engage in clashes with law officials and have a pattern of Antisocial Personality Disorder 3 delinquency from childhood or adolescence. Classically, these individuals use and abuse drugs and alcohol at elevated degrees, thus worsening the disorder. Other notable signals of sociopathy lie, cheat, and steal. Often this behavior will victims of the person afflicted with APD wondering how or why this could occur. “Why did or does he or she do this?” After all, the person with Antisocial Personality Disorder commonly presents him or her self as a “charmer” – the disorder masked by the outward appearance of superficial charm and wit. Analogous symptoms for Antisocial Personality Disorder are; disregard for society’s expectations and laws, unlawful behavior, constant violation of others, aggression, lack of stability, lack of remorse for transgressions, and intolerance of boredom. The causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder are unknown although genetics seem to be a sizeable factor in the development of APD. Patients with a biological parent diagnosed with APD have an increased rate of diagnosis. Environmental dynamics also seem to have an impact. Many patients have influential role models whom also possess antisocial tendencies – not limited to the household. And, psychoanalytical research in relation to adopted children indicate that (mutually) genetic and environmental factors influence the development APD. A proper diagnosis may not be given to those under the age of 18 years old, even when a disruptive behavior that shows symptoms are revealed prior to the age of 15. Diagnosis of this disorder is exceptionally serious matter, and improper treatments or disorders should be ruled out beforehand. There has not been much success in the management of APD. This is primarily in view of the fact that many sociopaths do not seek a form of therapy. The majority of the diagnosed patients are mandated into therapy because of penal code enforcement. Out a sidebar, men outweigh women diagnosed with this disorder and unsurprisingly a large amount of prison Antisocial Personality Disorder 4 populations contain persons diagnosed with APD. “Not all people with antisocial personality disorder are convicted criminals, however. Many skillfully and successfully manipulate others for their own gain while steering clear of the criminal justice system.” (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 512) Selective evidence illustrates that the symptoms of this disorder may diminish with age; that persons over the age of 30 do not demonstrate as many symptoms, yet may remain substance abusers. Such evidence makes the theory that the symptoms fade rather taxing to prove since substance abusers often show much of the same symptoms, even after an individual has remained sober abstinent from alcohol or drugs for some time. Thus far, medication has not proven to be an entirely effective mode of treating those diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder, mainly because they are not taken as prescribed or are intentionally abused. Therefore, it is often that the prescription of medication is avoided. Psychotherapy has proven moderately helpful. Group therapy may be used if the patient is comfortable in the group setting. This type of therapy is usually harder to get the patient into an individual setting since patients seem to have a hard time forming bonds and trusting people and resents authority figures. A study was performed whereas two groups of patients with a conglomerate of disorders was performed. One set of patient received group therapy, and the other received no therapy at all. One and a half years later, the group that received psychotherapy had a better adjustment and fewer complaints (InteliHealth, 2006). Regularly, similar research is conducted in an effort to uncover effective methods of treating people diagnosed with this serious disorder. The prognosis remains poor at this time. The afflicted will have invariable feelings to be in control, that their wants, needs, and Antisocial Personality Disorder 5 personal satisfaction are more important than anyone else’s is. Yet, many of these individuals feel have a low esteem, are often depressed feeling as though everything has failed them. How can this be? Frequently, the scamming, fraudulent, and criminal act fails, triggering the person with APD to feel as though he or she is a loser, a failure – exposed. A patient may become paranoid when a therapist backs the patients into a corner in hopes of diminishing any power struggle that may be occurring. During a crisis, the patient is apt to engage physically dangerous activities and the therapist should be very cautious. In summary, diagnosis is not common but the affects of Antisocial Personality Disorder a very serious. Anyone with APD is at a greater risk to injure his or her self and others. Symptoms for Antisocial Personality Disorder are; disregard for society’s expectations and laws, unlawful behavior, constant violation of others, aggression, lack of stability, lack of remorse for transgressions, and intolerance of boredom. If you know of someone who exhibits symptoms of APD, advocate professional help. Of course, never pressure the individual, since people afflicted with APD is apt to commit dangerous acts. Remember to look at the world from his or her point of view. Yes, studies will continue and with anticipation, an effective treatment will be unveiled. Antisocial Personality Disorder 6 References American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4 ed.) Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association Antisocial personality disorder. (2007). Retrieved January 17, 2009 from HeathScout: http://www.healthscout.com/? ency/1/000921.html Antisocial Personality Disorder. (2006). Retrieved January 16, 2009 from InteliHealth: http://www.intelihealth.com/?ih/ihtihwsihw000/? 9339/?31780.html Antisocial Personality Disorder. (2005). Retrieved January 18, 2009 from Personality Disorder Information Sheet: http://www.psychnet uk.com/?clinical_psychology/?criteria_personality_antisocial.htm Morris, C.G., Maisto, A.A. (2002). Psychological Disorders. Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Thackery, E. & Harris, M. (2003). Antisocial personality disorder. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (vol. 1). ISBN: 0787657697 Farmington Hills, MI: The Gale Group, Inc.