HCA 240 Wk 9 Final Project ind forum day 7 attchmnt
HCA 240 Wk 9 Final Project ind forum day 7 attchmnt
CSU - Dominguez hills
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Breast Cancer Running head: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Public Awareness and Human Diseases Name Axia College of University of Phoenix HCA 240 Date Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Statistics Approximately 192,370 women in the United States are expected to be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the year 2009. In addition to invasive breast cancer, 62,280 cases of in situ (early stage) breast cancer are expected to occur among United States women in 2009 (American Cancer Society, 2009). Women are at risk for breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer related death in the United States. Diagnosis of breast cancer in men is rare, although men are not insusceptible to developing breast cancer. The estimated number of new cases of breast cancer in women in 2007 was 178,000 (Mayo Clinic, 2008). These figures conceivably explain the apparent concern for all women, the need for screening measures, meticulous education efforts and successful treatment options. History of Breast Cancer Women have been suffering from breast cancer as far back as the ancient Roman and Greek era. Detailed accounts of breast cancer were provided by physicians of this time, as discovered from analysis of case histories. Hippocrates provided one initial account concerning one of his patients, a woman whose name was Abdera. Abdera presented with a bloody discharge from the nipple and was diagnosed with carcinoma of the breast (Donegan, 2005). Risks for Breast Cancer Breast Cancer The risk of breast cancer associated with cessation of menstruation was discovered to be true by Hippocrates. Additionally, Hippocrates provided us with early education regarding the progression of the disease. He proposed early symptoms included a tumor in the breast tissue which later intensified in firmness and further advanced initiating a multitude of signs and symptoms of complication which finally resulted in death (Donegan, 2005). Further information of the occurrence of breast cancer during this ancient era was provided by Roman physician Aulus Celsus. Celsus described the four stages of breast cancer. Additionally, treatment through removal of the tumor for merely first stage cancer was recommended by Celsus (Donegan, 2005). Possibly presented with the knowledge of the endurance of the disease one would become concerned as to why breast cancer continues to influence the lives of so many women in today’s society. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods, as we will later discuss, have greatly advanced throughout the years. An increased risk of a breast cancer diagnosis is contingent on family history. A woman has a better chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer if she has a daughter, sister or mother who has been previously diagnosed with either ovarian or breast cancer. Furthermore, if these diagnoses have occurred in any family members preceding the beginning of menopause the risk is further increased. The risk of developing breast cancer becomes greater, the more predominant Breast Cancer the diagnosis is in one’s family. Moreover, the likelihood of repeated diagnosis is increased through any personal experience with breast cancer (Mayo Clinic, 2008). The risk of breast cancer is also affected by weight; however, these risks are more difficult to calculate. According to research, any woman who is obese or overweight has an increased chance of developing breast cancer as well as various other forms of cancer. A woman who carries the majority of her extra weight in the upper body region as well as a substantial weight gain during the adolescent years or after menopause may further increase the risk for breast cancer (Mayo Clinic, 2008). The risk of developing breast cancer is increased by the early start of menstruation or late start of menopause, use of birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy for more than 4 years and first pregnancy after age 30. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking can increase the risk of breast cancer. Race is another important factor connected to the risk of developing breast cancer. According to research, Caucasian women are at an increased risk for developing breast cancer; however due to the fact that cancer is often diagnosed in the later stages in African American women, women of this race have a higher mortality rate. As women of low income families or poverty level often lack the needed means for routine medical care and early diagnosis, socioeconomic factors may also contribute (Mayo Clinic, 2008). While inherited factors increase one’s risk of developing breast cancer, these factors are beyond one’s control, but various other risk factors can be controlled to some degree which in turn can lower one’s risk. Cessation of smoking and lowering alcohol consumption will reduce the risk of developing breast cancer as well as many other forms of cancer. Additionally, optimal health can be achieved by eliminating or reducing these activities. Routine exercise along with Breast Cancer good nutritional habits will further lower one’s risk by decreasing the odds for becoming obese. When a mother breastfeeds her infant for several months, it can prove to be beneficial by lowering a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2008). Perhaps the greatest way to decrease one’s own risk of breast cancer is through prevention and proper screening for those with a family history of the disease. Additionally, women with no family history need to become properly educated on the risks of breast cancer as well as participate in regular screening and practice preventative measures (Mayo Clinic, 2008). Additionally, to aid in early detection, it is also suggested that women perform routine breast self exams, and that women over the age of 40 receive regular mammograms (WebMD, 2008). Breast Cancer Research Medical professionals continue to be confounded by the cause of breast cancer. As shown through research, a meager 5 to 10% of breast cancer cases are inherited through genetic defects involving one or two genes which include the BRCA1 and BRCA2. Additionally, evidence indicates another inherited mutation which involves the cellcycle checkpoint kinase 2 gene, the p53 suppressor gene and the ataxiatelangiectasia mutation gene. Should a member of one’s family carry one of these genes, the probability of carrying the gene is 50% in consequence, increasing the odds of developing breast cancer (Mayo Clinic, 2008). Breast Cancer While this evidence accounts for some cases of breast cancer the number of cases associated with these defects and mutations of genes is slight. The possibility that early exposure to radiation is the cause of breast cancer in later life is implied by theory. There may be a possibility of a connection between toxins found in red meats and tobacco, as proposed by additional research (Mayo Clinic, 2008). Medical research has comprised a surplus of factors which may increase a woman’s odds of developing breast cancer. The number one risk factor to date is simply being a woman. A woman over the age of 50 further increases her odds of developing breast cancer. Additionally, statistics suggest by age 85, 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer (Mayo Clinic, 2008). Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer In the early stages of breast cancer, the signs and symptoms may be overlooked. However, there may be noticeable signs suggesting a tumor as the cancer grows or begins to spread. Many tumors can be seen through the use of mammograms before being felt during a physical exam, hence the importance of mammograms. However, a probable sign of breast cancer is the presence of a mass or lump which can be seen or felt in the chest. There may also be noticeable Breast Cancer pain and tenderness of the breast or swelling in the armpit. In addition, one may notice an unusual nipple discharge. Nipple discharge is normally more common in Paget’s disease which is a rare form of cancer affecting the areola and nipple of the breast; however to rule out the possibility of Paget’s disease or other malignant tumors of the breast, any unusual nipple discharge should be promptly examined (Mulvihill et al., 2006). Various changes in the breast are other possible signs of progressive breast cancer. Changes that can include temperature changes, redness and contour changes of the breast or breast size could be signs of breast cancer and should be addressed. Moreover, other changes to the nipple that may be noticed are an ulcerated appearance, an itching sensation, or a burning sensation. The nipple may also become inverted or dimpled in appearance (WebMD). The signs and symptoms of breast cancer can vary according to the stage of the cancer, and for this reason it is beneficial to have a thorough understanding of the stages. Breast Cancer Stages In the earliest stage, or stage 0, when the breast cancer is localized to the breast tissue, minimum signs and symptoms will most likely be noticed. Breast cancer is diagnosed as stage 1 in women when a tumor smaller than 2 centimeters is discovered; however the cancer remains localized to the breast area. Stage 2 breast cancers consist of what is defined as Stage 2A or Stage 2B. In Stage 2A cancer the tumor remains smaller than 2 centimeters but is worsened by involvement of the lymph nodes or the tumor is between 2 and 5 centimeters, but the underarm Breast Cancer lymph nodes are not involved. Stage 2B is categorized by a tumor greater than 5 centimeters in size but underarm lymph nodes are not involved or is between 2 and 5 centimeters with underarm lymph nodes involvement (Women’s Health Channel, 2008). Stage 3 breast cancer is classified by a tumor that is larger in size and has spread to the surrounding lymph nodes or body tissues which include the skin and is considered advanced breast cancer. Stage 4 breast cancer is the most devastating diagnosis and involves a tumor of any size which has spread to the lungs, brain, liver, bones or lymph nodes in other areas of the body beyond the breast. This stage of cancer has the highest mortality rate of any of the stages. The delay of the progression of the disease is contingent upon the importance of early diagnosis and treatment (WebMD, 2008). Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Breast cancer can be diagnosed through a physical exam in which a mass is felt, removal and inspection of a small portion of the mass to confirm diagnosis, biopsy of the regional lymph nodes, or imaging or mammography of the breast which will show a tumor or mass (Mulvihill et al., 2006). As previously mentioned the breast cancer treatment once involved only treating the early stages of the cancer (Donegan, 2005). However, medical professionals have two goals when developing current plans for treatment; remove the cancer completely and prevent the Breast Cancer reoccurrence of the cancer. The most common methods of removing the cancer are through a mastectomy, removal of the affected breast, or lumpectomy in which the tumor itself is removed to preserve the unaffected area of the breast. Radiation may be given after a mastectomy or lumpectomy to prevent a later reoccurrence. Small doses of radiation will most likely be given for several weeks. A patient may experience fatigue, physical changes to the appearance of the breast which may include thickening or darkening of the tissue or skin irritation while undergoing radiation treatments (WebMD, 2008). In order to kill cancerous cells chemotherapy may also be introduced. Numerous side effects may be experienced while undergoing chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, fatigue, hair loss, lowered blood counts and nausea (Women’s Health Channel, 2008). To stop the growth of cancerous cells that might be left behind in the breast after surgery, hormone therapy may also be implemented. The hot flashes or vaginal dryness associated with hormone therapy can often be alleviated by overthecounter and prescription medications. Herceptin which employs the body’s own immune system to destroy cancerous cells is another therapy that may be implemented (WebMD, 2008). Personal choices of both the professional and the patient combined with the stage of the disease dictate which treatment plans are implemented. Breast Cancer Clinical Trials and Education Hope for more effective plans of combating breast cancer tumors is provided from clinical trials. One such trial involves the use of immunoliposomes which is described by the study Breast Cancer leader as "a molecule comprised of a lipid [fat] ball containing a therapeutic agent, such as a chemotherapy drug," (WebMD, 2008). In this clinical trial, the study leader states the lipid ball seeks out specific protein found on the surface of cancer cells and releases toxins to kill the cancer. Countless women, who might otherwise find themselves fighting to overcome invasive and traumatic treatment options like the mastectomy, would benefit from this method, if proven successful. As early detection and treatment are crucial to the survival of those diagnosed with breast cancer it is essential that local programs continue the efforts to educate women concerning breast cancer. The Illinois breast and cervical Cancer Program in the Illinois community, developed by the governor of the state is one such program. Underinsured or uninsured women in Illinois are offered free mammogram testing and breast exams through this program. Additionally, those receiving a positive diagnosis for breast cancer, providing they are enrolled in the program, is eligible to receive free treatment for their breast cancer if the eligibility requirements are met. The Pink Potluck program is a program offered in an effort to bring awareness and further educate while supplying free kits to groups or organizations hosting potluck meals. The kit contains information related to breast cancer screenings, detection and information about the program (Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program, 2008). Breast Cancer Though this program clearly benefits those most affected by breast cancer the question is if the program is reaching a sufficient amount of women. It is feared those women who do not have access to the internet may be oblivious to the programs existence. Alternative methods of getting the message out about the program are needed since many cases of breast cancer occur in women over age 50 who may not own a computer. The fact that those who are underinsured or uninsured would be offered promise for the future by receiving screenings and treatments makes this plan ideal. If several methods of advertisement were executed, including through television, maybe increased knowledge of such programs would occur. It would be ideal to have a spokesperson with a recognizable face; someone women could relate to, due to the higher incidence in women who have reached the menopausal stage. Flyers containing information about the program should be distributed to doctors, hospitals, social service agencies and health departments to be displayed in waiting areas. Women are more apt to see the flyers and read the important information contained within while waiting to see their doctor. Conclusion Throughout history, countless women’s lives have been affected by breast cancer. Though advancements have increasingly been made regarding treatment the continued rate of occurrence implies even further research is needed to provide less invasive and more successful treatment Breast Cancer options to those diagnosed with breast cancer. Continued education and awareness is necessary to ensure early detection and treatment to lower mortality rates. Breast cancer can happen to any woman at any stage in her life. There is no woman alive who is immune to breast cancer. The professionals and medical researchers have a responsibility to develop more advanced treatment options, and the promise of a cure in the future but we, as women, have an obligation to educate ourselves, take preventative measures and seek medical attention at the initial sign of sudden or unusual changes or symptoms. Breast Cancer References American Cancer Society. (2008). Detailed guide Breast Cancer. Retrieved May 19, 2009, from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI_2_3x.asp?dt=5 American Cancer Society. (2009). Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2009, from http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/500809web.pdf Donegan W.L., (2005). History of breast cancer. bcdecker.com. Retrieved May 19, 2009, from http://www.bcdecker.com/SampleOfChapter/1550092723.pdf Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program. (2008). State of Illinois Breast cervical cancer program. Retrieved May 19, 2009, from http://wwwb.cancerscreening.illinois.gov/ MayoClinic. (2008). Breast cancer. Retrieved May 19, 2009, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breastcancer/DS00328 Mulvihill, M. L., Zelman, M., Holdaway, P., Tompary, E., & Raymond, J. (2006). Human diseases: A systemic approach (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. WebMD. (2008). Breast cancer guide. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/breastcancer/guide/default.htm Women's Health Channel. (2008). Breast cancer From detection to treatment. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from http://www.womenshealthchannel.com/breastcancer/index.shtml Breast Cancer Breast Cancer
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