HTW 402 Exam 2 Study Guide
HTW 402 Exam 2 Study Guide HTW 403
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyson Forman on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HTW 403 at Syracuse University taught by L. Narine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Community Based Health Policy and Research in Public Health at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
1. Do you know the differences between primary, secondary, quantitative and qualitative data, the collection strategies and sources for these kinds of data, their strengths and limitation, and general advice for the collection of evaluation data for health programs? • Primary: collected directly from people. often used to measure behaviors, to assess some environmental factors, and to contribute to an assessment of quality of life. observe individuals, groups, environment. need to have systematic data recording system and trained data collectors. Limitations: possibility of observer making incorrect observations and interpretations, subjects of observations reacting to presence of observer • Secondary: someone else has collected data. review of existing documents & records, internet, advisory board. Limitations: how was the original info collected, was data collected systematically with trained data collectors? from whom was the data collected? • Quantitative: numbers, relatively easily obtained in large numbers, usually objective, speciﬁc, easily analyzed, can have applications to wide population, good for summarizing a situation and taking a broad look • Qualitative: words, allow for more in-depth and detailed understandings of situations, analyzed by determining general patterns 2. Why are program inputs and outputs important, what are the different categories and types of program inputs and outputs, what are examples of how these inputs and outputs might be measured Input & Output Types: Organizational: human resources, physical resources, transportation, • information, managerial, time, monetary. Service: participants, program reach, social marketing, program logistics, intervention delivery • Examples: • Human Resources: staff training, volunteer recruitment and training, community consortium, coalition, advisory board. Measures of input: number of full-time equivalents, number of new hires, number of volunteers, percentage of licensed personnel with certiﬁcation, education level of staff. Measures of Output: number of hours worked, staff to recipient ratio, hours per client contact per staff, degree of job satisfaction of staff and volunteers • Physical Resources: material resources, intervention equipment, ofﬁce equipment, facilities. Measures of Input: number and type of capital equipment, number and type of ofﬁce or clinical equipment, square footage of ofﬁce space. Measures of Output: extent to which changes are made to physical resources needed for delivery of the intervention/program, replacement of aged equipment • Transportation: program staff, participants, accessibility, rural-travel time, urban-proximity to transit hub. Measures of Input: parking fees, total mileage per month, number of bus passes used, program vehicle expenses. Measures of Output: mileage per staff, number of clients receiving transportation assistance, transportation cost per staff or per program participant • Information Resources: intangible resource often overlooked, knowledge and expertise of program staff, street smarts, interpersonal information resources. Measures of Input: number of computers brought or upgraded, number of program recruitment efforts, availability of communication hardware and software, ease of the process of data entry and retrieval, ease of outcome and impact data entry and retrieval. Measures of Output: staff perception of ease of use of system, frequency of using critical databases, amount of time clients are on hold, number of calls waiting to be answered, number and frequency of reports generated Managerial: organizational abilities, communication skills, team building skills, leadership • qualities, coping skills, technical skills. Measures of Input: place in organizational chart, years of experience, educational level, ability to clearly and persuasively communicate. Measures of Output: extent to which managers are viewed by staff as controlling or delegating, degree to which managerial personnel make changes to ensure ﬁdelity of intervention • Time: sequencing of events, delays, depreciation, inﬂation, and interest. Measures of Input: Timeline developed, presence of deadline dates. Measures of Output: number of days delayed, percentage of deadlines met, number of repeated requests • Monetary: money, fees and billing, cash to participants, fund raising, grant writing, budget. Measures of Input: amount of grant monies and donations, amount of indirect costs deducted from the program, number of proposals submitted for program funding. Measures of Output: dollars, or percent variance from budgeted per line item, numbers of grants received, proﬁt or loss • Participants: eligibility screening (target audience vs recipients), dosage, completion (level of participation, client engagement, intervention appeal), satisfaction (ceiling effect, cultural sensitive and appropriate to subgroups, questionnaire vs personal interview). Measures of Input: number of recipients/participants/clients, number of persons denied the program or not qualiﬁed for the program. Measures of Output: degree of satisfaction with the program • Program Reach: under and over coverage, accurate data on need, units of service. Measures of Input: number of requests for the program. Measures of Output: percent under coverage, percent over coverage. Social Marketing: get program to intended audience, produce, price, promotion. Measures of • Input: type of social marketing, quality of marketing, extent of social marketing analysis. Measures of Output: number of advertising events, number of requests for the program based on social marketing efforts. • Program Logistics: queuing (time waiting, delays, bottlenecks), materials produced (quantity and quality). Measures of Input: number on waiting list, presence of a system to move individuals from waiting list to the program or alt. programs. Measures of Output: length of time on waiting list, evenness of work among staff and across time, number and type of materials produced • Intervention Delivery: ﬁdelity (delivery failure, alt. or reduced dosage, inconsistent non- standard delivery), theory in use vs. practice, operations manual. Measures of Input: number of meetings to standardize the program, extent of revisions based on previous cycles of the intervention delivery, extent of revisions based on new research evidence. Measures of Output: ﬁdelity to the intervention plan, number of sessions, hours of program delivery, number of participants completing the intervention, number of requests for additional program delivery, use of materials provided 3. What are the differences between health program outputs and outcomes, can you distinguish between the concepts of consumer orientation, audience segmentation, exchange, marketing mix, positioning strategy, and continuous monitoring, and the role they play in social marketing? Outputs: What we do, Who we reach. Activities and participation. Goods or services produced • by a program or organization and provided tot eh public or others. Include a description of the characteristics and attributes established as standards. Include process measures, attribute measures, and measures of efﬁciency. Outcomes: “what difference is there.” Impacts. Short term, medium term, long term. Intended • result or consequence that will occur from carrying out a program or activity. More meaningful to the public than outputs. • Consumer Orientation: consumer= target audience. Learn about target audience. Use the info when making decisions about program components, implementation, and evaluation. Helps create culturally competent programs. • Audience Segmentation: Dividing the larger population of interest into smaller groups that share similar characteristics as determined by the consumer orientation information. Based on: demographics, attitudes, theoretical constructs, health behaviors. Beneﬁts: identiﬁcation of subgroups that realistically can be reached with available resources. Ability to develop a program that is a good ﬁt for each segment rather than a general ﬁt for the whole target population. Improved cultural competence of the program. • Exchange: Two or more entities voluntarily exchanging something of value. The behavior you are asking individuals to engage in and the beneﬁts of engaging in it must be clearly communicated to the target group and perceived by them as beneﬁcial. beneﬁts offered and “costs” associated with the exchange must be from the target audience’s perspective. • Marketing Mix: 4 P’s: product (big picture = healthy behavior), price (money, time, emotion, energy, social), place (locations and/or channels used to deliver program), promotion (what are you going to say about the products and through what channels will you say it). Analyze and consider all 4 during program planning to ﬁgure out best mix. • Positioning Strategy: Understand what the competition is to the desired behavior adoption. Includes perceived beneﬁts and barriers of the recommended behavior and those of the competing actions • Continuous Monitoring: Interventions must evolve and adjust just like behaviors. 6 step social marketing wheel provides framework for continuous monitoring. 1. planning & strategy 2. selecting channels & materials 3. developing materials & pretesting 4. implementation 5. assessing effectiveness 6. feedback to reﬁne the program 4. What are general recommendations for applying social marketing to health program planning and implementation and how were social marketing principles and concepts used in the VERB and California 5 A Day Power Play campaigns? • be thorough in needs assessment, be sure to identify competing actions & opportunities, get help with developing social marketing strategies if you feel lost, hire consultant, utilize faculty at local colleges & universities, recruit marketing specialist to your advisory group, address target population’s perceived barriers to the 4 P’s, continually reassess the 4 P’s as your program or curriculum evolves, engage in process evaluation and make adjustments based on results • VERB: Problem- sedentary lifestyle among American children. Desired behavior- physical activity. Consumer orientation- tweens & parents, behaviors related to begin active, focus groups, interviews, and ethnographic research of multiethnic groups across the U.S. Product- physical activity. Place- accessible, safe places to be active. Promotion- discover new activities, not facts about physical activity, media, promotions with community based organizations and schools 5. How can social marketing be used in health program planning and implementation? • Program Planning- to achieve desirable ends (impact health status, improve quality of life), reﬂective of planning models, appropriate to the setting, 15 general planning steps for consideration 6. What are the 15 steps of health care program planning, do you know the similarities and difference between the following planning models – Precede Proceed, MATCH, MHEP, and CHEM? 1. review needs assessment 2. convene an advisory panel or planning committee 3. Assess & establish a budget for program planning 4. Write & review a mission statement 5. Write & review program goals & program objectives 6. select a theory or theories on which to base your program 7. Review other programs to generate program strategy alternatives 8. Assess & establish the budget for program implementation 9. Estimate time 10. Select strategies & activities 11. Plan evaluation 12. Determine & establish cooperative agreements & linkages with other appropriate community agencies 13. Write component-speciﬁc behavior & learning objectives 14. Pilot-test the intervention 15. Implement the program • MATCH- multilevel approach toward community health. • MHEP- model for health education planning CHEM-comprehensive health education model • 7. What are the elements of the ﬁve tasks involved in implementing health care programs, what are the questions associated with each task, and how do these tasks apply to the campus low-fat dairy program? • Task 1: conﬁrm and identify potential users and adopters and ensure that potential program adopters and users are represented in implementation planning groups. Questions: who will decide to use the program? whom will the decision-makers need to consult? who will implement the program? will the program require diff. people to implement diff. components? • Task 2: specify performance objectives for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability. Figure out who has to do what for the program to be used as intended. Use info the specify performance objectives for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability. Fidelity, completeness, dose. Questions: do the deciders know of the program? do deciders have awareness that there is an unmet need? what do adoption deciders have to do in order to have the program adopted? how many corners can be cut before there is an impact on program effectiveness? Community/campus program directors will meet with food service director to outline the program and its impact on the day to day operations of the facilities to get support for program adoption. Site managers will participate in training on implementing low fat dairy program. Managers will check for appropriate proportion of 2% and skim products available to consumers. Dining service operations manual will be updated to include the proportion of 1% and skim dairy products that are to be available to consumers at all sites. • Task 3: specify determinants of adoption, implementation, and sustainability. Prioritize the determinants. Select based on importance and changeability. Write objectives. Questions: do adopters think the program will work? Do they think the program is better than what already exists? What do the adopters think about program factors such as complexity, time investment, and modiﬁability? • Task 4: Select methods and strategies to address the change Task 5: design interventions and organize programs to affect change objectives related to • program use 8. The ﬁrst three tasks of program implementation are organized around making decisions about what factors, what are the concepts of completeness, ﬁdelity, dose and sustainability, how do these concepts relate to health program implementation, and what are some of the factors that can affect ﬁdelity? • ﬁrst 3 tasks organized around answering a set of questions and using the info to make decisions about the: scope, timing, facilitators, and barriers to implementation. Last 2 takes use the info from ﬁrst 3 to develop strategies to meet the objectives for adoption, implementation, and sustainability. Sustainability- the maintenance and institutionalization of the program or its outcomes • • Dose- the number of times an intervention was run • Completeness- whether or not all that was intended to happen actually took place • Fidelity- methods and strategies are being put into use as designed by the program planners • Factors that Affect Fidelity: real and perceived relevance to target population, implementation site, whether tasks are easily integrated into existing activities, how much training and technical support needed 9. What are adoption, implementation, and sustainability objectives and what are they used for? • Adoption- the decision to use a program • Implementation- the use of the program as intended Sustainability- the maintenance and institutionalization of the program or its outcomes • 10. What are elements of most program budgets, what is a budget justiﬁcation and general tips/ recommendations for preparing a health program budget? • Elements: indirect (costs associated with the constant running operation, calculated on total direct costs) and direct costs (costs that are directly related to implementing a program. ex. salary, supplies, equipment) • Budget Justiﬁcation: provides a narrative explanation of the budget, identiﬁes your costs and explains your need for them. Answers any queries a reviewer of your proposal may have about how you calculated your various costs. • Tips: brainstorm all foreseeable costs, identify allowable and non-allowable costs as provided by funding agency, the proposal budget and narrative part of the proposal must be matching. Budgets should be reasonable, create budget by reading the tasks needed for each input & activity, avoid lump sum requests, be as clear and detailed as possible, use a budget justiﬁcation even if not required, allow for inﬂation, follow organization and the funding organization’s guidelines 11. What are the two major components of health program budgets, and the types of cost share that are used in most budgets? • Indirect & Direct • Direct: salaries, fringe beneﬁts (costs includes contribution to employee’s beneﬁts packages which includes health insurance, social security, retirement, vacation, sick leave), travel, materials & supplies, equipment, consultants/contractual agreements • Indirect: costs associated with the constant running operation of: the running operation of org., program’s operating costs, but are not directly linked to program’s inputs or activities, costs that are the result of the program but are not easily identiﬁable with a speciﬁc task/activity, sometimes referred to as overhead 12. What are the differences between program goals, objectives, outcomes and indicators, can you recognize which is which when provided with examples, and over what continuum do they range? • To effectively measure outcomes focus on how they can be measurable • As written outcomes can be too broad to allow for data collection • Indicators are bridges between intended outcomes and the actual data collection process • Goals • Objectives Ex. 300 cancer patients that cant afford round-trip transportation to prescribed chemotherapy and radiation apts. will be issued gasoline vouchers in year 1 of the program • Outcomes Ex. 95% of cancer patients participating in the transportation component of the program will receive all chemotherapy and radiation treatments as prescribed by their medical doctor in year 1 of the program. Ex. immigrant families will increase by 60% their understanding of the importance of preventive health care services. Ex. immunization rates will increase by 30% among children in the target population • Indicators Ex. participants response to a question on a survey about their use of condoms. Ex. the number of well-child visits among children from participating families in the ﬁrst and second years of the program based on an audit of medical records, and response to a survey question. Ex. change in immunization rate 2 years after program is implemented based on an audit of medical records 13. What is a grant, why is it worthwhile to write a grant proposal, where do you ﬁnd out about requests for grant proposals, who can write a grant, what are the standard components of a grant proposal? • Grant: a sum of money given to an agency or individual to address a problem or need in the community. Not the same as contracts. • Grant Proposal: written document prepared to ask for the money • Grant funding is available via public and private sectors • Why worthwhile: you want to start a new project, you want to expand an existing project and costs cant be covered in current budget, you know that you meet the eligibility standards for awards available via grants, you are able to commit the time, energy, and other resources needed for the grant-writing process, you have been invited to apply for a grant award • Where to ﬁnd out about requests for grant proposals: Federal Register, State Contracts Registers, the Foundation Center, Web sites for individual gov. agencies and foundations, special regional centers with walk=in libraries such as Associated Grantmakers, Notices in a specialized newsletter within your ﬁeld • Who can write a grant proposal: Anyone. simply read the Request For Proposal carefully- highlight key and important items • Standard components: cover letter, title page, abstract, statement of problem, needs statement, project description (goals & objectives, logic model, methods), evaluation plan, budget request and budget justiﬁcation, applicant qualiﬁcations, future funding plans/plans for sustainability, appendices 14. What are the kinds of questions that are addressed by the methods section of a grant proposal, what are the different types of program evaluations, what are the kinds of things that are included in grant appendices, and qualiﬁcations? • Questions: How will you solicit participation in focus group? what printing, outreach or marketing costs will you incur? How many parents will participate? Will parents need assistance? Will you offer an incentive? Will you serve food? Will you moderate focus groups or pay professional researcher? Will you need a bi-lingual moderator? Who will record/ transcribe? • Types of Evaluations: Process (implementation of the program, inputs and outputs), Outcome (short, intermediate, and long term) • Qualiﬁcations: describe agency’s mission, history and existing experience, emphasize agency strengths and current contributions to the ﬁeld or community, highlight links to community collaborators and other resources, obtain letters of support • Appendices: A marketing or dissemination plan, project stafﬁng ﬂow chart, time line chart of proposed activities, any evaluation instruments, existing educational or printed materials, biosketches or curriculum vitae of key projects personnel, advisory board members and any consultants, letters of support 15. What are the kinds of things that make good and winning proposals, and things that make proposals snoozers and losers? • Follow all directions, well-organized proposal that are integrated, well researched and documented statement of problem, statement of problem or need in a way that explicitly addresses the funder’s priorities, creative strategies, feasible goals, measurable objectives, sound logic model, clear description of methods, sound evaluation plan, measurable outcomes • Bad: not following directions, grammatical errors, no previous experience with work in the area, lack of community involvement, lack of focus, inappropriate strategy, unrealistic timeline, weak evaluation plan, unrealistic budget, lack of potential for the program to become self- sustainable, poor organization
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