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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Cameron on Friday January 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Dana Harmon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Chapter 1 Review The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time Nature and Nurture nature influences the genes we inherit nurture is environmental influences that affect development 5 steps of the scientific method Begin with curiosity and pose a question Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions Report the results Multidirectional human characteristics chance in every direction over time major theorists that described discontinuous stages of development ie freud erickson and piaget others view it as a continuous process 2 period in HD critical and sensitive periods 0 the critical period is when certain things must occur for normal development 0 the sensitive period is when a particular development occurs most easily The Ecological System introduced by Bronfenbrenner 0 each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions 0 three nested levels surround individuals and affect them Q approach later named bioecological theory Microsystems 0 ex family Exosystems 0 ex school church Macrosystems 0 ex cultural values Mesosystem 0 ex connection The Ecological Model look at model on power point Development is multicultural cohartgtgtgtgt age groups culture is the set of ideas that people share shared beliefs Vygostky learning within a culture 0 he described interaction between culture and education 0 proposed guided participation is a universal process used by mentors to teach cultural knowledge skills and habits Ethnic and Racial Groups ethnicity 0 social construction affected by social context not a direct outcome of biology race 0 social construction that continues to lead to racism Development is plastic development sensitivity 0 human traits can be molded yet people maintain a certain durability of identity 0 more than a dozen brain areas are more reactive to stress when a person has only the short allele of 5HTTLPR three factors improve predictions 0 nature and nurture always interact Q certain periods of life are sensitive periods 0 people are differentially sensitive Erick Erikson 1902 1994 covered the eight development stages each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis proposed five psychosocial stages build on freud s theory but added three adult stages Behaviorism learning theory 0 focuses on observable behavior 0 describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned conditioning Q proposes that learning takes place through processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 received the nobel prize in 1904 for his digestive processes research resulted in discovery of classical conditioning BF Skinner 1904 1990 agreed with watson that psychology should focus on the scientific study of behavior was best known for experiments with rats pigeons and his own daughter Social learning theory Albert Bandura emphasizes that other people influence each person s behavior proposes that even w specific reinforcement every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people modeling bandura first described social learning theory Jean Piaget 1896 1980 maintained that cognitive development occurs in four major agerelated periods or stages sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational and formal operational intellectual advancement occurs lifelong because humans seek cognitive equilibrium cognitive theory focuses on changes in how people think over time their actions attitudes beliefs and assumption Abraham Maslow 1908 1970 one of the founders of humanism Q humanism stressed the potential of all human beings for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs regardless of culture or gender arranged shared human needs in hierarchy contended that everyone must satisfy each lower level before moving higher when researching with someone under the age of 18 they have to be given an informed consent form which has to be signed by the parent Chapter 2 Review 3 stages of birth germinal period embryonic period fetal period last the longest Genes being passed down from generation to generation genotype 0 an organism s genetic inheritance or genetic potential 0 unique for each organism 0 ex behavior certain diseases phenotype Q the observable characteristics of an organism including appearance personality intelligence and all other traits 0 ex eye and hair color height Identical and Fraternal twins monozygoticidentical twins 0 come from one zygote that splits apart very early in the development 0 incomplete split results in conjoined twins 0 same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to environmental in uences dizygoticfraterna twins 0 result from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm 0 fraternal twins have half their genes in common and occur twice as often as identical twins 0 incidence if genetic and varies by ethnicity and age humans have 46 chromosomes 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes female XX male XY father s sperm determines the sex of the baby Purpose of placenta vernix and umbilical cord placenta 0 an organ within the uterus by means of which the growing fetus is attached to the wall of the uterus Its primary purpose is to provide the fetus with nourishment eliminate its wastes and exchange respiratory gases 0 The placenta grows throughout the pregnancy and it remains connected to the uterine wall on one side and connects to the fetus through the umbilical cord vernix Q a waxy or cheeselike white substance that covers the skin of a fetus This natural coating helps prevent the chapping and wrinkling of an unborn baby39s skin 0 Vernix starts developing on the baby in the womb around 18 weeks into pregnancy umbilical cord 0 oxygen and nutrients from your bloodstream pass into your baby39s bloodstream and are carried to your body along the umbilical cord 0 Blood circulates through vessels in the cord which consists of one vein that carries blood rich in oxygen and nutrients from you to your baby Age of viability the age at which a preterm newborn may survive outside the mother s uterus if medical care is available 22 weeks after conception the brain is able to regulate basic body functions ie breathing Apgar scale quick assessment of newborn s heart rate breathing muscle tone color and reflexes completed twice 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth score of 01 or 2 in each category desired score 7 or above different reflexes 0 score of 0 color bluepale heartbeat absent reflex no response muscle tone flaccid limp respiratory effect absent 0 score of 1 color body pink extremities blue heartbeat slow below 100 reflex grimace muscle tone weak inactive respiratory effect irregular slow 0 score of 2 color entirely pink heartbeat rapid over 100 reflex coughing sneezing crying muscle tone strong active respiratory effect good baby is crying maintaining oxygen breathing hiccupping and sneezing maintaining constant body temp crying shivering tucking legs to body pushing managing feeding sucking rooting swallowing Teratogens prenatal 0 any agent or condition including viruses drugs and resulting in birth defects or complications behavioral 0 agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain impairing the future child s intellectual and emotional Qhapter 3 Review Height and Weight average weight at birth 75 lbs average length 20 in these numbers are norms or average measurements Brain Development neuron 0 one of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system CNS axon 0 fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons cortex 0 outer layers of the brain where most thinking feeling and sensing occurs prefrontal cortex 0 area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation planning and impulse control dendrite 0 fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons synapses Q intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons neurotransmitter 0 brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron experience and pruning Q specifics of brain structure and growth depend on genes and maturation but even more on experience 0 expansion and pruning of dendrites occur of every aspect of early experience 0 unused dendrites whither to allow space between neurons in the brain allowing more synapses and thus more complex thinking Harm and Protection infants need stimulation 0 playing allowing varied sensations and encouraging movement infants need protection 0 shaken baby syndrome is a lifethreatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth this motion ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections nfants have an inborn drive to remedy deficits selfrighting Sleep sleep specifics vary because of biology and the social environment newborns sleep about 1517 hours a day in onetothree hour segments newborns sleep is primarily active sleep newborns have a high proportions of REM rapid eye movement sleep CoSleeping asians and african mothers worry more about separation european and north american mothers worry more about lack of privacy pros Q easier response time 0 less parental exhaustion 0 more convenient for breastfeeding cons 0 higher SID Q ghosts in the nursery phenomenon The Senses sensory development 0 typically precedes intellectual and motor development sensation 0 response of a sensory system eyes ears skin tongue and nose when it detects a stimulus perception 0 mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation perception follows sensation 0 infants brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and perception occurs 0 the infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range 0 the parts of the cortex dedicated to the senses develop rapidly Hearing and Seeing sense of hearing 0 develops during the last trimester of pregnancy 0 most advanced of the newborn s senses 0 speech perception by 4 months after birth vision 0 least mature sense at birth 0 newborns focus between 4 and 30 inches away 0 experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition visual scanning and details 0 binocular vision at 3 months Touch and Pain touch 0 sense of touch is acute in infants 0 although all newborns respond to being securely held soon they prefer specific touches pain and temperature 0 pain and temp are often connected to touch 0 some people assume that even the fetus can feel pain 0 others say that the sense of pain does not mature until months or years later Motor Skills gross motor skills 0 physical abilities involving large body movements such as walking and jumping course of development 0 cephalocaudal headdown and proximodistal centerout direction three interacting elements underlying motor skills 0 muscle strength 0 brain maturation 0 practice fine motor skills 0 physical abilities involving small body movements especially of the hands and fingers such as drawing and picking up a coin Q shaped by culture and opportunity Dynamic Sensory Motor Systems the entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers three goals 0 social interaction 0 comfort 0 learning Immunization primes the body s immune system to resist a particular disease contributes to reduced mortality and population growth successes O smallpox Q polio Q measles immunizations are unsafe for Q embryosrubella Q newborns 0 people w compromised immune systems problems 0 reactions 0 potential side effect Object permanence Q realization that objects including people still exist when they can no longer be seen touched or hear First 2 stages of Sensorimotor intelligence Primary Circular Reactions stage one birth to 1 month gtgt reflexes sucking grasping staring listening stage two 1 4 months gtgt the first acquired adaptations accommodations and coordination of reflexes 0 ex sucking a pacifier differently from a nipple grabbing a bottle to suck it Secondary Circular Reactions stage three 4 8 months gtgt making interesting sights last responding to people and objects 0 ex clapping hands when mother says patty cake stage four 8 12 months gtgt new adaptation and anticipation becoming more deliberated and purposeful in responding to people and objects 0 ex putting mother s hands together in order to make her start playing pattycake Informationprocessing theory modeled on computer functioning involves stepbystep description of the mechanisms of thought adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age has overturned some of Piaget s conclusionsincluding the concept of object permanence Insights for information processing theory brain is active organ even in infancy infants remember not only specific events and objects but also patterns and general goals toddlers can transfer learning Mother s Ease chid directed speech 0 highpitched simplified and repetitive way adults speak to infants babeng 0 extended repetition of certain syllables such as baba that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old naming explosion Q sudden increase in infant39s vocabulary especially in the number of nouns that begins at about 18 months of age Holophrase single word used to express a complete meaningful thought infants differ in use of various parts of speech depending on the language they are learning ie more nouns and fewer verbs Chapter 4 Review Early Emotions high emotional responsiveness pain and pleasure Crying typical excessive colic Smiling and laughing social smile 6 weeks evoked by viewing human faces Infant Emotions fear 0 emerges at about 9 months in response to people things or situations stranger wariness 0 infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close separation anxiety 0 tears dismay or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves 0 if it remains strong after age 3 it may be considered an emotional disorder New Emotions more complex emotion Q pride 0 shame 0 embarrassment Q disgust Q guilt basic emotions fear laughing crying anger Selfawareness persons realization that her or she is a distinct individual whose body mind and actions are separate from those of other people mirror recognition 0 classic experiment m lewis and brooks1978 emotional selfregulation 0 directly connected to maturation of the anterior cingulate gyrus New York Longitudinal Study NYLS found 4 categories of temperament 0 easy 0 difficult 0 slow to warm up 0 hard to classify synchronygt smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant attachmentgt lasting emotional bond that one person has with another beginning to form in early infancy and influence a person s close relationships throughout life 0 birth to 6 weeks preattachment Q 6 weeks to 8 months attachment in the making 0 8 months to 2 years classic secure attachment 0 2 to 6 years attachment as launching pad secure attachmentgt an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver insecureavoidant attachmentgt an infant avoids connection with the caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver s presence departure or return strange situationgt an experiment with an infant s reaction to stress of various adults coming and going in an unfamiliar playroom Q exploration of the toys 0 reaction to the caregiver departures and returns socia referencinggt seeking emotional responses or information from other people facial expression and reactions Ericksongttrust and autonomy stages trust vs mistrust autonomy vs shame and doubt Q toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of selfrule over their actions and their bodies proximal parentinggt caregiving practices by being physically involved with the baby frequently holding and touching dista parentinggt caregiving practices by being distant from baby provides essential needs but little holding and touching family day caregt child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of the woman who is paid to provide it center day caregt child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose where several paid adults care for many children 0 group by age licensed providers are trained and certified What to look for in a day care adequate attention to each infant encouragement of language and sensorimotor development attention to health and safety professional caregivers warm and responsive caregivers chronic stressabuse
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