Study Guide Definitions
Study Guide Definitions POLS-Y 103
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bri Jacobs on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLS-Y 103 at Indiana University taught by Barbour D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO AMERICAN POLITICS in Political Science at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
American Politics 103 Review Guide Chapter 8 The Presidency De nitions Signing Statement Statements recorded along with signed legislation clarifying the president s understanding of the constitutionality of the bill make sure the president understands what heshe is signing and why they are signing it Head of state the apolitical unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country serves as the symbol of the hopes and dreams of a people and is responsible for enhancing nannalunty Head of government the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources suppose to run the government make law function as the head of a politic party result in some citizens winning more than others some losing and some becoming angry Impeachment a formal charge by the house that the president or another member of the executive branch has committed acts of quottreason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanorsquot which may or may not result in removal from of ce meant to check on the president Chief administrator the president s executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy responsible for agencies of the national government and the implementation of national policy Cabinet a presidential advisory group selected by the president made up the vice president the heads of federal executive departments and over high officials to whom the president elects to give cabinet status heads of departments to oversee the work of implementation Commander in chief the president s role as the top officer of the country s military establishment two powers to keep balance president can wage war but congress has the power to declare war Chief foreign policy maker the president s executive role as the primary shaper of relations with other nations negotiates treaties formal international agreements with other nations with the approval of 23 of the senate Treaties formal agreements with other countries negotiated by the president and requiring approval by 23 senate needs to approve treaties Executive agreements presidential arrangements with other countries that create foreign policy without the need for senate approval used more than treaties gives president more power and exibility in foreign policy State of the Union address a speech given annually by the president to a join session of congress and to the nation announcing the president s agenda delivered in January goes over what he wants to accomplish is a power play Presidential Veto a president s authority ot reject a bill passed by congress maybe overridden only by a 23 s majority in each house substantial power Executive order clari cations of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law NOT to be confused with executive agreements Signing statements statements recorded along with signed legislation clarifying the president s understanding of the constitutionality of the bill quasilegislative powers quotunilateralist politicsquot increase the presidents role as the policymaker independent of congress Senatorial courtesy tradition of granting senior senators of the president s party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states if president ignores the custom of senatorial courtesy and pushes for a nomination unpopular with one of the home state senators feow senators will generally refuse to con rm the appointee states have the power to veto nominees Solicitor general the justice department officer who argues the government s cases before the Supreme Court 3rd ranking member of the justice department is the bridge between the executive and the judiciary branches deciding which cases the government will appeal to the court and ling petitions stating the governments position on the cases these are called quotamicus curiaequot or friends of the court Pardoning power a president s authority to release or excuse a person from legal penalties of a crime allows president to exempt a person convicted or not from punishment for a crime lnherent powers presidential powers implied but not stated explicitly in the constitution quottake care that the laws be faithfully executedquot Power to persuade president s ability to convince congress political actors and the public to cooperate with the administration s agenda power grab Going public a president s strategy a appealing to the public on an issue expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other politics power grab Cycle effect the predictable rise and fall of a president s popularity at different stages of a term in of ce president is more popular at the beginning of his term rather than the end of his term Honeymoon period the time following an election when a president s popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive most effective in congress during this time most gets done in congress through the president Legislative Liaison executive personnel who work with members of Congress to secure their support in getting a president s legislation passed what they need and how legislation can be tailored to be passed Divided government political rule split between two parties in which one controls the white house and the other controls one or both houses of congress different party than the majority party causes problems with passing laws ends with a lot of gridlocks and standstill in the government Executive Office of the President collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives EOP serve president s best interests supply information and provide expert advice Office of Management and Budget organization within the EOP that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies oversees budget prices helps keep nances in order Council of Economic Advisors organization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters predict the economy and suggest ways to reach the goal of economic growth without in ation National Security Council organization within the EOP that provides foreign policy advice to the president daily updates about events around the world helps with safety White House Of ce the approximately four hundred employees within the EOP who work most closely and directly with the president do not have to be con rmed by the senate closet people to the president helps with coordinating different policiesect Chief of Staff the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president eyes and ears of the president Presidential style image projected by the president that represents how the would like to be perceived at home and abroad affects how the president is perceived by the people how passionate warm trusting con dent president is Chapter 9 The Bureaucracy De nitions Chapter 9 The Bureaucracy De nitions Bureaucracy an organization characterized by hierarchical structure worker specialization explicit rules and advancement by merit those at the top give the orders to those at the bottom Neutral competence the principle that bureaucracy should be depoliticized by making it more professional take politics out of administration thus creating a more fair government preventing bipartisanship ensuring what s best for all American s not based on onesided political stances Spoils system nineteenthcentury practice of ring government workers of a defeated party and replacing them with loyalists of the victorious party Started by President Andrew Jackson making the government onesided Patronage system in which a successful candidate rewards friends contributors and party loyalists for their support with jobs contracts and favors unfair government Civil service nonmilitary employees of the government who are appointed through the merit system helps make sure the people being appointed are experts not just people with strong opinions Pendleton Act 1883 civil service reform that required the hiring and promoting of civil servants to be based on merit not patronage making sure civil servants are protected from partisan politicians Hatch Act 1939 law limiting the political involvement of civil servants to protect them political pressure and keep politics out of the bureaucracy take pressure off civil servants Accountability the principle that bureaucratic employees should be answerable for their performance to supervisors all the way up the chain of command Red tape complex procedures and regulations surrounding bureaucratic activity drivers license student loans food stamps process can become a morass of seemly unnecessary rules regulations constraints forms and hearing Clientele groups groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency or a department and who work to in uence its policies interest groups Departments One of the major subdivisions of the federal government represented in the president s cabinet currently has 15 departments help break up the government Independent agencies government organizations independent of the departments but with a narrower policy focus help resolve issues that the president amp congress cannot agree on being speci c for cases political Independent regulatory boards and commissions government organizations that regulate various businesses industries or economic sectors regulate business to prevent monopolies ect Preserve the powers of businesses and the consumers Regulations limitations or restrictions on the activities of a business or an individual prevent too much power given to one group Government Corporations companies created by congress to provide to the public a good or service that private enterprise cannot or will not pro tably provide helps ensure the wellbeing of citizens Bureaucratic discretion bureaucrats use of their own judgment in interpreting and carrying out the laws of congress helps make concise and nonpolitical choices Federal Register publication containing all federal regulations and noti cations of regulatory agency hearings primary source of information for 10005 of interests affected by decisions in Washington Bureaucratic culture the accepted values and procedures of an organization Bureaucratese the often unintelligible language used by bureaucrats t avoid controversy and lend weight to their words helps not make bias opinions Whistleblowers individuals who publicize instances of fraud corruption or other wrongdoing in the bureaucracy believe in helping the public good rather than their agency Agency capture process whereby regulatory agencies come to be protective of and in uenced by the industries they were established to regulate can cause a problem with power distributionbecomes partisan lron triangle the phenomenon of a clientele group congressional committee and bureaucratic agency cooperating to make mutually bene cial policy does not help the good of the people rather then the greater good of companies power goes to bureaucracies congress and interest groups lssue Networks complex systems of relationships among groups that in uence policy including elected leaders interest groups specialists consultants and research institutions all groups have interests that will affect them and the American people Congressional oversight efforts by congress especially through committees to monitor agency rule making enforcement and implementation of congressional policies checks and balances making congress have the formal power to control bureaucracies Citizen advisory councils citizen groups that consider the policy decisions of an agency a way to make the bureaucracy responsive to the general public an attempt to re ect the general public opinion on different laws being implemented by different bureaucracies not a good re ection Sunshine Laws legislation opening the process of bureaucratic policymaking to the public public gets some sort of power in seeing the decision of the government Freedom of Information Act FOIA 1966 law that allows citizens to obtain copies of most public records allowing the people to be able to look at past records therefore nothing can be done in secret preventing unlawful actions Privacy Act of 1974 a law that gives citizens access to the governments les on them giving citizens a feeling of involvement and knowing the quotfull storyquot when in reality they are not
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