MGT350 Final Exam 2
MGT350 Final Exam 2
CSU - Dominguez hills
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Date Created: 11/16/15
MGT350 Final Exam – Answers are in Bold 1) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include A. a Stakeholder Analysis B. a regression analysis C. a Pareto Chart D. a SWOT Analysis E. preopening checklist 2) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented? A. Implement a decision B. Measure the impact of a decision C. Frame alternatives D. Make the decision E. Frame the problem 3) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is A. optimizing B. satisficing C. analyzing D. creativity 5) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is important to A. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions B. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues C. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions D. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome E. develop contingency plans 6) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to A. determine root causes B. measure the decision C. develop a contingency plan D. evaluate effects of the problem E. frame alternatives 7) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to A. consult with internal stakeholders in other departments B. increase the homogeneity of his or her team C. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping D. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities E. increase the use of the logical thinking style 8) The completeness of our thought is limited by selective perception of relevant inputs one example is A. overreliance on past and current experience B. using brainstorming to gather a number of ideas C. using starbursting to ensure that we are considering all relevant questions D. evaluating which stakeholders are most directly affected by a decision E. considering the ways in which the current situation differs from substantially similar past experiences 9) Tactics for increasing the diversity of opinion brought to bear on a decision include A. brainstorming B. reliance on precedent C. following the chain of command D. reference to the policy manual E. an autocratic decision process 10) Considerations when framing a problem include A. developing contingency plans B. identifying causes of the problem C. measuring the impacts of a decision D. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem E. framing alternative courses of action 11) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for the interests of diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is the establishment of A. timelines and resource allocations B. criteria, goals, and objectives C. contingency plans D. decision Implementation Processes E. measurements for the 12) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamper decision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation and identification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as A. personal attributes B. groupthink C. a lack of a devil’s advocate D. routine programmed decisions E. inspirational leadership 13) During problem formulation, the establishment of proper goals may be hampered by the failure to ask enough questions concerning a problem. This tactic can increase the use of the creative thinking style to increase the probability of asking the right questions. A. Linear thinking B. Deduction C. Limiting the influence of external stakeholders D. Programmed decision rules E. Starbursting 14) A valid deductive argument may lead to false conclusions if A. it contains a false premise B. it is in improper form C. a valid deductive argument cannot lead to false conclusions D. it is composed of multiple syllogisms E. it uses the modens ponens argument form 15) A form of critical thinking is fairminded persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would A. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision B. avoid all affective appeals C. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals D. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience E. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason 16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. SWOT analysis B. Fishbone diagram C. Force Field Analysis D. Pareto chart E. Process control chart 17) An appropriate profit relative to funds invested would be a primary consideration of this stakeholder group. A. Owners B. Activist groups C. Employees D. Customers 18) Of the decision styles listed below, this one should be used for a nonurgent, yet critical and unusual problem affecting multiple stakeholders. A. Autocratic B. Programmed decision making C. Leader decides D. Collaborative/participative 19) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes to the store’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to exclude the sales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probably seeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Resource availability B. Lack of political support C. Ethical considerations D. Self serving bias E. Resistance from external stakeholders 20) Urgent crisis conditions might call for a decision making style that is A. democratic B. collaborative C. participative D. consensus E. autocratic 21) A manager may properly choose to ignore a problem A. when the costs of doing nothing are less than the cost of addressing the problem B. when a SWOT analysis indicates an environmental opportunity C. when a Pareto chart has properly clarified the causes of a problem D. because of a bias against change E. when the problem is surfaced through a positive trigger point 22) Managers of Shadow Blinds are contemplating whether to open the company's first international branch in Europe or Asia. A decision tool that would facilitate the decision between these two locations by analyzing the relative strength of cross cultural factors is a A. Force Field Analysis B. Scatter diagram C. SPC chart D. Gantt chart E. Pareto chart 23) When a manager is attempting to identify root causes, the following tool may be helpful: A. Force field analysis B. profit and loss statements C. Financial Balance sheet D. Fishbone diagram E. SWOT analysis 24) The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100% is A. Certainty B. Standard deviation C. Risk D. Uncertainty 25) The initial step in framing the problem is to ______, and the first step in making the decision is to ______. A. select an alternative, identify the problem B. identify the problem, identify causes of the problem C. identify the problem, frame alternatives D. evaluate the decision, determine who is affected E. identify the cause of the problem, implement the decision 26) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Pareto chart B. Force Field Analysis C. Benchmarking D. SWOT analysis E. Venn Diagram 27) The manager of the Gallery Restaurant noted that the restaurant had experienced a decrease in the number of evening customers. The manager promptly ordered the chef to rewrite the evening menu. Customer feedback later indicated that the problem had not been the menu but poor service from the wait staff. The manager's decision to have the menu revised suggests that she failed to A. identify the problem B. evaluate the decision and its consequences C. properly diagnose the cause of the problem D. evaluate the alternatives and consequences 28) The best way to mitigate employee resistance to a decision is to A. clearly communicate the “who what when and why” during implementation B. limit influence over decisions to senior leadership C. ensure that all employee concerns are fully solved for in every decision D. establish clear penalties for non compliance with decision E. write clear policies outlining permitted and forbidden actions 29) A decision tool that can help identify possible sources of resistance to change is a A. profit and loss statement B. Force Field Analysis C. Pareto chart D. Fishbone diagram E. Scatter diagram 30) A company planned to establish an attraction with a historical theme in an area adjacent to historically significant Civil War battlefields and cemeteries. Once plans were developed and announced, the project was abandoned in the face of objections from local residents, which made it impossible to secure the zoning variances necessary to move forward. This failure of implementation may be most accurately described as a failure to account for A. organizational mission B. resistance from internal stakeholders C. resistance from external stakeholders D. resource availability E. the legal/regulatory environment 31) When implementing a decision, a company must ensure that its actions remain consistent with its A. manager’s thinking styles B. organizational mission C. past practices and procedures D. employee’s preferences E. current resource allocations 32) Freda is analyzing the prospects for a new gambling casino that her company is considering. In the course of her analysis, Freda has identified potential stakeholder resistance to this venture, in that she has discovered that the areas is very densely populated with houses of worship. She has also discovered a potential source of support for this venture, in that the local government has established tax credits for new businesses in an effort to stimulate employment. Freda is, in all likelihood, developing a A. Scatter diagram B. Force Field Analysis C. financial proforma income statement D. ROI analysis E. resource allocation survey 33) Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal and external stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into the problem formulation and identification process B. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthy collaborative/participative decision making style C. sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders D. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholder interests 34) Susan has the opportunity to choose among several options, including going along with her coworkers and filling out inaccurate time records, telling her manager what is happening, attempting to persuade her coworkers to stop doing this, or, doing nothing. This is an example of A. a situation that is not a problem B. an ethical issue C. a time when Susan should ignore the problem D. a moral rights issue 35) A system of rules that governs the ordering of values is referred to as A. Justice B. Ethics C. Corporate legitimacy D. DFE 36) The moral principles and standards that guide behavior in the world of business are called A. business ethics B. business philosophy C. business development D. business principles 37) In order to develop meaningful measurements to guide decision implementation and evaluation, it is important to develop ______ when framing a problem. A. a thorough SWOT analysis B. specific criteria, goals and objectives C. specific task responsibilities for each member of the team D. relevant job descriptions E. multiple alternative courses of action 38) A measurement that identifies the degree to which goals and objectives are obtained is a measure of A. organizational fluctuation B. organizational precision C. organizational efficiency D. organizational stability E. organizational effectiveness 39) Bob’s company regularly surveys employees concerning satisfaction with various attributes of their jobs, and their working conditions. This allows Bob to watch for positive or negative changes in measured satisfaction levels when decisions are made to change the nature of work or compensation in order to increase retention. Bob is applying this thinking style to evaluate his decisions. A. Metaphorical thinking B. Scientific thinking C. Creative thinking D. Persuasive thinking E. Deductive logical thinking 40) As noted in our texts, a key measurement of our decisions is: “are they ethical.” In order to achieve a superior level of ethical behavior in its decision making processes, leaders should instill a(n) ______ in those charged with making decisions. A. utilitarian approach to ethical considerations B. integrity based approach to ethical considerations C. legal approach to ethical considerations D. compliance based approach to ethical considerations 41) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders will bear in mind that A. stakeholders must all be satisfied B. not all good decisions have good outcomes C. poor decisions never work out well D. a good job of framing the problem guarantees a successful decision E. a good decision is one that has a good outcome 42) In order to apply continuous improvement in decision making, a company should take the time to record not only the results of its decisions, but also the A. impact to employees B. impact to external stakeholders C. customer satisfaction data D. financial results E. process through which the decision was made
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