MGT350 Final Exam 3
MGT350 Final Exam 3
CSU - Dominguez hills
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Date Created: 11/16/15
1) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include A. a Stakeholder Analysis B. a Pareto Chart C. a regression analysis D. a troubleshooting decision tree E.a SWOT Analysis 2) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented? A. Frame alternatives B. Implement a decision C. Measure the impact of a decision D.Frame the problem E. Make the decision 3) Bill Simmons is the manager of a small restaurant and must decide how much money he owes his suppliers. The best way for Bill to approach this as a critical thinker is to A. weigh the consequences of this decision B.Collect and analyze the evidence C. identify opportunities and obstacles D. understand different perspectives on the issue 4) A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a readymade solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a readymade solution, rather than designing a custom made solution, implies A. more time spent evaluating alternatives B. increased costs C. greater specificity to the circumstances of the current problem D.time savings E. gathering diverse perspectives 5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is A. analyzing B. optimizing C. satisficing D. creativity 6) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to A. develop a contingency plan B. determine root causes C. measure the decision D. frame alternatives E.evaluate effects of the problem 7) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of group decision making include A. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making B. increased security of confidential information C. a process that is more time consuming D. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders E. a more autocratic environment 8) Tactics for increasing the diversity of opinion brought to bear on a decision include A. following the chain of command B. brainstorming C. reliance on precedent D. an autocratic decision process E. reference to the policy manual 9) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to A. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping B. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities C. increase the use of the logical thinking style D. increase the homogeneity of his or her team E.assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings 10) Considerations when framing a problem include A. measuring the impacts of a decision B. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem C. developing contingency plans D. identifying causes of the problem E. framing alternative courses of action 11) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamper decision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation and identification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as A. a lack of a devil’s advocate B. routine programmed decisions C. personal attributes D. roupthink E. inspirational leadership 12) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes A. the measurements one will use to evaluate the decision B. an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision C. a list of potential alternative courses of action D. a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision E. a timeline for decision implementation 13) A form of critical thinking is fairminded persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would A. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals B. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience C. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision D. avoid all affective appeals E. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason 14) Survey data, combined with this thinking style, can be used to identify a problem through statistical analysis. A. Inductive logical B. Creative C. Deductive logical D. Scientific 15) A deductive logical argument in proper form is said to be A. functional B. true C. scientific D. valid E. sound 16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. Force Field Analysis B. Financial Report C. Fishbone diagram D. Pareto chart E. SWOT analysis 17) An important step toward framing a problem in a manner that is sensitive to relevant stakeholder perspectives is to A. be sure to remain situated in one’s personal context B. do not allow public relations concerns to influence decision making C.use projection when ascribing motivation to others D. determine who is affected by a problem E. filter nonfinancial input from the process 18) An appropriate profit relative to funds invested would be a primary consideration of this stakeholder group. A. Activist groups B. Customers C. Employees D.Owners 19) Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectively correct answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numerical computations— promises this benefit in terms of decision making. A. Ensures that multiple solutions are applied to common problems in order to find the best one B. Ensures that problems are dealt with in a unique fashion according to their differences C. Provides senior managers with greater visibility to each routine decision made D. Provides decision makers with opportunities for creative problem solving E.Greater efficiency 20) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes to the store’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to exclude the sales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probably seeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Ethical considerations B. Resistance from external stakeholders C. Lack of political support D. Self serving bias E. Resource availability 21) A manager may properly choose to ignore a problem A. when a Pareto chart has properly clarified the causes of a problem B. because of a bias against change C. when the problem is surfaced through a positive trigger point D. when a SWOT analysis indicates an environmental opportunity E.when the costs of doing nothing are less than the cost of addressing the problem 22) A decision tool that can be helpful in identifying risks to contemplated decisions is A. a Fishbone diagram B. a histogram C. a Force Field Analysis D. a periodic table E.a Pareto chart 23) Shakil works for a large contractor. Company policy requires that in hiring subcontractors, at least three bids must be received and that the lowest bid which meets specifications will be accepted. This programmed decision structure provides for ______ as a benefit, but does not account for ______. A. reduced costs, feed forward control B. reduced costs, quality considerations C. creativity, special orders D. faster decision making, cost control E. quality control, reduced costs 24) Upon review of the customer comment cards dropped in the box in his convenience store, Bob sees that 61% of the customers filling out a card have expressed dissatisfaction with waiting times. Bob decides to add an additional cashier during the day. Bob is using the ______ thinking style in order to make this decision. A. inductive logical B. deductive logical C. metaphorical D. creative 25) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Benchmarking B. SWOT analysis C. Venn Diagram D. Force Field Analysis E.Pareto chart 26) In the course of developing a SWOT analysis, Bob determines that a large competitor is moving into one of his company’s key service areas. Bob has uncovered A. a strength B. a positive trigger point C. a threat D. an opportunity E. a weakness 27) The initial step in framing the problem is to ______, and the first step in making the decision is to ______. A. identify the problem, frame alternatives B. select an alternative, identify the problem C. evaluate the decision, determine who is affected D. identify the problem, identify causes of the problem E. identify the cause of the problem, implement the decision 28) Jan has been selected to implement her company’s decision to expand her company’s manufacturing operation into a new location. Six months into this project, the building has been completed, and machinery installed. However, Jan has been unable to secure enough applicants with the technical skills needed to operate this computerized facility. Jan’s implementation plan was most deficient in its consideration of A. organizational standards B. timeline C. technological constraints D. resource availability E. organizational mission 29) Freda is in the process of implementing a significant decision. Which of the following considerations should she ignore? A. Stakeholder resistance to certain options B. Timelines to implement the decision C. Decision alternatives to be framed D. Measurements of potential tasks 30) One way to manage the risk of a far reaching decision is to A. reduce the number of contingency plans in order to avoid confusion B. implement the decision gradually, in phases C. insist on compliance from key stakeholders D. implement the decision quickly, in order to prevent problems from affecting the decision that has been made E. ensure that ample financial resources are dedicated to implementation 31) When implementing a decision, a company must ensure that its actions remain consistent with its A. manager’s thinking styles B. current resource allocations C. organizational mission D. employee’s preferences E. past practices and procedures 32) Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal and external stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into the problem formulation and identification process B. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholder interests C. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthy collaborative/participative decision making style D. sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders 33) ______ plans might be referred to as whatif plans. A. Standing B. Singleuse C. Strategic D. Contingency 34) A company applying a ______ view of ethics would probably find fewer impediments to decisions involving cross cultural factors than one applying a ______ view. A. compliant, noncompliant B. virtue, utlitatarian C. deontological, rule based D. relativist, universalist E. Universalist, relativist 35) Bill is an automotive mechanic, paid on the basis of the repair dollars that he generates for his employer. A customer has informed Bill that he believes he needs major repair work to his automobile. Upon examination of the car, Bill discovers that an inexpensive adjustment is all that is needed. He knows that if he informs the customer of this, he will miss out on the substantial commission he would earn by performing the work that the customer already expects. The compensation structure employed by Bill’s garage has created the ethical dilemma of A. impartial third party mediator B. joint and several liability dilemma C. proper allocation of resources D. A conflict of interest E. the good of the individual vs the good of society 36) The moral principles and standards that guide behavior in the world of business are called A. Business ethics B. business development C. business philosophy D. business principles 37) In order to develop meaningful measurements to guide decision implementation and evaluation, it is important to develop ______ when framing a problem. A. a thorough SWOT analysis B. relevant job descriptions C. specific task responsibilities for each member of the team D. Specific criteria, goals and objectives E. multiple alternative courses of action 38) A measurement that identifies the degree to which goals and objectives are obtained is a measure of A. organizational fluctuation B. organizational stability C. organizational efficiency D. organizational precision E.organizational effectiveness 39) A tool that is helpful in monitoring, evaluating, and changing a decision as needed during implementation is the A. balance sheet cause of change analysis B. financial effectiveness audit C. contingency plan effectiveness audit D. Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle E. stakeholder summary analysis 40) A company has decided to fund a summer basketball league for young people in the community. The decision will result in increased expenditures with no increase in revenues or profits. In evaluating this decision outcome, the officers of the company must weigh both its ______ responsibility and its ______ responsibility, two components of corporate social responsibility. A. legal, ethical B. economic, fiduciary C. Economic, philanthropic D. economic, ethical E. economic, legal 41) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders should consider doing which of the following? A. Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic. B. Ensure that the process is consistent for all significant decisions. C. Ensure that all of a company’s stakeholders provide input all of a company’s decisions. D. Make a list of those affected by the decision, and determine if those interests are represented in the process under consideration. E. Make sure to focus on results of the decision rather than the process. 42) In order to apply continuous improvement in decision making, a company should take the time to record not only the results of its decisions, but also the A. impact to employees B. customer satisfaction data C. Process through which the decision was made D. impact to external stakeholders E. financial results
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