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PSY 314 Exam 3

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by: Megan Notetaker

PSY 314 Exam 3 31400-01

Megan Notetaker

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Study guide for chapters 7-9.
Katherine Malanson, Ph.D
Study Guide
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"I love that I can count on (Megan for top notch notes! Especially around test time..."
Dr. Bria Wolff

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 31400-01 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by Katherine Malanson, Ph.D in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see PSY31400-01 in Psychlogy at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Megan Shuff PSY 314 Dr. Katherine Malanson 3/28/2016 Exam 3 Study Guide (Ch. 7­9) Chapter 7 1.) What is a continuous reinforcement schedule? ­A continuous reinforcement schedule means that the person/animal is being reinforced for every response. This is not useful in shaping and is not typical in majority of real world situations. 2.) What is the difference between ration and interval schedules of reinforcement? ­A ratio schedule is based on the number of responses between reinforcement. An interval  schedule is based on the time between reinforcement. 3.) How does the pattern of responding under a fixed interval schedule differ from that under a  variable interval schedule? ­In a fixed interval schedule it has the same time interval on each trial, the variable interval has  timne intervals that vary around a mean (not knowing when you will get reinforced)? 4.) Do interval or ratio schedules produce higher levels of responding? ­Ratio schedules result in a higher response rate, because it is based on the number of responses  between reinforcement. 5.) What are the possible side effects of extinction? ­The possible side effects of extinction are; extinction burst & increased variability,  frustration/aggression, resurgence, and lowered activity level or depression. 6.) What is reinforced in duration schedules? ­Duration schedules have continuous responding for some amount of time period in order to  receive the reinforcement. 7.) What is meant by non­contingent reinforcement? ­Non­contingent reinforcement means the reinforcement delivery is not contingent upon a  response, but on how much time passes (ex: social security checks). 8.) What is meant by stretching the ratio and what happens if the ratio of responses required is  changed too dramatically? ­Stretching the ratio means increasing the number of responses required for reinforcement over  trials. If the ratio of responses increases along with the time, the person/animal will get frustrated if they are doing more work for less reinforcement. 9.) What does intermittent reinforcement affect subsequent behavior in extinction? ­An intermittent (non­continuous) schedule will allow the tendency of a behavior to be more  resistant to extinction. 10.) How does the response unit hypothesis refute the existence of the partial reinforcement  effect? ­It redefines "response" to include the number of responses required for reinforcement. 11.) What is the Matching Law and what does it predict for choices between concurrent ratio  schedules or concurrent interval schedules? ­The Matching Law is the proportion of responses on an alternative will be equal to proportion of reinforcers available for that alternative. People will choose the option that requires the most  reinforcers for the least amount of time & responses. Chapter 8 1.) What differentiates positive punishment and negative punishment? ­Positive punishment includes adding something we don't like in order to decrease the behavior.  Negative punishment takes away something we like which will upset us making us not want to  do that behavior anymore. 2.) What differentiates negative punishment and extinction? ­Extinction stops reinforcement and negative punishment takes away something we like (the  reinforcer) which makes us unhappy and decreases the response. 3.) How do the following variables influence the effectiveness of punishment: contingency,  contiguity, punisher intensity, alternative sources of reinforcement, and deprivation level? * Contingency­ correlation between the behavior and its consequence (if: then). * Contiguity­ gap in time between behavior and consequence. * Punisher intensity­ the more intense the better the response, but if too intense it could be  considered abuse. 


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