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B BIO 180 Midterm Study Guide

by: Ashley Thundiyil

B BIO 180 Midterm Study Guide B BIO 180 A

Marketplace > University of Washington Bothell > Biology > B BIO 180 A > B BIO 180 Midterm Study Guide
Ashley Thundiyil
Jeff Jensen

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Study guide for B BIO 180 Exam 2 with Professor Jensen. This study guide mostly includes the terms covered in Pt. 2 of the study guide. Subject matter includes Mendelian genetics and types of varia...
Jeff Jensen
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Thundiyil on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to B BIO 180 A at University of Washington Bothell taught by Jeff Jensen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see INTRO BIOLOGY I (NW) in Biology at University of Washington Bothell.

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Date Created: 11/16/15
Exam 2 Review Guide B B0180 A hereditary factor that in uences a particular trait A gene s physical location on a chromosome A particularalternate version of a gene Genecarrying structure made up of DNA and proteins carries the cell s hereditary information genes One of the two identical doublestranded DNAs composing a replicated chromosome that is connected at the centromere to the other strand a cell or an individual organism with two sets of chromosomes 2n one set inherited from the mother and one set from the father A cell or an individual organism with one set of chromosomes 1n To summarize the haploid number n indicates the number of distinct types of chromosomes present In contrast a cell 5 poidy n 2n 3n etc indicates the number of each type of chromo some present In a diploid organism chromosomes that are similar in size shape and gene content Also called homoogs Homologous replicated chromosomes that are joined together during prophase and metaphase of meiosis It s the structure that results from synapsis The structure formed by synapsed homologous chromosomes during prophase of meiosis I Also known as a bivalent In eukaryotic cells the process of nuclear division that results in two daughter nuclei genetically identical with the parent nucleus Subsequent cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm yields two daughter cells Mitosis leads to the production of all other cell types referred to as somatic literaly quotbodybelonging cells 0 Before mitosis can take place the parent ce must grow large enough to divide into two cells that will be normal in size and function The two gap phases provide the time required to accomplish these tasks 0 At the start of mitosis then each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids that are attached to each other at the centromere During mitosis the genetic material is copied and then divided equally between two cells This is referred to as cellular replication since these daughter cells are genetically identical with the original parent cell 0 During mitosis the two sister chromatids separate to form independent daughter chromosomes One copy of each chromosome goes to each of the two daughter cells Meiosis is nuclear division that leads to a halving of chromo some number and ultimately to the production of sperm and egg which are the male and female reproductive cells termed gametes At the start of meiosis chromosomes are in the same state they are in before mitosis To understand meiosis it is critical to understand the relationship between chromosomes and sister chromatids The trick is to recognize that unreplicated and replicated chromosomes are both considered singe chromosomes even though the replicated chromosome contains two sister chromatids To reiterate sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during meiosis II This is just what happens during mitosis Meiosis II is actually equivalent to mitosis occurring in a haploid cell In meiosis l on the other hand sister chromatids stay together This sets meiosis l apart from both mitosis and meiosis II 0 During meiosis l the homologs in each chromosome pair separate from each other 0 During meiosis l the diploid 2n parent cell produces two haploid n daughter cells Notice however that each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids meaning that chromosomes are still replicated at the end of meiosis l caimed that the traits observed in a mother and father blend together to form the traits observed in their offspring As a result an offspring s traits are inter mediate between the mother s and father s traits Blending inheritance was merely a widespread hypothetical model rather than a formalized scienti c theory in which it was thought inherited traits were determined randomly from a range bounded by the homologous traits found in the parents a pattern of inheritance showing that phenotypic traits can be passed from generation to generation through quotdiscrete particlesquot known as genes which can keep their ability to be expressed while not always appearing in a descending generation Mendel proposed the theory of particulate inheritance by using pea plants to explain how variation can be inherited and maintained over time Particulate model Offspring are a combination of both parents 0 The characteristics of both parents are passed on to the next generation as separate entities Variation is maintained over time A theory formulated by Mendel on his garden pea breeding experiments wherein he conjectures that discrete particles now referred to as genes that determine phenotypes are passed on from parents to offspring across generations Principle that states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation in meiosis and randomly unite at fertilization There are four main concepts related to this principle They are as follows A g can exist in more than one form or allele Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait When sex cells are produced by meiosis allele pairs separate leaving each i with a single allele for each trait When the two alleles of a pair are different one is dominant and the other is recessive Example The gene for seed color in pea plants exists in two forms There is one form or allele for yellow seed color Y and another for green seed color y In this example the allele for yellow seed color is dominant and the allele for green seed color is recessive When the alleles of a pair are different heterozygous the dominant allele trait is expressed and the recessive allele trait is masked The Principle of Segregation describes how pairs of gene variants are separated into reproductive cells Mendel discovered that the traits in the offspring of his crosses did not always match the traits in the parental plants This meant that the pair of alleles encoding the traits in each parental plant had separated or segregated from one another during the formation of the reproductive cells Mendel reasoned that the two members of each gene pair must segregate that is separate into different gamete cells during the formation of eggs and sperm As a result each gamete contains one allele of each gene Mendel 5 experiment with tall and short pea plants demonstrates how each individual plant has two particles caled alleles When a pea plant produces gametes reproductive cells it segregates one allele to each one shows that when pairs of homologous chromosomes line up during meiosis l and the homologs separate a variety of combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can result Each daughter cell gets a random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes The inheritance of one pair of characters is independent to that of the other pair of characters During meiosis there will be varied combinations of chromosomes in gametes Independent assortment because the two alleles would be sorted into gametes independently of each other the law of recombination states that because the offspring receive half their genes from their mother and half their genes from their father the alleles the offspring receives are present in the offspring in different combinations that neither parent has Each allele is also present independently and is sorted or not sorted independently into an offspring Mendel bred and kept track of 10000 pea plants to make his conclusions Ex Hemophilia is much rarer in the general populace because recombination of genes the mixing of alleles from both parents ao ws for differentiation of inherited traits and lowers the risk of disease Mendel s law of recombination becomes even more important when taken in the context of inherited disease Many diseases can be inherited from a single gene either from the mother or from the father and breeding too closely to family members can reinforce genetic while breeding more distantly dilutes them A listing of the alleles in an individual All the alleles of every gene present in a given individual Often speci ed only for the alleles of a particular set of genes under study An individual s observable traits any characteristic of an individual ranging from height to the primary structure of a particular membrane protein A hereditary factor that in uences a particular trait A particular form of a gene having two of the same allele having two different alleles for the same gene An allele that produces its phenotype in heterozygous and homozygous form An allele that produces its phenotype only in homozygous form Heterozygotes have intermediate phenotype blending of alleles Heterozygotes have phenotype of both alleles A mating between parents that each carry two different genetic determinants for the same trait A cross between a homozygous recessive individual and an individual with the dominant phenotype but an unknown genotype A mating between two such individuals both heterozygous for two traits technique for predicting the genotypes and phenotypes of different crosses years after Mendel published his work When you construct a Punnett square you only need to list each unique type of gamete once at the head of a row or column The exchange of segments of non sister chromatids between a pair of homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis l Crossing over is an important source of genetic recombination Recombination due to crossing over varies the combinations of alleles along each chromosome that is involved in a crossover With crossing over the number of genetically different gametes that you can produce is much more than the 84 million it is virtually limitless A result of crossing over that leads to new combinations of alleles within a chromosome combinations that did not exist in either parent Genetic recombination is important because it dramatically increases the genetic variability of gametes produced by meiosis the study of the likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event or offspring The chance or probability that an event will take place can be expressed as a fraction 14 ratio 14 or 25 when the dominant allele completely covers up the recessive allele blending of alleles When incomplete dominance occurs heterozygotes have a phenotype that is between the two different homozygous parents the simultaneous expression of the phenotype associated with each allele in a heterozygote Ex An AB individual expresses both the A and the B phenotypes A single gene affects many traits occurs when two or more different gene loci contribute to the same phenotype but not additively Epistasis is often described as occurring when one gene locus masks or modi es the phenotype of a second gene locus Consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the presence of one or more modifier genes genetic background Similary epistatic mutations have different effects in combination than individualy each gene adds a small amount to the value of the phenotype Many genes are involved in specifying traits that exhibit continuous variation Unlike alleles that determine discrete traits each allele adds a small amount to phenotype describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of environments Helpful source httpswwwmun cabiologysca rr6390NormofReactionhtml If a mistake is made during DNA synthesis or DNA repair a change in the sequence of bases in DNA results A singlebase change such as this is called a point mutation Mutations create new alleles A type of mutation where one base pair is replaced by a different base pair Change in nucleotide sequence that does not change the amino acid of the gene speci ed by a codon Consequence No change in phenotype neutral with respect to tness Change in nucleotide sequence that changes the amino acid speci ed by codon Conseq uence Change in primary structure of protein may be bene cial neutral or deleterious Change in nucleotide sequence that results in an early stop codon Nonsense mutations occur When a codon that specifies an amino acid is changed by mutation to one that specifies a stop codon This causes early termination of the polypeptide chain and often results in a nonfunctional protein Consequence Leads to mRNA breakdown or a shortened polypeptide usual y deleterious mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA ln genetics refers to the loss of part of a chromosome A segment of chromosome is lost ln genetics refers to an additional copy of part of a chromosome A mutation in which a segment of a chromosome breaks from the rest of the chromosome ips and rejoins in reversed orientation A type of mutation in which a piece of a chromosome moves to a nonhomologous chromosome Segments of a chromosome may become attached to a different chromosome An error that can occur during meiosis or mitosis in which one daughter cell receives two copies of a particular chromosome and the other daughter cell receives none can result in an aneuploidy individual


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