Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Friday January 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4362 at Ohio University taught by Hoyt in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology of Justice in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Chapters 1 4 5 Chapter 1 Psychology and Law x What are the goals of our legal system 0 Discover truth v resolve conflicts I OJ Simpson Trial did we discover the truth I We try to resolve the conflicts that we may never know the truth about 0 Due process v crime control I Everyone s constitutional rights are adhered to I Do we give criminals too many rights I Should we find the real criminals and harshly punish them 0 Rights of individuals v common good I A criminal who served their time should have the right to start over I Protection of others 0 Equality v discretion I Same punishment for every crime we want equality of punishment but we also want discretion x A legal primer 0 What is the difference between Congress and the Supreme Court I Congress makes the laws I Supreme Court interprets the laws 0 Why are rulings by the Supreme Court so important I Sets the precedent for cases this applies to everything 0 What is the Bill of Rights I The first 10 amendments 0 Criminal trials prosecutions and Defense I Who does the prosecution represent 0 The government I Burden of Proof beyond a reasonable doubt o This is on the prosecution I Innocent until proven guilty 0 Civil trials plaintiff and defense I Burden of Proof preponderance of the evidence 0 State and federal charges misdemeanors and felonies I Misdemeanors are lesser crimes not violent can t spend more than one year in prison These can build up to become felonies I Felonies involve violence x What is social psychology 0 The study of how individuals think about influence and relate to one another 0 Lewin s model I Behavior person situation x Social cognitions o Attributions and attitudes belief perseverance o Ironic processing effect x Persuasion conformity groups dynamics x Aggression prejudice physical attractiveness x Attitudes about legal issues death penalty rehabilitation victims x History of Psych and Law 0 Brandeis brief I Labor laws in the late 1800 s 0 Pregnant women and young children 0 This brought in developmental psychology 0 1908 Hugo von Munsterberg I Questioning eyewitness memory 0 1954 Brown v Board of Education I Desegregating the school system I Thurgood Marshall I Drs Kenneth amp Mamie Clark Doll studies 1970 s jury consultants for Harrisburg Seven Today I Research evaluator role 00 0 American psychology and Law Society I Representation advisor role psychologists in the Legal System 0 Court evaluations usually for the defense 0 A lot of custody cases 0 Law enforcement 0 Trial consultant I Advocacy reformer role 0 Victim s rights 0 Public dissemination of research findings 0 APA amicus curiae briefs friend of the court x Expert Witness 0 Qualifications of experts I Nothing says you have to have a certain degree 0 Admissibility of evidence testimony I Frye Standard scientific evidence that has gained acceptance within its field I Daubert Standard Scientifically tested Subjected to peer review 0 Low error rate high reliability Generally accepted by scientific community I Judges decided what s admissible and if an expert witness is necessary 0 The hired gun effect I Credentials v payment of expert witnesses o Psychological research of Legal Issues I Use of mockjurors in research 0 Disadvantages and advantages I Options for improving legal research 0 Moot courtrooms videotapes deliberations 0 Use nonstudent samples 0 Use dismissed jurors shadow jurors or question actual jury after trial Chapter 5 Criminal Profiling amp Psychological Autopsies x Why do people commit crimes 0 Psychologicaltheories I Psychoanalytic theories o Freud someone wants something the superego may be weak and the ego cannot keep the balance 0 Power and arousal id superego ego I Cognitive and Social theories 0 Cognitive perceptions o The way one person sees something differs from the way the majority of people see that things 0 Peer influence and conformity 0 Gang related 0 Environmental factors 0 Place where someone grew up 0 Exposure to chemicals changes cognition in the brain I Biopsychologicaltheories o Hormones brain genetics I Personality and psychological disorders 0 Antisocial behavior x Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy o ASPD I Willingness to lie lack of remorse I Impulsivity reckless behavior risk taking irritability and aggressiveness I Failure to conform to social norms I Littles or no concern for the rightswelfare of others 0 May have a history of abusing animals 0 New research is finding neurological differences in the amygdala o Psychopathy what is it and how is it different from ASPD I Psychopathy checklist by Hare 1980 20 assessment characteristics in two categories 0 Aggressive narcissism o Socially deviant lifestyle x Profiling 0 Myths and misconceptions I There are careers in profilers I Profiling is successful at pinpointing a suspect 0 Issues in profiling I Can we classify serial criminals o Ressler Burgess amp Douglas 1988 o Organized clean scene does just enough to get the job done 0 Disorganized mental health issues overkill messy scene 0 Holmes amp DeBurger 1988 o Visionary individuals with psychosis instructions to kill from delusions o Missionoriented killing those who think they deserved it Green River Killer 0 Hedonistic sadistic take pleasure in killing 0 Poweroriented like to control the victim before killing them I Do criminals act in consistent ways 0 Mokros amp Alison 2002 analysis of convicted rapists 0 Found no correlations I Narrowing the focus of the investigation too much 0 Most serial killers are white males in their 30 s40 s I The special case of Racial Profiling o Janofsky 1998 o Heussanstamm 1975 black panther bumper stickers Chapter 4 the psychology of Forensic Identification x Fingerprinting o 7 main types of patterns 0 No hard research or science done on fingerprints o No standards for what constitutes a match how many points of commonality o No certification required 0 Experimenter bias and confirmation bias o Experimenters may have an expectation so they look for or push an individual toward what they re expecting o This can be fixed with double blind studies x DNA analysis 0 PCR RFLP mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA 0 Don t have to have live cells it s in the hair so you don t need to have the root in order to obtain DNA o If it s not possible to obtain access to the actual persons DNA then a maternal relatives can be used 0 Problems with DNA x Polygraph Tests can be wrong Sample size don t want to destroy if there is only a small amount Contamination o Frist responders animals Storage 0 refrigeration Cost 0 About 500 Experimenter bias 0 Forensic scientists are part of law enforcement o quotblindquot experimental procedures are not used 0 Basic polygraph procedure Take baseline readings while asking control questions 0 Sometimes ask person to specifically lie during control questions Ask key questions and look for spike in readings 0 Guilty Knowledge Test 0 Facts amp Assumptions Designed to measure emotional spike through physiological response Lying does not necessarily result in emotion I Error rate reliability very poor 3070 false positive rate x Research on the polygraph o Defeating the polygraph I Belief in polygraph o quotI think I can I Physical methods 0 Change the baseline I Cognitive methods 0 Count backwards from 100 by 7 x Legal use of the polygraph today 0 Polygraph Protection Act 1988 I Prohibits private employers from using polygraph results in employment decision 0 U5 v Sheffer 1998 I Prohibits polygraph results in military criminal cases
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