Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide BIOL 180
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Uthoff on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 180 at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see INTRO BIOLOGY (NW) in Environmental Science at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Biology 180 Exam 3 Speciation Homology Homoplasy Having similar traits because of a common Having Similar Traits without necessarily ancestor The same genes usually code for having a common ancestor these traits SDecies Identification Type Advantages Disadvantages Biological Species Concept 0 Testable 0 Cannot use with Can They Reproduce 0 Takes sexual fossils and extinct dimorphism into animals account Morphospecies Concept 0 Very applicable 0 Doesn t account for Based on Morphology 0 Defines many homoplasy different species 0 Very subjective Phylogenetic Based on 0 Very testable 0 New Data Ancestry 0 You get good data 0 Cannot get DNA and 0 Can apply to any information from very population 01d fossils Historv of Life Life according to NASA 0 Reproduces Replicates 0 Metabolizes 0 Evolves Where did it all begin Hypotheses 0 Asteroid Impact 0 In the deep ocean near heat vents 0 Small pond Darwin Snowball Earth gt Cambrian Explosion Plant Diversification 1 What are land plants a In general land plants have gotten bigger b Newer plants are more capable of living in dry environments 2 What adaptations allowed plants to colonize land and diversity a Avoid Desiccation drying out i Cuticle Waxy layer over epidermis ii Pores Stomata Holes that allow for gas exchange stomata have guard cells that allow the holes to open and close b Transport water and nutrients i Vascular Tissue allow for both transport and support c Embryophyte Condition Embryo Plants i Gametangea Structure that encloses gamete producing cells d Pollen Cells enclosed in tough case that give rise to sperm cells i Transported by animals wind or water e Seed embryo with a food supply i Can disperse further away Animal Diversification 1 What are animals a Eukaryotes with specific traits i Multicellular no cell wall with extracellular matrix ii Heterotrophs they eat things for energy they don t produce it themselves iii Locomotion They move under their own power iv Except sponges have neurons that transmit electrical signals and muscles that contract and change body shape 2 How did body plans change as animals diversified a Multicellularity and Tissues i Delegation of labor ii If once cell dies whole organism didn t die iii Uses a lot of energy iv Lower reproduction rate v Each reproduction has more mutations or vi Not all cells have a high fitness b Body Symmetry and Cephalization i Classically 1 Radial symmetry in Diploblasts 2 Bilateral in Triploblasts ii Cephalization 1 Centralized Neurons 2 GangliaBrain sensory organs mouth in head region iii Is radial symmetry a more basal trait than bilateral symmetry c Evolution of Body Cavity i Functions 1 Hydrostatic skeleton in movement 2 Space for internal organs bathed in a uid Tube within a Tube body design d Developmental Patterns i Protostome development 1 Spiral cleavage 2 Mouth First gastrulation 3 Coelom from mesoderm blocks ii Deuterostome development 1 Radial cleavage 2 Mouth Second gastrulation 3 Coelom from pinchedoff mesoderm e Segmentation Repeated structural units in a body i Gives rise to specialized limbs f Growth Patterns i Molting vs Continuous Growth ii Metamorphosis g Innovations i Endoskeleton cartilage then bony as protection ii Jaws ability of bite iii Limbs capable of moving on land iv Amniotic Egg includes food and water supply 3 What are the synapomorphies define chordates a Chordate key features i Pharyngeal gill slits ii Dorsal hollow nerve cord iii Notochord supportive but exible thing that runs the length of the body iv Muscular postanal tail b Chordata can be divided into subcategories i Cephalochordates torpedo shaped animals with fishlike appearance ii Urochordates tunicates and sea squirts iii Vertebrates dorsal hollow nerve is spinal cord 1 Vertebrae body structure on dorsal side spinal cord 2 Cranium Thing that encloses the brain 3 Early brain had 3 stages a Forebrain smell b Midbrain vision c Hindbrain Balance and maybe hearing 4 Primates and Hominins a Primates have hands and feet that grab things attened nails large brains color vision complex social behavior and extensive parental care of offspring i Prosimians before monkeys lemurs and lorises 1 Treeswingers ii Anthropoids humanlike Great Apes Hominins 1 Orangutans knuckle and fist walkers 2 Gorillas and chimps knucklewalkers 3 Humans bipedal Behavior Ecologv 0 Altruism fitness cost to an individual and a fitness benefit for a receiver 0 Shouldn t be an allele that exists 0 More likely to happen With direct relatives kin selection 0 Hamilton s rule Br gt C O C Cost of altruistic act 0 B Benefit to recipient 0 r coefficient of relatedness 0 Reason individuals can pass on their alleles Without directly having offspring 0 Reciprocal Altruism Exchange of fitness benefits separated by time Sexual Selection 0 Ecology study of how organism interact With their environment 0 Behavior study of What organisms do how they do it and Why 0 Behavioral ecology study of decisions an organism makes While interacting With their environment 1 What do females choose for a Good Alleles Physical qualities like bright feathers b Resources Parental care provided by males 2 Some females have no choice in MaleMale competition a Ex Sea Lion males that fight for territory and mate With all females on that territory
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