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Chapter Two

by: Jessica Brown

Chapter Two CHM 101

Jessica Brown

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About this Document

More of a review about dalton's theory and notes on how the periodic table
CHM 101
Doug Sawyer
Study Guide
Chem, 101, sawyer, 2, ASU
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 101 at Arizona State University taught by Doug Sawyer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see CHM 101 in Chemistry at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 11/16/15
Chapter 2 Dalton’s Atomic Theory Evidence for Atoms Law of Conservation of Mass  Mass is not gained or lost in a chemical reaction  Mass can not disappear Law of Definite Proportion  Proposed by Joseph Proust between 1797 and 1804  A Compound always has the same relative amounts of the elements that compose it In 1808 John Dalton published a paper on atomic theory, THE DALTON ATOMIC THEORY 1. All matter is composed of small, indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms in one element are identical 3. Atoms are not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. 4. Atoms that are in simple, fixed and whole number ratios are to form compounds. Structure of the Atom Atoms are divisible, they are made of subatomic particles.  Subatomic particles are found outside of the nucleus Discovery of the Electrons:  J.J Thomson in 1987  Conducted a series of experiments with a cathode ray tube Determination of Mass and Charge of the Electron  The Milikan’s oil drop experiment SLIDE 2-16 The Proton  J.J Thomson proposed that the electrons might be embedded in a sphere of a positive charge  Ernest Rutherford designed and experiment to test J.J Thomson’s theory. He made the “Plum Pudding Model” in 1907 Slide 2-19 & 2-20 The Neutron  Because the protons in the atom could only account for about half of the mass of an atom, there had to be a another part.  Neutrons were proposed by Ernest Rutherford in 1907 and the discovery was made by James Chadwick in 1932  The neutron has about the same mass as proton, but just with no charge. Relative Mass: Electron 1/2000~C Proton 1 Neutron 1 So the Gold Foil experiment showed that the positively charged protons are located in a tiny core in the center of a atom, now called the nucleus. Nucleus counts for about 99.9 percent mass of a atom Atomic Number Atoms of different elements differ by the number of protons in their nucleus All atoms of a element have the same number of protons. The number of protons in an atom of an elements is the Atomic Number. The element on the table also has number in the upper left near the symbol. The electrons outside of an atom are there, but if the inside of an atom leave, then isn’t balanced. ISOTOPES SEE SLIDE SHOW The Periodic Table The colors mean: -Metals (main group) -Metals (transition) -Metals ( inner-transition) -Metalloids -NonMetals There are Groups: IA – Alkai Metals IIA- Alkai Earth Metals The main group is the group designated with the letter A. IONS and the periodic table Metals tend to lose electrons Non metals gain electrons Look at slide number #2-69 There it is talking about the fixed charged ions. They all have 10 electrons AL is +3 Zinc+2 Silver+1 The numbers above the elements in their columns are telling you the ions that are in that column for those elements. the light blue are the ones that vary in charge.


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