Digestive disorders NUTR 120 003
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dinha on Monday November 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 120 003 at University of New Mexico taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Belching and Flatulence The primary cause of belching is swallowed air Eating too fast wearing improperly fitting dentures chewing gum sucking on hard candies or a drinking straw and gulping food or uid can increase the risk of swallowing air Flatus Intestinal gases is a mixture of many gases including nitrogen hydrogen oxygen methane and carbon dioxide Foods most commonly reported to cause atus include those rich in fibers starches and sugars such as beans dairy products and some vegetables The partially digested carbohydrates from these foods pass into the large intestine where they are acted upon by bacteria producing gas Heartburn Is the painful sensation that occurs over the sternum when hydrochloric acid backs up into the lower esophagus Gastroesophageal re ux disease GERD Is a more painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice per week Causes hiatal hernia cigarette smoking or alcohol use being overweight pregnancy chocolate citrus spicy or fried food large hi gh fat meal and lying down soon after meal Peptic Ulcers Is an area of the GI tract that has been eroded away by a combination of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin It causes a burning pain in the abdominal area typically 1 to 3 hours after eating a meal In serious cases eroded blood vessels bleed into the GI tract causing vomiting of blood andor blood in the stools as well as anemia The bacterium Helicobacter pylori H pylori plays a key role in development of most peptic ulcers which include both gastric and duodenal ulcers And because of the role of H pylori in ulcer development treatment usually involves antibiotics and other types of medications to reduce gastric secretions Antacids are used to weaken the gastric acid and the same medications used to treat GERD can be used to treat peptic ulcers Food intolerance Is a cluster of GI symptoms often gas pain and diarrhea that occur following consumption of a particular food The immune system plays no role in intolerance and although episodes are unpleasant they are usually transient resolving after the offending food has been eliminated from the body Food allergy Is a hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system to a particular component usually a protein in a food This reaction causes the immune cells to release chemicals that cause either limited or systemic whole body in ammation About 5 of infants and young children and 2 of adults experience food allergies Celiac disease Is a digestive disease that severely damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients15 As in food allergy the body s immune system causes the disorder However there is a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease with the risk now linked to specific gene markers In celiac disease the offending food component is gliadin a fraction of a protein called gluten that is found in wheat rye and barley If the person is unaware of the disorder and continues to eat gluten repeated immune reactions cause the villi to become greatly decreased so that there is less absorptive surface area In addition the enzymes located at the brush border of the small intestine become reduced Crohn s Disease Is an autoimmune disorder a condition in which the body s immune system does not function properly and begins to attack normal cells Symptoms diarrhea abdominal pain rectal bleeding weight loss fever and anemia Diarrhea Is a condition characterized by frequent loose bowel movements Diarrhea occurs when more water than normal is secreted into the GI tract or the tract absorbs less water than nor mal Most cases of diarrhea result from bacterial or viral infections of the intestinal tract The infectious bacteria or viruses produce irritating or toxic substances that increase the movements motility of the GI tract As a result the GI tract propels chyme more rapidly through it absorbing less water than nor mal in the process Increased GI motility also enables the large intestine to eliminate the watery feces and the toxic material it contains rapidly Constipation Many factors in uence the frequency of bowel movements Lack of dietary fiber low water intake anxiety depression and other psychological disturbances and changes in your typical routine such as taking a long trip or having major surgery can alter your usual pattern of bowel movements Ulcerative colitis In ammation and ulceration of colon mucosa Immune response to a virus or bacteria Symptoms similar to Crohn39s disease Not caused by food Foods may cause GI discomfort Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is a condition characterized by intestinal cramps and abnormal bowel function particularly diarrhea constipation or alternating episodes of both11 Loose stools are often accompanied with mucus and after bowel movements the affected person feels as though elimination of stools was in complete For reasons that are unknown women are more likely than men to suffer from IBS
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