Chapter 6 notes
Chapter 6 notes SLPA 15000-01
Popular in Intro to Communication Disorders
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Iveson on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLPA 15000-01 at Ithaca College taught by Marie Sanford in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Disorders in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
ICD Chapter 6: Neurogenic Speech Disorders Definition and overview Neurogenic speech disorders are speech difficulties that are related to problems of movement that are result of some neurological disorder or injury A mixed group of neurological impairments that affect the planning, coordination, timing, and execution of the movement patterns used to produce speech. Any or all of the processes of respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation can be affected. An extremely complex arear of communication disorders Language disorders often co-occur with neurogenic speech disorders Three types of neurogenic speech disorders: o Cerebral palsy o Dysarthria’s o Apraxia Causes of Neurogenic Speech Disorders CVA and Stroke Brain hemorrhaging TBI’s Anoxia Brain Tumors Infections Toxins Alcohol and Drugs Diseases o Parkinson’s o Multiple sclerosis o ALS Cerebral Palsy CP describes a heterogeneous group of neurological difficulties resulting from brain injury that occurs very early in fetal or infant development Three characteristics of CP: o A developmental neurogenic disorder, non- progressive, child must learn motor movements with no pattern established o Cerebral Palsy is not a disease. Some improve with maturation o CP motor patterns are predictable Types of Cerebral Palsy Spastic o Characteristics Rigidity and exaggerated stretch reflex Jerky, labored, and slow movements o Area of brain infected Motor cortex and/or pyramidal tract Athetoid o Characteristics: Slow, involuntary writhing Disorganized and uncoordinated o Area of brain affected Extrapyramidal tract, basal ganglia Ataxic o Characteristics: Uncoordinated movements Poor balance o Area of brain affected Cerebellum Motor Speech Problems associated with CP Not all have motor speech difficulties Most with Athetoid CP have speech patterns affected Sometimes called “developmental Dysarthia” All aspects may and usually are affected 2 In severe cases, speech is unintelligible Many with breathing difficulties Inconsistent or inadequate airflow will affect phonation Resonance difficulties result in nasality Dysarthria Represents a variety of neurological disorders Result of stroke, disease, head injury, etc. It is not a language disorder The process of Respiration, Phonation, Resonation, and Articulation may all be affected Speech intelligibility most affected by motoric impairments of the tongue, lip, jaw, and soft palate Voice and Prosody often most affected o Pitch o Loudness o Quality o Rate Types of Dysarthria’s Flaccid o Weak, soft, flabby muscle tone o Voice quality: breathy, monotone, hyper-nasal, reduced pitch/loudness o Speech rate: short phrases o Articulation: imprecise consonants Spastic o Soft, rigid muscles o Voice quality: monotone, loudness, strained voice o Speech rate: slow rate o Articulation: imprecise consonants Ataxic o Weak muscle, coordination problems o Voice quality: excessive stress, harsh voice o Speech rate: prolonged pauses and rate 3 o Articulation: imprecise consonants, irregular articulatory breakdown Hyperkinetic o Increased movements o Voice quality: monotone, harsh voice, excessive loudness o Speech rate: variable rate o Articulation: imprecise consonants, distorted vowels Hypokinetic o Decreased movements o Voice quality: monotone, loudness, reduced stress, harsh and breathy voice o Speech rate: variable rate o Articulation: imprecise consonants Mixed o Severe muscle weakness o Indicator of things getting worse or better o Voice quality: hyper-nasality, low monotone pitch, and loudness o Speech rate: slow rate o Articulation: imprecise consonants, distorted vowels Apraxia A disorder in voluntary motor placement and sequencing unrelated to muscles weakness, slowness, or paralysis Neurogenic issue with brain: stroke, disease, head injury Non-verbal apraxia o Can affect writing, drawing, any physical movements, or gestures Verbal apraxia o Speech sound substitutions due to programming difficulties o Substitution errors often not related to target phoneme o Inconsistent o Schwa 4 Sound production Ex: “uh” o Audible or silent groping for speech sound o Slow rate and frequent repetitions o Periods of fluency Ex: someone with Apraxia sings “Happy Birthday” perfectly Automatic programming 5
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