Soc 110 Exam 2 Study Guide
Soc 110 Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 110
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karen Jaspers on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Elizabeth Legerski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Soc 110: Intro to Sociology, Spring 2016 Dr. Liz Legerski Exam 2 Study Guide Be familiar with the following terms and topics: What is deviance? When does deviance become a crime? Deviance is breaking or refusing to follow a social rule. It becomes a crime when lawmakers consider a deviant act bad enough to make formal sanctions against it. What is the difference between mores and folkways? How do they shape behavior? Mores are norms with a strong moral significance that are viewed as essential to the proper functioning as a group and are often made into laws. Breaking mores makes others upset, angry, and afraid. Violators considered bad or immoral. Folkways are routine, unspoken conventions of behavior (example: facing forward instead of backward in an elevator). Violators are laughed at, frowned upon, or scolded. Folkways are rarely made into laws. Mores and Folkways shape behavior by encouraging conformity by telling us what we can/can’t do. What role does stigma play in shaping behavior? Stigma (Goffman) is an attribute that is considered deviant, and changes you “from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one.” People with stigmatized attributes are constantly practicing various strategies to ensure minimal damage because being stigmatized will ruin your identity. What purpose does deviance serve according to Durkheim? What theory does this support? Durkheim thought the purpose of deviance was to create social cohesion by affirming norms and values, setting moral boundaries, heightening group solidarity, and encouraging social change. This supports the theory of Structural functionalism. Know the characteristics of the following sociological theories of deviance and crime: Strain theory, Broken Windows theory, Social Control theory, Labeling theory, and Conflict theories of crime. Strain theory: deviance results from inequality in means to acquire goals, which causes strain Broken windows theory (Zimbardo): small signs of disorder cause a spiral into greater disorder and deviance Social control theory: rational, cost-benefit analysis, and social ties keep us in line. Someone may act with deviance if it will get them status or money Labeling theory: defines deviance as a process where context matters -Primary deviance: simple act; doesn’t define identity. Secondary deviance: when someone repeatedly breaks norms; defines one’s identity. Tertiary deviance: someone receives a label of deviance, takes on the label, and redefines it as virtuous or normal Conflict theory: laws maintain the power of the privileged (they create hierarchies that foster crime) Know the characteristics of and difference between violent/property crime & white-collar crime. Violent crime is murder and manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Property crime is burglary or theft, and there is no force or threat of force against the victims. White collar crime is the illegal actions of a corporation of people acting on their behalf. Violent and property crime happen less than white collar crime and cost less, but they count for a higher percentage of individuals in prison and usually have harsher sentences. How are US crime and incarceration rates, access to guns, and use of the death penalty unique? U.S. has an extremely high crime rate (but has been declining since 70s), weakest laws on handgun ownership in the industrialized world, the highest incarceration rate with more inmates and severe sentencing, and is the only industrialized nation that uses the death penalty. How do race and class affect crime and punishment in the US? What is racial profiling? Racial profiling is the discriminatory practice by law enforcement and other officials of targeting individuals suspected of crime based on their race or ethnicity. (DWB-Driving While Black) Minorities and poor more likely to be the victims of crime, more likely to be racially profiled, and more likely to be convicted and harshly sentenced. In the US, there are inequalities in arrests and incarcerations among the races. What is social stratification and how do Marx and Weber’s theories of class differ? Social stratification: system of social inequality and structure of class mobility in a society Weber’s theory was that class = occupation + wealth + income. Class is very complex, and the hierarchy includes economic class, social status, and political power. Marx’s theory was that the relationship to mode of production was key, and he emphasized the conflict between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (workers). What does the US class structure look like? How has income/wealth inequality changed over time? In the US, most people are either working class or middle class. The upper class only comprises 1% of the total population, while the poorest or “underclass” comprise 12%. The upper middle class and working poor comprise 13-14%. Over time, income and wealth inequality has increased dramatically. What is the “myth of the middle class” and how likely is social mobility in the US? The myth of the middle class is that almost everyone is part of the middle class, and that everyone has the opportunity to be part of the middle class. Social mobility is very unlikely in the US, and even more unlikely for minorities. How do sociologists explain poverty? Why is the way we calculate the poverty line problematic? Sociologists understand poverty as a structural problem instead of a personal failing. People are unmotivated and lack ambition because they are poor, not poor because they lack ambition. The poverty line is problematic because it doesn’t take into account cost of living differences, child care, medical care, or transportation. Also, its calculations are low. What stereotypes exist about the poor? Who is at greatest risk of being poor? Some stereotypes are that poor people are lazy and unemployed, and that poor people lack initiative, drive, or ambition. Children and mothers have a greater risk of being poor than others. How extensive is global inequality? It is very extensive. The richest 20 percent of the world’s population receives 80 percent of the global income. The poorest 20 percent lives on 1 percent of the global income. The gap between the very rich and the very poor is increasing. What is the difference between Modernization theory and World System theory? Modernization: cultural inadequacies and need for Western technology/values World System: rich and poor linked by processes of production and consumption What is the difference between race and ethnicity, and how is race socially constructed? Race: physical traits (skin color) of a particular group. Race and race categories are socially constructed because they have no genetic or scientific basis; they are purely social concepts. Ethnicity: cultural traits and region of origin What are the characteristics of a minority group? Differential power, identifiability, ascribed status, solidary/group awareness How are stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination related to each other? How did Robert Merton model prejudice and discrimination? Stereotypes: generalizations that ignore variability Prejudice: set of beliefs/attitudes that cause us to negatively prejudge people Discrimination: set of actions based on prejudice and stereotypes Robert Merton divided prejudice and discrimination into 4 categories: All-weather bigots-are prejudiced and practice discrimination Fair-weather bigots-are prejudiced, but do not discriminate when there may be negative consequences Fair-weather liberals-are not prejudiced, and practice discrimination when it is profitable All-weather liberals-not prejudiced and do not discriminate How do conflict theories of prejudice and discrimination differ from scapegoat theories? Scapegoat theories What is institutional discrimination? What makes it different from “regular” discrimination? Institutional discrimination: subtle and pervasive, built into institutions, and taken for granted. It is different from regular discrimination because it is often not deliberate or intentional. Does segregation still exist today? For example, how extensive is residential segregation today? Yes, segregation still exists today. Most people continue to live in same-race neighborhoods and attend same-race schools. How do assimilation, pluralism, and multiculturalism differ? How achievable are they? Assimilation: melting pot; one group abandons culture to embrace the dominant culture Pluralism: different groups have mutual respect and can maintain differences while still participating in greater society Multiculturalism: several different cultures can coexist peacefully and equally in a single country Assimilation is much more achievable and common than pluralism and multiculturalism. What is intersectionality? How does it incorporate race, class, and gender? Intersectionality: the overlapping of one status with others. It is hard to isolate racism because race overlaps with other statuses like class and gender. What is the difference between sex and gender? How is gender socially constructed? Sex refers to the biological components of males and females. Gender is the meaning we give to biological differences between the sexes. It is socially constructed because we are constantly doing the social norms of gender and playing up our masculinity or femininity. Does the sociological perspective on gender identity differ from purely biological explanations? No. How is gender identity learned through gender socialization? What is the “beauty myth”? Boys and girls are expected to learn different social norms: boys are tough, aggressive, and loud, while girls are sensitive, passive, and quiet. Children are punished for straying from these norms and labeled “tomboys” or “sissies”. As we get older, gender socialization is emphasized through the media. The beauty myth is the nearly unreachable cultural ideal of feminine beauty that “uses images of female beauty as a political weapon against women’s advancement”. What’s the difference between gender roles and institutions? How is gender like an institution? Gender roles-traits, attitudes, and behaviors that are associated with biological males and females. Gendered institutions: example: sex segregation of corporations Gender is an institution because it is a dynamic in all of our interactions, and because it is part of the institutions we inhabit and the organizations we create (example: women=nurses; men=doctors) How extensive are gender inequalities like the second shift, wage gap, sex segregation of the labor market, and feminization of poverty? The feminization of poverty and the second shift are more extensive than ever before. The wage gap is less than it used to be, but is still a problem. Sex segregation in the labor market has also decreased overall, but is still present and can lead to things like tokenism. What is the difference between liberal feminism, radical feminism, and multicultural feminism? Liberal: focuses on structural barriers like law, jobs, and politics Radical: focuses on interpersonal oppression like violence, sexual assault, and harassment Multicultural: also focuses on race and class What is sexuality and how is it socially constructed? Sexuality: identity we construct based on sexual desires and behaviors; biological components of attraction. It is socially constructed because it varies between cultures and over time How does the gendered nature of sexuality shape the culture of sex on college campuses? What evidence is there that there has been a gender convergence of sexual attitudes and behavior? On college campuses, hook-up culture has somewhat replaced the regular pattern of relationships. There is evidence of convergence because girls’ sexual attitudes are becoming more similar to those of boys, because of the increased amount of hook-ups, and because of the counterculture of students pledging abstinence. How is heterosexism different from and related to homophobia? Heterosexism is the institutionally based inequalities that may derive from homophobia, which is a social approved dislike of and discrimination towards LGBT (sexual minorities) How extensive is poverty among the elderly? How are inequalities based on race and gender magnified in old age? What kinds of social policies can help reduce poverty for the young and old? The elderly are at the lowest risk for poverty. Inequalities of race and gender are magnified in the elderly because Hispanics and African-Americans over 65 are 3 times as likely to fall into poverty as whites. Social policies that can help reduce poverty are guaranteed free education, health care, welfare, and housing allowances. What age norms are expected of the “Sandwich Generation”? More stressed and higher financial burdens due to pressures of caring for older children and aging parents simultaneously. How does the structure of the US healthcare system shape the distribution of illness & insurance access? The poor are less able to access insurance, and the distribution of illness isn’t equal. For example, poor people face more illness due to lack of access to nutrition and living in areas affected by pollution. Compared to our peers, how does the US compare in health care expenditures and outcomes? The US spends the most money on health care and has the most expensive health care. However, citizens of the US aren’t as healthy as in other countries, and our life expectancy is lower than that of many. According to the film “American Denial” what were some of Myrdal’s main findings of his study or race in the South? Myrdal found that there was extensive discrimination and a threat of violence toward African-Americans. He found that Americans lived contradictory lives: the American creed was centered on equality and justice for all individuals, but Americans seemed to apply this principle only to Whites. Americans were also in denial that racism existed in their society. According to the film “The Mask You Live In” what are some of the social problems tied to masculinity that boys are more likely to face? Violent outbursts and aggression toward others, alcohol and drug abuse, committing homicide, physically abusing another person, spending time in prison, and failing school or dropping out.
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