PSY 270 DSM-IV Evaluation--Appendix H
PSY 270 DSM-IV Evaluation--Appendix H
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D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 1 *Please be sure to use this tutorial as a guide only. Do not plagiarize and do not resell as your own work. If you have any questions or problems with the tutorial please get a hold of me before leaving any negative feedback and I will resolve the issue. If you have trouble opening or viewing the files please contact me and I will fix the problem as soon as I can. Sometimes instructors change the syllabus so if the material does not match your syllabus please let me know. If I do not respond right away please be patient, I do have a full-time job and I try to check my messages once a day. Thanks and good luck!!! :-) Name Axia College PSY 270 Instructor December 6, 2009 D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 2 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is used by mental health professionals to assist in the diagnosis of a variety of mental disorders. The DSMIV consists of a classification system which helps distinguish symptoms of one mental disorder from another. The following case studies have been diagnosed according to the DSMIV criteria. Case Study 1: Schizoid Personality Disorder Josephine suffers from Schizoid Personality Disorder. Her symptoms include: lack of close relationships, emotional coldness and detachment, and solitary tendencies (DSMIV, 1994, pp.317). Josephine prefers to be alone and she also does not seek out meaningful relationships. Her disorder has taken a negative toll on her quality of life due to the fact that she is unable to hold a steady job. Although the causal factors are not exactly known a link between genetics and early childhood environmental factors seems to be influential in the development of the disorder. A lack of nurturance throughout childhood could have been a risk factor in Josephine’s case. The nature of Schizoid Personality Disorder can make treatment difficult in most cases. Treatment for Josephine’s particular case should involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication. The psychotherapy will help her develop positive behaviors while the medication can help suppress symptoms of depression and anxiety, which should encourage positive emotional behaviors (Mayo Clinic, 2009). Case Study 2: Narcissistic Personality Disorder D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 3 According to the DSMIV criteria Luis suffers from Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Luis is constantly seeking admiration from his coworkers and has irrational beliefs that he is better than those around him. He also shows signs of the following symptoms: exploitive behavior, lack of empathy, monopolization of conversations, and a constant need for admiration (DSMIV, 1994, pp.317). Although Luis has remained in the same position as an office assistant for ten years he continues to believe that he will soon become a CEO of the company, which means that he suffers from patterns of grandiosity resulting in illogical fantasies of infinite success and power (DSMIV, 1994, pp.317). The causal factors of Narcissistic Personality Disorder are not known, but it has been speculated that the disorder could be a result of a dysfunctional childhood. Genetics and psychobiology have also been linked to the disorder (May Clinic, 2009). A thorough psychological evaluation would be needed to pinpoint the causal factors in Luis’ case. Psychotherapy is the typical treatment method for Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy would be the best option for Luis because it would help him identify and recognize the dysfunctional thoughts and actions that he currently displays (Mayo, Clinic, 2009). Case Study 3: Somatoform Disorder Anissa is experiencing a somatoform disorder. Although Anissa feels numbness in her hands there is not medical explanation for her physical symptom, which allows for the classification as a somatization disorder (DSMIV, 1994, pp. 317). The causal factors for this disorder can range from genetics and environment to the inability to properly express emotions D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 4 (Yates, 2008). In Anissa’s case it seems as though her inability to express her emotions about her traumatic experience has resulted in the development of a somatoform disorder. Psychotherapy may help Anissa uncover her true feelings and emotions about her traumatic experience, which seems to be the cause of her somatoform disorder. If Anissa can work through her own emotions it may help alleviate the physical symptoms caused by her somatoform disorder. Case Study 4: Dissociative Amnesia Karen is suffering from dissociative amnesia disorder. Karen’s dissociative amnesia is a result of the trauma that she experienced after losing her child. Severe trauma seems to be the leading cause of dissociative amnesia among children and adults. Basically Karen’s temporary amnesia is an unconscious psychological mechanism to protect herself from the recent trauma of losing her child (Mayo Clinic, 2009). One treatment option that can help Karen would be hypnosis. Hypnosis is often used in cases of dissociative disorders because it helps the patients remember the traumatic events that led to the development of the disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2009). Karen would also benefit from an antidepressant, which would help her cope more effectively with her loss. Case Study 5: Schizophrenia Tony is displaying symptoms associated with Schizophrenia. Tony’s indicating symptoms include: lack of selfcare, delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, loss of reality, and disorganized speech (DSMIV, 1994, pp.317). Tony is experiencing a mixture of both D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 5 negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Although Tony has not experienced these symptoms for a six month period it seems as though his current behavior will lead to an eventual diagnosis of schizophrenia. Genetics and environment are two probably causes of schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities are also relevant causes. Problems with certain neurotransmitters within the brain (such as dopamine) can contribute to the development of schizophrenia. A family history of schizophrenia is also a risk factor (Mayo Clinic, 2009). Treatment for schizophrenia is an ongoing process throughout the individual’s entire life. Tony would likely benefit from atypical antipsychotic medications which cater to both negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Tony would also need to seek psychotherapy to help him develop mechanisms to cope with the symptoms brought on by schizophrenia (Mayo Clinic, 2009). All cases of mental disorders are different, which is why it is extremely important to understand the patients individual case. Although the DSMIV is beneficial in pinpointing certain symptoms it cannot analyze the patient as an individual and it cannot take into account factors that may affect the individual’s behavior, which is why the role of the psychiatrist or clinician is imperative to a proper diagnosis. Diagnosis of a mental disorder should always be based upon criteria from the DSMIV as well as information gathered from direct observation of the patient. D S M I V E v a l u a t i o n | 6 References American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Yates, W. (2008). Somatoform Disorders. WebMD. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294908overview Mayo Clinic. (2009). Dissociative Disorders. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dissociativedisorders/DS00574 Mayo Clinic. (2009). Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcissisticpersonalitydisorder/DS00652 Mayo Clinic. (2009). Schizoid Personality Disorder. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoidpersonalitydisorder/DS00865 Mayo Clinic. (2009). Schizophrenia. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizophrenia/DS00196
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