Study Guide Exam I
Study Guide Exam I
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Study Guide EXAM 1 BIO 30 Circulatorv Svstem cardiovascular and lymphatic 0 Cardiovascular heart vessels blood Heart circulate blood through its own chambers and through the blood vessels Atria receiving chambers from the veins Ventricles pumping chambers out into arteries 0 Left ventricle has highest pressure during systole Systole contraction 0 During systole and the early portion of diastole a new contraction can39t occurabsolute refractory period Followed by a relative refractory period heart can respond to strong stimulus extra contraction extrasystolepremature ventricular contraction Diastole relaxation High C02 deoxygenated from everywhere except lungsljsuperior and inferior venae cavae right atrium l tricuspid valve right ventricle lpulmonary semilunar valve pulmonary arteriesungs 02 blood from lungs l pulmonary veins left atriumbicuspid valveeft ventricleD aortic semilunar valve aortaD pumped to everywhere except lungs Septum wall between two ventricles Coronary artery heart39s own blood supply 0 Right coronary emerges on anterior surface and supplies R atrium and ventricle 0 Left coronary larger than the right supplies to L atrium and ventricle 0 Left ventricleaortacoronary arteriesDcoronary veinssinus lies of posterior side of heart empties into right atrium Ape x pointed inferior end of the heart that is formed by the tip of the left ventricle Base opposite of the apex wide superior and posterior margin formed by the left atrium mostly Heart has two atrioventricular AV valves and two semilunar valves Papillarv muscles muscular ridges inside walls of ventricles with connective tissue called chordae tendinae MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS Aortic arch left subclavian artery left common carotid artery brachiocephalic artery Brachiocephalic artery right common carotid and right subclavian arteries branch from this Subclavian artery becomes axillary artery then becomes brachial artery Abdominal aorta thoracic aorta after passing through diaphragm Celiac artery rst major unpaired branch of abdominal aorta Mesenteries hold visceral organs together Suoerior mesenteric arterv supplies the pancreas small intestine and large intestine Renal arteries supply kidneys 0 Common lliac arteries two large terminal vessels of the abdominal aorta directed toward legs 0 Common Hepatic supplies liver branches from abdominal aorta Left Gastric and Splenic branch from abdominal aorta VENOUS CIRCULATION Superior Vena Cava large vessel entering right atrium from superior veins from head neck and thorax empty here Brachiocephalic Veins join to form superior vena cava External luoular Veins largest veins in the neck drain cranial region ventrolateral on neck Subclavian Veins enter the brachiocephalic at same point at jugulars lnferior Vena Cava emerges from the diaphragm enter right atrium of heart 0 Renal Veins receive blood from the kidneys Common lliacs paired veins that form major inferior division of inferior vena cava External lliac largest branch of common receives blood from femoral vein 0 Great Saphenous longest in body branches off femoral vein Hepatic Veins collect blood from liver empty into inferior vena cava Hepatic Portal System GI Tract and splenic capillaries o Supplied by splenic vein spleen and stomach and superior mesenteric o Hepatic portal vein empties into sinusoid capillaries in liver 0 Hepatic portal system means that hepatocytes may soretransform absorbed nutrient before they can enter the general circulation o Lymphatic lymph similar to IF lymph tissues lymph vessels Lymphatic vessels have thinner walls than veins smallest are the lymphatic capillaries IF continually enters into the lymphatic vessels from the interstitial spaces ows through the lymphatics to the lymph nodes Lymph enters the bloodstream at the subclavian veins behind collarbone via the thoracic duct on the left and right lymphatic duct Primary lymphatic organs red bone marrow at and long bones and thymus gland Produce B and T cells carry out immune responses lymph produced Secondary lymphatic organs lymph nodes spleen lymphatic nodules in mucous membranes 0 Most immune responses occur here lymphocytes congregate Lymph capillariesvesslesljnodestesselsductDsubclavian veinsljblood stream Aortaarge arteriessmaller arteriesarteriolescapillariesDvenulesveinsljsuperior and inferior vena cavalj right atrium Arteries vessels that carry blood FROM the heart to the tissues Arterioles smaller arteries 0 As the arterioles enter a tissue they branch into capillaries Capillaries point of exchange between the blood and the body tissues 0 Thin walls large surface area allow exchange 0 Blood l Interstitial Fluid l Tissues l IF l Blood 0 Single layer of endothelium Venules small veins that form at end of capillaries Veins convey blood from the tissues TO the heart Vasa Vasorum provide blood ow into the walls of the larger blood vessels 0 Walls of Arteries and Veins BOTH have 0 Tunica interna innermost layer of endothelium simple squamous epithelium layer of elastic tissue basement membrane Arteries have internal elastic lamina o Tunica Media middle layer composed of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue 0 Tunica Externa outermost layer collagen bers and adipose tissue Arteries external elastic lamina Veins contain valves 0 Consist of semilunar aps of the tunica interna that open to permit the ow of blood toward the heart close to prevent the back ow of blood ECG Low electrical resistance or the intercalated discs gap and tight junctions allow an action potential to travel quickly throughout heart Branching of cardiac muscle bers makes the electrical impulse spread quicker and more ef ciently Because of autorythmicity neural stimulation is not needed to generate a cardiac impulse o Autorythmic bers undergo rhythmic spontaneous depolarization to threshold Form the conduction system of the heart Sinoatrial SA node 0 Has fastest spontaneous depolarization pacemaker 0 7080 bpm Atrioventricular AV node 0 4060 bpm 0 Delay of AV node allows ventricles to fully ll with blood 0 AV bundle Right and left bundle branches Conduction myo bers 0 1540 bpm needing a pacemaker Excitability of cardiac muscle bers depends on 0 Rate of metabolism 0 Biochemicalenvironment Ach depresses the heart rate NE amp E increase force and rate of cardiac contraction 0 Temperature Fever increases metabolic rate D more rapid heartbeat Stretching increase in force of contraction Increased quantity of blood lls the ventricles while they are relaxedlj more blood is pumped into the aorta and pulmonary arteries at systole Heart receives neural input from the ANS Sympathetic cardiac accelerator nerves release NE D increases force and rate o Adrenal Medulla secretes E D increases force and rate Parasympathetic Vagus Nerve releases Ach D slows the heart rate Ions in body uids conduct electricity the electrical activity of the body tissues can be detected at the skin surface ECG can determine 0 Heart rate lrregularity of the pacemaker Presence or absence of cardiac hypertrophy enlargement lschemia inadequate blood supply Myocardial infarction dead heart tissues These can be determined because they alter the pathway of action potential conduction through the heart Lead I right arm H to left arm 0 Horizontal x axis Lead ll right arm H to left leg 0 Parallel to the septum Lead lll left arm H to left leg 0 Lead Lead IIID Lead ll Changes in waves recorded on an ECG re ect changes in position of the heart Depolarization of the SA node l depolarization of both atria P wave QRS depolarization of the ventricles o lnterval between the beginning of P and the beginning of QRS is PQ interval length re ects the conduction time from the atria to ventricles T wave ventricular repolarization End of Tl beginning of P both atria and ventricles are relaxed To determine Mean Electrical Axis determine magnitude of the potential and the direction it is oriented Usually 59 in adults Values from 10D110 may be considered noral Tall thinlj towards 90 Fat shorttowards 0 Left axis deviation means that depolarization is speading more slowly than normal through the left ventricle Causes hypertrophy of left ventricle or bundle branch block 0 Right axis deviation 90180 due to right ventricular hypertrophy or right bundle branch block Sinus bradycardiaslow heart rate less than 60 0 Common in patients with high vagal tone hypothyroidism during athletic training and during treatment with digitalis Sinus Tachycardia fast heart rate more than 100 0 Found in patients after exercise or smoking hyperthyroidism anxiety fever anemia and heart disease 0 Sympathetic nerve stimulation or blocking the vagus nerve can also produce this condition PVC patch of cardiac muscle that spontaneously depolarizes o more than 6 per minute is pathological 0 longer duration than normal QRS complexes because the electrical signal is not following the noral conduction pathway 0 occurs in early diastole AV block defect in the conduction pathway through the AV node 0 This region is the only path for electrical signals from the atria to reach the ventricles 0000 00000 0 1st degree PR interval is prolonged exceeds 02 s o 2nCI degree some of the P waves are not conducted through the AV node dropped beats because excitation doesn39t reach the ventricles 0 3rd degreecomplete AV block none of the SA node signals get through Flutter extremely rapid rate of contraction o In atrial utter the P waves are so rapid that ORS cpmlexes may appear after every other Pwave Fibrilliation uncoordinated contractions of the atrial or ventricular muscle bers l the affected chambers cannot function as a pump BLOOD PRESSURE PULSE Arterial blood pressure force lateral pressure exerted by the blood on a unit area of the blood vessel wall 0 Systolic BP is the highest lowest is diastolic o Systolic Diastolic mm Hg Pulse Pressure Systolic Diastolic Mean Arterial BP diastolic pressure 13 pulse pressure COMAPresistance Dicrotic wave end of T wave occurs when aortic and pulmonary valves shut 0 Some blood runs back into the ventricles after the ventricles relax until they shut Blood Pressure can be determined by 0 Cardiac output 0 Peripheral vascular resistance 0 Blood volume 0 Blood viscosity 0 Elasticity of arterial walls BP CO x SVR CO volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute SVR resistance offered to the total output by the heart by all of the systemic vascular blood vessels Hypertension systolic BP may go up to 200 with no increase in CO 0 Total peripheral resistance has increased due to inappropriate constriction of peripheral BV Blood Pressure decreases due to blood reaching the end of the hand and coming back There is no pulse at the level of arterioles and capillaries 0 Mean blood pressure is most important in forcing blood through the capillaries Elastic recoil of the arteries contributes to moving the blood through the circulatory system A beat caused by the alternate contraction and expansion of the arterial walls as the heart muscle pumps blood Pulse represents the pressure change brought about by the ejection of the blood from the heart into the already full aorta o Propagated as a wave through the blood column and the arterial wall to the skin surface Most dependable location for taking a pulse is the carotid artery or femoral artery Radial artery may be severely constricted when a person is in shock Adult males 5470 Adult females 7580 Young Children 82180 Hemorrhage early stages may be bounding racing latter stages amp shock it is thin rapid and weak 1st heart sound acceleration and deceleration of the blood in the ventricles closing of the AV valves 0 At end of QRS wave 2 d back owing blood closes the semilunar valves and then is abruptly decelerated 0 At end of T wave S3 amp S4 ampli ed after T wave ventricle begin to relax S4 atrium puts more blood in ventricle by contracting
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