Intro Cultural Anthropology Exam Study Guide
Intro Cultural Anthropology Exam Study Guide ANTH-18210-49
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Angelo on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH-18210-49 at Kent State University taught by Jeanne M. Stumpf-Carome (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in Human Development at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 Political Systems -Substantial variation in power, authority, and legal systems Power- ability to exercise one’s will over others Authority- is formal, socially approved use of power Sociopolitical Organization: discussing regulation or management of interrelations among groups and their representatives Elman Service: Four types, or levels of political organization Band: small kin-based group among foragers Tribe- economy based on nonintensive food production Chiefdom- intermediate form between tribe and state Differential Access: favored access to resources by superordinate or subordinates State- formal governmental structure and socioeconomic stratification Foraging Bands- Modern foragers live in nation- states and interlined world - All trade with food producers - Most contemporary hunter or gatherer rely on government or missionaries San Susan Kent- tendency to stereotype foragers, stresses variation among foragers Inuit- Good example of conflict resolution in stateless societies Foragers- lack formal law -methods of social control to dispute a settlement Live in Artic- hunting/fishing – men -primary subsistence activities -most disputes over women -wronged man=options -murder=retaliation -Song battle- but wife may not return Tribal Cultivators Tribes- Typically have horticulture or pastoral economy and organized by village life and or descent group membership -lack socioeconomic stratification and formal government -Regulatory officials- village heads “big men” descent –group leaders, village councils and pan tribal associations Horticulture Villages- small, with low population density and open access to strategic resources -Age, gender, and personal traits-determine respect Egalitarianism- goes down as the village size and population density goes up Yanomami- believe village head is achieved- very limited authority -lead by example -mediator in disputes -lead in generosity The “Big Man”- like a village head, except his authority is regional and may have influence over multiple villages -common to south pacific -must be generous -Serves as temporary regional regular who can mobilize supporters Kapauku- Tonowi- only political figure: achieved through hard work and amassing wealth in form of pigs and native niche Distinguished – generosity, eloquence, bravery, physical fitness, and super natural powers -decisions accepted as binding Pantribal sodalitics: groups that extend across whole tribes: spans several villages Ex: Central Plains of North America and tropical Africa Plains: leadership needed to raid enemy camps and manage summer bison hunt Secret Societies are sodalities -create non-kin linkages between people based on age, gender, and ritual -found in areas where two or more different cultures come into regular contact -draw members from several villages and can mobilize large numbers of men for raids Masai of Kenya and Tanzania -men: born during 4 year period, circumcised together, belong to same named group, age set, throughout their lives -sets moved through age grades: warrior grade= most important Nomadic Politics: nomads must interact with a variety of groups, unlike most sedentary societies Powerful chiefs most commonly in large populations Ex) Basseri and Qashqai Basseri- similar population -chief, khan, similar to village head -Position achieved- allegiances with person Larger Qashqai- multiple levels of authority and more powerful chiefs Authority- more coercive allegiances with office Chiefdoms- Transitional form of sociopolitical organization between tribes and states Robert Carneiero- state is an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within is territory, having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for work or war, and decree and enforce laws Political and Economic Systems- Social relations based on kinships, marriage, descent, age, generation and gender Chiefdoms- and states are permanent Office: permanent position- refilled when it is vacated by death or retirement -Offices outlast the individual-ensure sociopolitical organization endures across generations -play important role in production, distribution, and consumption of resources -collect foodstuffs as tribute-redistribute at feast Status- seniority of descent Chiefdom- believed to come from common ancestors -demonstrate seniority of descent -lack of sharp gaps between elites and commoners Differential access to resources -allocation of rights and duties -states characterized by much clearer class divisions than chiefdoms Stratification -differential access-social class/stratification -key feature Max Weber -3 dimensions- Social Stratification Economic Status and Wealth- all of a person’s material assets-basis of economic status Power- the ability to control others-basis of political status Prestige- esteem, respect, or approval- basis of social status Archaic states had contracts in wealth. Power and prestige Superordinate: upper, elite group in stratified society, privileged access to wealth, power, and valued resources Subordinate: lower, underprivileged group: limited State Specializations -pop control -judiciary -law enforcement -fiscal systems Pop Control: administrative subdivision: provinces, districts, states, counties, sub countries, and parishes Aim: foster geographic mobility and resettlement Different rights=different status distinctions Judiciary: laws based on precedent and legislative proclamations -courts/judges - govern family affairs -curb internal conflicts -laws have Not reduced violence Enforcement: agents of state mete out punishment and collect fines -impose hardships/ offer advantages -Protect-external threats -preserve internal order Fiscal System: pertains to finances/taxation – states redistribute (taxes) -Generosity/sharing- played down -No additional freedoms/leisure -Elites in-archaic states- consumption of sumptuary goods Social Control: beliefs, practices, and institutions that are most actively involved in the maintenance of any norms/regulations of any conflict Norms: tell between appropriate and inappropriate behavior -Political systems- informal, social, and subtle aspects – formal government and public dimensions Hegemony: subordinates comply by internalizing ruler’s values and accepting the “naturalness” of domination -make subordinates believe they will gain power -separate/isolate people while supervising closely -Resist-mostly when allowed to assemble -oppressed accept domination -question in private Public Transcript: open interaction with superordinates/subordinates hidden transcript: critique of power that goes on offstage -power holders cants see discontent- shown in public rituals and language -mostly expressed only when people can assemble Hidden transcripts: expressed publicly at certain times in specific places Shame and Gossip: “informal” control through stigma, shame, fear in small scale societies Makua: 3 sanctions- social control Cadeia (jail) - last phase of extended political/legal process Entretthe (sorcery attack) - small attack would kill the thief/ make very ill Ehaya (shame) extended disgrace Informal process of social control efficiency – how clearly envisioned that antisocial might trigger Shame- cheaper than jail- more effective Ch. 9 Gender Women and Men differ genetically: Sexual dimorphism: marked differences in male and female biology besides the primary and secondary sexual features Sex differences are biological –gender encompasses traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females Gender roles: tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes Gender stereotypes: oversimplified, strongly held ideas of characteristics of men and women Gender Stratification: unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting different positions in a social hierarchy Llongots- Philippines Take a head Subsistence contributions of men and women are roughly equal- cross – culture -domestic activities-female labor dominates -women tend to work more hours -women- primary caregiver- men play a role Reproductive Strategies Women can only have so many babies Males- mate within/ out marriage- more than women Males- less restricted than women Restrictions = ½ societies studied Peggy Sanday: gender stratification decreased when men and women made roughly equal contributions to substitute Domestic- Public dichotomy: strong differentiation between home and the outside world, or private- public contrast -gender stratification is less developed among foragers Greater size, greater strength, and mobility of med led to exclusive services in roles of hunters and warriors -Pregnancy and lactation- prevention in foraging societies -Agta- full range of daily activities – including hunting Thomas Headland- fooled by python Cross- cultural variation in gender status related to rules of descent and post marital residence Matrillneal descent: people join mothers group at birth Women tend to have high status in matrilineal matrilocal societies Sanday: Minangkabau a matriarchy because women are the center origin, and founder of the social order -despite special position of women, matriarchy is not equivalent of females rule -Property is passed mother – daughter Patrilineal-patrilocal complex: male Supremacy is based on patrilineality, patrolocality and warfare Patrilineal descent: traced through men -many societies in highland Papua, New Guinea Patriarchy: political system riled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights -Societies- full-fledged replete with warfare and inter village raiding – gender stratification- typically reduced in societies in which women have prominent roles in the economy and social life Domestic Public Dichotomy influence gender stratification in industrial societies -Gender roles change rapidly in North America- “traditional” idea – women’s place is in the home- middle and upper class Americans – Industrialism Spread after 1900 Maxine Margoils: gendered work, attitudes and beliefs have varied in response to U.S. economic needs Changes in economy led to changes in attitudes toward and about women 1970-2010 Female- workforce- 38%-47% - gender roles changed -Rise in representation of women and their children among American’s poorest people -Rise in single parent household- usually female Globally- women head of house – poorer than a man- improve- encourage women to organize 13 countries –greatest female labor – 10 ranked among world’s happiest Contemporary U.S. includes individuals who self-identify using such labels as transgender, intersex, third gender, and transsexual Transgender: social category that includes individuals who may/may not contrast biologically with ordinary make and female Intersex: conditions involving discrepancy between external and internal genitals Klinefelter’s syndrome- male- XXY- add X chromosome Turner syndrome- females- portion of X chromosome – missing Identities in Society: with biological conditions- viewed as male and female -self-identified transgender -counterdicts biological sex at birth and gender identity given at infancy Fear and ignorance to diversity in gender- fuels discrimination to diversity in gender Sexual Orientation: refers to person’s habitual sexual attraction to, sexual activities with persons of the opposite sex- heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuality - Each hold different meanings/ different groups and individuals U.S. see it as fixed and biologically based sexual norms vary culture to culture -sex acts involving people of the same sex were absent, rare, secret in only 37 of 76 societies In others- various forms of same- sex sexual activity considered normal- acceptable Sudanese Azande Etoro of Papua New Guinea Flexibility in sexual expression seems to be an aspect of our primate heritage Ch. 10 Families, Kinship, and Descent Families: - Understanding a societies kinship system is essential part of anthropology - Descent group: group based on belief in a shared ancestry Nuclear Family: mother, father and biological children - Family of orientation: family in which one is born and grows up - Family of procreation: formed when on marries and has children o Most societies nuclear families take precedence over other kin Nuclear family- widespread, but not universal - Most societies- extended families are the primary unit of social organization - Muslims of Western Bosnia: Zadruga - Nayars of Masabar- Coast of India Joint Families: - Nalukettu- 4 blocks and central courtyard - Bangalore- 3 generations Industrialism and Family Organization -family of procreation living neolocally must prevalent residence pattern in North America - Neolocality: married couples may live hundreds of miles from their parents Extended family households- includes 3 or more generations - Stratified nations- value systems and kinship vary from class to class North American Kinship - Nuclear Families 21% - U.S. 2010 - Representation of women working is attributed to the rise in marriage age o 21 – 1970 o 26.5- 2011 o 1970-2010 divorce rate rose from 4.3 million to 23.7 million o Single-parent families- outstripped population growth o 51%- women – no spouse in 2005 o 35% - women – no spouse in 1950 o 49% - women – no spouse in 2000 Growing isolation from Kin contrasts significantly with Brazil Foragers - Nuclear Family and band o Two basic units of social organization o Nuclear families- more stable o Societies lack year- round band organization o Shoshoni Descent - Matrilineal descent- individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born - Patrilineal descent- individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born - Unilineal descent- descent rule uses one line - Lineage- unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent - Clan- descent group that claims common descent from a apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it ( stipulated descent) Descent Groups: - Permanent- enduring units- must keep some members at home- to endure - Establish rules about who belongs to the group and where they should live after they marry Ambilineal descent: people choose the descent group to which they belong - Membership achieved - Fluid - People can change descent group or belong to two or more groups at a time Patrilocality: married couples live with husband’s family- associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matriocality Matrisocality: married couples live with wife’s family- Matrilineal descent - Many societies- both families and descent groups - Obligations- one may conflict with another Matrilineal Societies- higher divorce rates and higher female promiscuity Kinship Calculation: how people in a society reckon their kin relationships - EGO: position one views an egocentric genealogy - Figure 10.6 – Kinship Symbols o Genealogy kin type- symbols used- kinship chart- EGO- YOU Genealogical kin types- relates to actual genealogical relationship (father’s brother- not uncle (kin term) Kin term- reflects social construction of kinship in a given culture Bilateral Kinship- people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal Kinship Terminology- classification system - Anthropology – limited patterns in classification of kin - Functional Explanation- can relate particular customs to other features of a society Native Taxonomy: - Developed over generations by people who live in a particular society o Linear kinship terminology four parental kin terms (M,F,FB-MB and MZ-FZ) - Lineal relative: ego’s direct descendent - Collateral relatives: relatives outside ego’s direct line EX) B,Z,FB,MZ - Affinals: relatives by marriage - Bifurcate merging kinship terminology: - -split mother’s side from father’s side, but also merges same- sex siblings of each parent o Associated with unilineal descent of unilocal residence Generational kinship terminology: - Same terms parents/ siblings - Lumping is more complete - M=MZ=FZ and F=FB=M - No distinguishing between mother and father side - Typical of ambilineal societies - Characters certain foraging bands Bifurcate collateral terminology: - Separate terms – each of the 6 kin types of the parental generation M,F,MB,MZ,FB,FZ o Not as common as other types o Many societies- North America and Middle East o First cousin- mother’s brothers son
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