Sociology: Family; Education; Religion; Politics & Economy
Sociology: Family; Education; Religion; Politics & Economy 1500
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by DawnManuelle on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1500 at Youngstown State University taught by Gregory C. Rocheleau, Ph. D. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology 1500 in Sociology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Introduction to Sociology 1500 Family Marriage Types of Marriage: Monogamy: marriage with one spouse Polygamy: marriage with more than one spouse types: 1. Polygyny: marriage of a husband to multiple wives 2. Polyandry: marriage of a wife to multiple husbands Cenogamy: group marriage Endogamy: marriage to someone with the same traits Exogamy: marriage to someone with different traits Families and Households Types: Nuclear Family -a family with two married adults which has one or more children -the quantity of the family decreased over years Extended Family -two or more generations living under the same household Family Household -a household involved of two or more people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption -a family could be married but it’s not necessarily Non-Family Household -a person who either lives alone or with someone who is not a relative -this commonly happens among young adults Cohabitation -(increasing in the United States) -couples living in the same house and bed without being legally married -used to be associated with lower education individuals but it has been common to a lot of people with higher education, too -WHY? To save money, challenge for marriage, benefits in the relationship Single-Parent Families -a family consists of a parent with one or more dependent children Step-Family -a family in which two adults are married or cohabitating and at least one of them has a child living together with them Blended Family -a family that involves some combination of children from either partner’s previous marriage along with one or more children from the current marriage or cohabitation Marital Status Trends Marital Status Trends: marriage has decreased, 70% to 52% over 50 years Decline in Marriage *Married couples *Ever married 20-24 yrs. old 60% were married (1960) 20-24 yrs. old 14% were married (2010) 25-29 yrs. old 84% were married (1960) 25-29 yrs. old 42% were married (2010) Deinstitutionalization of Marriage -Marriage is becoming deinstitutionalized. -weakens social norms with regards to marriage Factors: 1. Women since 1960 has done monarchy, joining the labor force. 2. Norms’ expectation by having children outside the marriage is weak. 3. Divorce rights from 1960-1980 increased. 4. Cohabitation increased. Divorce Trends Divorce Rate Divorce to marriage ratio *Crude Divorce Rate -in a given year the number of divorces per thousand of married people in the population *Refined Divorce Rate -similar to crude divorce rate -number of divorces per thousand of married people in a given year Violence and Abuse Types of Child Abuse 1. Physical 2. Emotional/Psychological 3. Sexual 4. Neglect Preference 1. About 15% of all children has been severely abused. 2. The most common child abuse is physical abuse. Consequences 1. Imperative ability 2. Ability to be violent 3. Develops cycle of violence Domestic Violence Main types of abuse: 1. Physical 2. Emotional/Psychological 3. Sexual Domestic Violence Occurs 1. Occurs in 20% of all marriage 2. Women are most likely reported as victims 3. Men are more likely not to inform that they are victims. 4. Females are most likely killed through homicides. Elderly Abuse 1. Physical 2. Emotional/Psychological 3. Sexual 4. Neglect 5. Financial *10% OF ELDERLY ARE REPORTED THAT THEY ARE BEING ABUSED. WOMEN ARE MOST LIKELY THE VICTIM. Education Education: Perspectives Perspectives on Education *Structural functionalist -“macro” to provide the individuals w/ the tools or skills needed to be a worthwhile individual of the society -vocational/non-vocational; specialized for what is what you want to do -provides a goal & function for the society *Conflict and Critical -Marx: about power; “Macro” -social reproduction: a systematic reproduction of class relations -education is used to exclude people from profession -“credentialing” the linkage between educational degrees in high status position w/ jobs - for example, universities have become for-profit industries instead of nonprofit -views of the world as a power struggle between have & have not’s *Symbolic Interactionist - “Micro” -happens between student & teachers, like gender inequality -self-identity is the social product; consequences of being labeled by anyone Education: Inequality Inequality in Schools Educational attainments and dropout rates Educational attainments: how far you would go in education? *Sex the following are based on the statistical study: -32.3% of females are most likely to attain bachelor’s degree -26.9% of males are most likely to attain bachelor’s degree - males are most likely to dropout to school *Race the following are based on the statistical study: -51.7% Asian-Americans received bachelor’s degree -34.6% White’s received bachelor’s degree -17.1% African-Americans received bachelor’s degree -15.2% Hispanic received bachelor’s degree *Asian-Americans has less dropout rates compared to American-African/ Hispanic based on the study *Social Class the following are based on the statistical study: High Socioeconomic Status -60% attains bachelor degree -0.3% dropout Low Socioeconomic Status -19.9% bachelor’s degree -7.3% drop out of high school Educational Achievement Sex research shows: -males have higher math scores compare to females -females have higher reading scores compare to males Race and Ethnicity research shows: -Asian and White students have higher reading and math scores than African-American/ Hispanic Social Class -Individuals who has high socioeconomic status background has higher reading efficiency compared to lower socioeconomic status background individuals Inequality Explanations Inequality in Schools *Explanation for group differences in educational achievement* Quality of Schools -offer great salary to get good teachers -has a good result in teacher’s evaluation -number of books required -includes the age of the facilities & buildings -includes the curriculum taken Research: *Only one of all factors that has been predicted was inequality *the quality of the school doesn’t matter that much Intelligence -put through in a book called “ The Belcher” -they argued that intelligence is it is what it is - they argued that intelligence is said that it is found since birth -they argued that intelligence is based on races/ social class -intelligence is a set/ fixed critics: their methods are flawed; their statistics is wrong - there’s a disagreement that intelligence is fixed - (intelligence predicts how well you’re in school but it’s not just the only factor) Family: based on environmental/experimental factors Parenting Practices: explains difference why there is inequality in social class status, and races & ethnicity -encouragement from the parents -variety of language -responsiveness to children’s request -uses questions instead of command Seasonal Learning -the differences between race & ethnicity, and social class in school expands -the social class’s gap grow at the same rate Education: Tracking Tracking: a particular academic pass for students; reading and mathematics Section of Tracks: arranged in on a particular trajectory based on level Meritocracy: the way we supposed to be; achieved positions; merit ideology: all people have an equal chance of success based on their hard work and skills Social Class: even when the test scores are the same, those from the higher social backgrounds are more likely to be put on high track -more opportunity to learn for individuals in higher social status -the parents of these individuals are more likely to spend time in school and has more knowledge Cumulative advantage: the process by which the most advantage individuals are awarded the best opportunities which leads to the greater inequality over time Education: Alternatives Alternative to traditional public schools voucher: government issued certificates that allow students to use public tax dollars to pay tuition at a public school homeschooling: parents educating children from home charter schools: largely privately operated schools Religion Religion: Perspectives Perspectives on Religion *Durkheim - -He examined “totemic” among the Australian and the originals; it was very anthropological argument: - it was easier to study the small group; the religion in its simplest form function: re-affirm the society through the interaction and rituals conclusion: symbolic societies worshiped themselves through religion “shopping for religion”- look around every religion that suits their style, needs or themselves *DURKHEIM HAS STRUCTIONALIST VIEW *Marx -famous quote about religion “religion is the opiate of the masses” -views a group w/ control (have’s) and doesn’t have control (have not’s), clashes -refer religion as a distraction * Weber -religion can affect the shape of societies’ structure -religion can shape individual characteristics -religion believed as the disenchantment of the world -the religion has become less and less part of society ex. Religion being removed from social institution of the society Religion: Components Components of Religions: *Belief -Sacred and Profane DURKHEIM DEFINED SACRED AS being an ultimate concern; holy/supernatural DEFINED PROFANE AS which is not sacred, or that which is ordinary and mundane DEFINED RITUAL AS served to connect sacred and profane *cosmogony: story of how wide the world is created; story of creation *Ritual: a set of regularly repeated proposed in traditional behaviors that served to symbolized some value or belief Rites of passage: surrounded by major life process Liminal period: (liminal theory) sort of in between; reality is delaying time while being connecting to the sacred and ritual *Experience -the belief practices give exceptional experiences Religion: Global Religions Popular Global Religions *Judaism -founded 2000 yrs. ago -13.4 million people in the globe -one of the smallest religion - vast majority of 13 million lives in North America - it has a great global significance *Hinduism -began between 800 & 200 BCE, has about 800 million followers in the world -vast majority in India -spread practices in the west like yoga, meditation *Buddhisth -6 century BCE in India -has 230-500 million people in the world -vast majority in Asia; China and Japan at most -mostly in Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam *Islam -founded by Mohammed between 570 & 632 CE; 1.6 billion that works out 25% in the world -fastest growing religion -vast majority in the Middle East and Africa -spread on the world beginning in Arabia Peninsula by attempt of Ideologist *Christianity -begins in Judaism about 2000 years ago -about 2.2 billion -1/3 of the world’s population Religion: Types of Organizations Sect: a small group of people who have participated the group involuntarily to have a personal religious experience Church: a large group of religiously oriented people that what one of them is usually born into Cult or new religious movement Cult: new innovative small voluntary in exclusive religious tradition that was never connected with any religious organization New religious movement: a movement that charm zealous religious converts follows charismatic leaders appeal to any typical portion of population -are characterized by the distrust of others prone to rapid primary changes -members in cult require a high level of commitment involvement Denomination: a religious group that is not link to the state exhibits, a general stir of tolerance in acceptance of other religious body -similar to churches Religion: Modernity Secularization: the defining significance of religion factors: Industrialization Governments Encouragement of religious tolerance higher industrialization in US Fundamentalism: a strongly believe in the fundamental or foundational ideas or beliefs of any religion and a rejection of the modern secular world Politics and Economy Politics and Economy: Political Systems Types of political systems: Democracy: a political system in which people has the right to vote to choose their leaders Representative Democratic: a political system in which people do not actually administrate themselves but rather have some declaration of who will best represent them. Republic: a representation democracy in which elective representatives vote on making of laws on behalf of the people Monarchy: a political system where there is one leader usually a single family rules from generation to generation -one of the oldest form of government Dictatorship: states who are totalitarian (absolute power) and ruled either by an individual or by a small group of individuals -have a power to rule without the consent of people -“fascism” control every little aspect of the nation; cult of masculinity Theocracy: under a religious institution Anarchy: no rule/ no government/ no political system Politics and Economy: Political Parties Multi-party System: a political system in which more than two parties enjoy public support and hold political office in a nation Single-Party System: a political system in which the ruling part outlaws or heavily restricts opposing party Two-Party System: a political system in which two parties hold nearly all positions of political power in a given nation *Republicans *Democrats Politics and Economy: Elections Voting Patterns Demographic differences: *those who are most likely to vote has higher income and education, older people and women *those who are most likely NOT to vote are unemployed and has lack of education Money: used to influence legislators and campaign “PAC’s”: Political Action Committees -private groups organized to events a given political perspective or candidate SUPER PAC’s: political committee that is donating big, big money “Soft Money”: a way to affect political process through monitory contribution through building especially around specific issues that do not fall. Politics and Economy: Types of the economic systems Capitalism: an economic and political system in which the means of production are privately owned Competitive Capitalism: a form of capitalism where there are a large number of relatively forms of firms Monopoly Capitalism: a form of capitalism in which a few large corporations monopolize the market Communism and socialism Communism: an economic and political system in which the state owns the means of production Socialism: an economic and political system in which there is no ownership of the means of production -share by all members of society Welfare States: states/ countries that seek both to run the economic markets efficiently as capitalism does but also run their economic markets equitably Politics and Economy: Industrialization Industrialization Process Industrialization: 19 century; industrial revolution; the rise of factories Industrial revolution Scientific Management: application of scientific principles and methods to management -“Taylorism” method:; organized system of production by increasing manufacturing process and breaking down duties Fordism and post-Fordism “Fordism”: the ideas, principles and systems made by Henry Ford and his associates(quantity over quality) “Post-Fordism”: production environment associated with larger flexibility and specialized (quality and so on) Deindustrialization: the decline in manufacturing as well as the increase providing services Factors: 1. Technology 2. Globalization Post-industrialism: a society that was once industrial but the focus has shifted from manufacturing to providing services Politics and Economy: Employment Employment Unemployment rate: being able and willing to work seeking employment but unable to get a job Discouraged workers: those who have sought work within the last year but have not sought work within the last 4 weeks Underemployment: employment in jobs that are beneath once straining ability -be involuntary part time worker -working in job not fully in time (seasonal)
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