Exam 4 Study Guide
Exam 4 Study Guide Hist 150
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Hamke on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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HISTORY 150 STUDY GUIDE, EXAM FOUR Ideologies of the NineteenthCentury UtopianSocialism (mainprinciples): People would live insmall, shared communities. Didn’t believe that a political power struggle was necessary. People ofall classed could adopt their ownplanofsociety. Robert Owenand New Harmony: Believed ina societybased on competitionand individualism. Creator of several experimentalcommunities. Wanted to introduce the idea ofbothcooperationand community. (Everyone owns everythingcollectively. Created sucha community in New Harmony, IN (turned out to be a failure). Karl Marxand Scientific Socialism (mainprinciples): Marxbelieved that the falling of government was the beginning ofa new age. Scientific Socialism was based on: o The scientific method. o The rise of socialism would emerge out of fallen governments. Eugene Debs: Creator of the AmericanSocialist Party in the U.S. Founded in Terre Haute, IN. Democracyand female suffrage: As time goes on more and more womenbecome interested inbeing able to vote. The vote had previouslybeenextended to a wider range of male, but womenstill could not vote. Around 1840’s womenbegin to get increasingly involved in pushing the suffrage agenda. ****Mostly womenofthe working class would become involved withpolitics. Separate spheres ideology: The concept that menand women naturally belonged to the particular spheres of their sex. o Men: work and politics. o Women: home and family. Seneca Falls Convention: Held in New York in1848. o Attended byLucretia Mott and Cady Stanton. Stanton= leader of women’s rights. 2-dayconventionthat discussed women’s rights and developments of resolutions. o Topics discussed: Equalitybefore the law for menand women. Equalparticipationof women inbusiness and professions. Extending the vote to women. Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst: Mother and daughter duo. Led manydemonstrations in efforts to gain suffrage for women. Very vocal and caused a lot of upset withthe law. Ended up in jail together over their efforts. Civil disobedience approach. Would often go on hunger strikes inprison. Led the Women’s Social and Political Union. Women's Social and Political Union: Led by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst. Organizationto gain support for women’s suffrage. Derby Day incident: Inefforts to promote the suffragette cause, Emily Wilding Davidson ranout to attacha banner to a horse and was runover. She later died from her injuries. Views of the natural world before Darwin: Idea that some advantages will help in the struggle for existence. o Favorable variations will help a species to thrive and evolve over time. Naturalselectiontakes place over time. o Inadequate species are weeded out for muchstronger counterparts. The voyage of the Beagle: Mission: “To go where no man has gone before”, or in this case, anyplace that wasn’t filled in ona map. A scientific expedition. Darwin invited to join by friend Captain Robert Fitzroy. Darwinspends 5 weeks studying various species in the Galapagos. Origin of Species: Darwin’s book published in1859. Highlights Darwin’s findings and ideas of natural selectionand its effects over time. Thomas Malthus: Wrote “AnEssayonthe Principle of Population” (1798) Darwin is fascinated bythis work. Naturalselection: The better species thrive and the weaker ones fall. Species develop ways of adaptationover time to fit into their surrounding inorder to survive. Alfred Russell Wallace: Scientist interested in the natural world. Had basically the same ideas as Darwin. Social Darwinism: The idea that naturalselectioncanapply to humanity. Herbert Spencer: idea of survivalof the fittest. The Roadto World War One New Imperialism: Great Britain was the model for imperialism (ie:India) Formal Empires: o Annexation Informal Empires: o Proctorate: leavinga ruler inplace, but ruling indirectly. o Sphere of influence: Signing treaties granting specific rights and powers. Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo Free State: Very interested in the resources ofthe Congo: o Diamonds o Coal o Rubber **Most important due to the rising popularityofcars and bicycles. Employed Henry Stanley to obtain territories and treaties in the Congo inorder to reap its benefits. o Created a lot of tensions between his companyand the French. Quinine and malaria: Malaria was a deadly disease amongthe soldiers in the Congo that was spread through mosquito bites. o Attacked red blood cells. o No wayof treatment at the time. Quinine provided a cure and prevention for Malaria in the Congo. Steamships: New ship designs meant powerful naval warfare. o Iron-hulled ships. o Steam war ships. Bigger and faster ships. The OpiumWar: War between British government and the Imperial Government ofChina. Chinese emperors and officials seize and destroytons ofopium in India. o Britishsend warships and fight withthe Chinese. Battle of Omdurman: Fight over treaties and territories. Britisharmed with machine guns against Africanarmies. Basically mow downall of the Africanarmies. Tons ofcasualties. Kaiser William II: Powerful emperor in Germany. Wanted Germany to have a strong naval power. Triple Alliance: (aka: The Central Powers) Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Triple Entente: (aka: The Allied Powers) France Russia Britain **Later included Italyand the U.S. Arms Race:(1880-1914) A race to develop a strong militarystanding. Development of standing armies and massive militaryexpenditures suchas new and faster navaldesigns. Military conscription: Professionalstandingarmies. World War One Archduke Francis Ferdinand: Assassinated byGavillo Princip in June 1914. VonSchlieffenplan: Called for immediate mobilization of German forces to quickly strike France. Idea ofa 2-front war betweenRussia and France. Allied Powers vs. Central Powers: **Refer to the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. Trench warfare: Started by the Germans. Veryclose together. Separated by “no man’s land”and barbed wire. Creates a stalemate. Battle of the Somme: Series of attacks by British and French forces on the Germans. Onlyallows Frenchand Britishto advance about 5 miles. Tons ofcasualties for no real improvement. Food and rationing: Germany has little food, start eating turnips. Institutes a rationing system. Creates substitute food knownas “ersatz”. Impact of World War One on Europeansociety: Many societies and economies fell after WWI. Russia experienced the most turmoil due to a brutally weak government and economy causing it to undergo numerous revolutions inefforts to remedy the situation. The RussianRevolutions andStalin Nicholas II and collapse of the Tsarist state: Nicholas II was head ofthe autocracy in Russia. o Autocracy:similar to a dictatorship, with unlimited politicalpower, however shares some formofcounsel witha Duma. Nicholas II makes several bad decisions suchas: o Involving Russian in WWI when few men had weapons. o Appointing himself as Commander in Chief. o Prohibitingthe sale of vodka. Caused the entire economy to collapse as it was the mains source of revenue for Russia. o Instituting a rationing system. o Stepped downas tsar even leaving Russia with no government at all. MarchRevolution: Started due to International Women’s dayonMarch8 . th o Thousands of womenbanded together to protest the conditions in Russia. Convince manyof the then to join inas well. Nicholas II sent in troops inefforts to quell the revolution. Some opened fire while others actually joined the demonstrators. March15 :Nicholas II abdicates and steps downas tsar. Provisional Government: Originally formed by members of the Duma. Meant to be temporary until elections could take place to elect members to runthe government. Wanted to create a more democratic government. Petrograd Soviet: Made up of various groups ofworkers who joined together to form “soviets”or counsels of representation. Manypeople considered these people to be the real government of Russia. V.I. Leninand the Bolsheviks: Lenin= Leader of the Bolsheviks. o Joined the RussianSocial Democratic Party. Bolsheviks (aka: “The MajorityMen”. o Received a majority in the Russiancongress and then proceeded to take over the government. November Revolution: OnNovember 6-7 of1917, the Bolsheviks seize power ofthe government. The Bolsheviks team up withthe Red Guard and raid the Winter Palace where the parliament was meeting and seize control. RussianCivil War: Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party. The Red v. White Forces. o Red Forces: Misfit army. Made of many members of the Red Guard and led by Trotsky. o White Forces: Group ofpeople that banded together over their hatred of the Communist Party. Later joined by manyof the Great Powers. Cheka: (Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counterrevolutionand Sabotage) Gave the Communist Partyexpanded powers. Could arrest and execute counter revolutionaries. Basically the Communist secret police. Control over a network ofprisonand labor camps. Lenin's “Last Testament’’: Lenindidn’t believe that Stalin was a proper candidate to run the Russian Government. o Believed that Stalin would become drunk withpower. Begs government not to appoint Stalin into office. JosephStalin: Raised funds for the Communists by robbingbanks. Appointed general secretary to the centralcommittee to the party. Works his way up through government and gains control. Wipes out his opponents byrewriting history. Five-Year Plans: Plan to make the Soviet Unionand industrial economy. o Created: Railroads Power plants Steel mills Focused on infrastructure and heavy industry. Gulag: Network ofprisonand labor camps. Used prisoners for labor on major constructionprojects suchas the White Sea Canal. Kulaks: Group of wealthypeasant farmers who resisted the idea ofcollectivization of agriculture. Collectivizationof agriculture: The idea of having farmers had over their land to the government in order to create one collective farming system to be shared byall. Would used science and technology to advance agriculture. The Great Terror: Many members were beginning to questionStalin’s reign. o His seat was up for reelection. o Stalin is furious. Decides to send in troops to arrest his opponents. Massive wave of arrests and executions of his opponents. ~7 millionwere arrested. ~1 millionwere executed. ¾ of the congress delegates were executed. The Rise of Hitlerandthe Nazi Party Weimar Republic: Feb. 1919: recentlyelected National Assembly met at Weimar to draw up a constitution for a New Germany. o Created a democratic republic. Beer Hall Putsch: Hitler tries to seize power throughand armed revolution in 1923. He is arrested and thrown in jail. Germanyand the Great Depression (1929): Germanemployment and production dropped by40%. Lots of politicalconsequence for Germanyand the government collapses. NaziPartysees an opportunity and begins to flourish. o Becomes one of the biggest politicalpowers in Germanyafter receiving 38% ofthe vote in government. ReichstagFire (1933): Germanparliament is set on fire. Hitler is convinced that this is a demonstrationby the Communist Party. Hitler uses this as fuel for his cause to take control ofthe government. Enabling Act (March1933): Gives political power to Hitler. o Control of legislation. o Budget for 4 years. o Ability to make amendments to the constitution. Law for the Reductionof Unemployment: Banned women from working in factories and mines. Way to make women stayat home in their own “sphere”. Law for the Preventionof Hereditaryand Defective Offspring: State sponsored programof sterilization ofpeople who were considered weak or unfit for reproduction. GermanMother’s Cross program: Gave crossed to German mothers honoring them for the number of children then have borne. Textbook Questions Karl Marx’s Theory of History (pp. 482-83) Marxbecame widelyknown in1848 after a wave of revolutions and violent confrontations proved his theory on historyand how the socialist ideals seemed naïve. Marxwas criticalof legalprivilege and legal repression. InParis, Marxstudies socialist theory, economics, and the historyof the French Revolution. o Also developed a partnership withEngels. Marxand Engels joina group ofradical artisans called the League of the Just. o League asked Marx to create a draft of its principles. Became known as the Communist Manifesto. Laid out Marx’s theories of history: o Historypasses through3 major stages characterized byclashes of social groups. 1) Master and slave inancient history. 2) Lord and serf in feudalism. 3) Bourgeois and proletariat in capitalism. Believed that as capitalism became more and more concentrated, wager workers would eventually become aware of their economic and political disenfranchisement. Predicted recurringeconomic crisis, caused bycapitalism’s need for constantly new markets and the instability caused byoverproduction. Social Darwinism(p. 565) Naturalselectionwas highly influenced by the socialsciences suchas: o Sociology, Psychology, Anthropology, and Economics. New ways of measuring, quantifying, and interpreting human nature. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) o Most famous Social Darwinist. Applied Darwinist concepts of individualcompetition and survival to relationships amongdifferent socialclasses, races, and even nations. “Survivalof the fittest.” o Condemned all forms ofcollectivismas primitive and counterproductive to society. o Believed that government’s attempts to fix social and economic problems only worked to hinder the advancement ofcivilizationas a whole.. Advancement could only occur through individualadaptationand competition. o People who supported the idea of laissez-faire capitalism and opponents of socialism highly supported these ideas and used them to justify a natural order of “richand poor”as well as a free and competitive market. o Manypeople used Darwinism to justify anadvancement of political objectives and back up prejudices regarding race. Atrocities inthe Congo (p. 535) Letter by George WashingtonWilliams (anAfricanAmerican) to KingLeopold that reported on the conditions ofthe Congo. o Highlighted the unjust conditions of the Congo. Stated how the government was upholding none ofthe intentions theysaid that theywere going to do suchas help and educated that natives. Stated instead how the government was oppressing the natives, harassing them, taking their lands, and using them for hard labor. Women in War(pp. 585—86) Women had begundoing the jobs ofthe men while they were awayat war. o Germany:1/3 of the workforce was female. o France:684,000 women worked in munitions. o England: Nearly1 millionwomenwere employed in the workforce. ***Women held positions such as school principles, mayors, and mail carriers; jobs previouslyonly accessible to men. Womenbecame nurses, ambulance drivers, and obtained medicalknowledge for treating injured soldiers. o Womenwere closer to the front lines. Many restrictions previouslyplaced onwomen were broken. o Womencould now go to restaurants without chaperones, walk the streets, and ride public transportationalone. Testament of Youth byVera Brittain o Recorded the new social norms that she and manyother womendeveloped during wartime. After the war menexpected to resume their jobs and force womenback to their ownsphere of home life and child rearing. o Many women refused to revert to ways of the past. Marie Stopes: o Opened a birth-control clinic in London in1921. Created more freedom for menand women in times ofeconomic hardship. Britain was the first to grant womensuffrage with the Representationofthe People Act in1918. th o The U.S. quickly followed suit withthe 19 amendment. o Followed by Germanyand the Soviet Unionsoonafter. o France was the last to grant womenany form of suffrage believing that women would only vote for candidates close to the Catholic church. Lenin’s Viewof a Revolutionary Party (p. 562) Leninbelieved that Russiansocialists needed to rethink the traditional views presented by Marx. o Argued that revolution needs a small, but dedicated group of revolutionaries to lead the workingclass. Argued that Social-Democracy was based off of the working class citizens. o Must educate the working class onpolitics so theycould develop a strong political conscious. Socialdemocracy represents the workingclass, not ina relation to given groups ofemployers, but to all the classes in regards to modernsociety in order to create a strongpolitical force. The Origins of the Great Depression(pp. 615—18) Instability of national currencies and the independence of nationaleconomies. Major drops inagricultural prices hurt many economies around the world. Drops in industrialproductivity. Higher restrictions on free trade. October 1929:prices in the New York Stock Market Exchange dropped dramatically. Banks were forced to close and millions ofpeople lost their jobs. o Productivity took a major halt. The U.S. suffered the most during this time, and Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed the New Deal in anattempt to rescue the nation. o New Deal: Aimed at getting the countryback to normal without destroying the capitalist system. Government would work to handle the economy, fund public works, and work to increase purchasingpower. U.S. also began regulating the value ofthe dollar to fit the needs ofthe economy. The New Deal, however, still did not solve the problems of unemployment of millions of people. Nazi Racism(pp. 613—15) Keep the strong, and kill the week. Favored the superior, but wanted ways to weed out who theyconsidered inferior. o Social Darwinism to feed their ambitions and justify their actions. Improving the humanrace byeliminating the unfit. Anti-Semitism towards Jews. Kristallnacht:(The Night of Broken Glass) o November 1938: Nazis attacked ~75 Jewishstores, burned 200 synagogues, and killed over 91 Jews, while injuring thousands.