STUDY GUIDE, EXAM FOUR
Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century
Utopian Socialism (main principles):
∙ People would live in small, shared communities.
∙ Didn’t believe that a political power struggle was necessary.
∙ People of all classed could adopt their own plan of society.
Robert Owen and New Harmony:
∙ Believed in a society based on competition and individualism.
∙ Creator of several experimental communities.
∙ Wanted to introduce the idea of both cooperation and community. (Everyone owns everything collectively.
∙ Created such a community in New Harmony, IN (turned out to be a failure).
Karl Marx and Scientific Socialism (main principles):
∙ Marx believed that the falling of government was the beginning of a new age. ∙ Scientific Socialism was based on:
o The scientific method.
o The rise of socialism would emerge out of fallen governments.
∙ Creator of the American Socialist Party in the U.S.
∙ Founded in Terre Haute, IN.
Democracy and female suffrage:
∙ As time goes on more and more women become interested in being able to vote. ∙ The vote had previously been extended to a wider range of male, but women still could not vote.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the four ps of a marketing mix?
∙ Around 1840’s women begin to get increasingly involved in pushing the suffrage agenda.
∙ ****Mostly women of the working class would become involved with politics.
Separate spheres ideology:
∙ The concept that men and women naturally belonged to the particular spheres of their sex. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the standard sop expression for segment d is?
o Men: work and politics.
o Women: home and family.
Seneca Falls Convention:
∙ Held in New York in 1848.
o Attended by Lucretia Mott and Cady Stanton.
▪ Stanton= leader of women’s rights.
∙ 2-day convention that discussed women’s rights and developments of resolutions. o Topics discussed:
▪ Equality before the law for men and women.
▪ Equal participation of women in business and professions.
▪ Extending the vote to women.
Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst:
∙ Mother and daughter duo.
∙ Led many demonstrations in efforts to gain suffrage for women. ∙ Very vocal and caused a lot of upset with the law.
∙ Ended up in jail together over their efforts.
∙ Civil disobedience approach.
∙ Would often go on hunger strikes in prison.
∙ Led the Women’s Social and Political Union.
Women's Social and Political Union:
∙ Led by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the study of energy and its transformations?
∙ Organization to gain support for women’s suffrage.
Derby Day incident:
∙ In efforts to promote the suffragette cause, Emily Wilding Davidson ran out to attach a banner to a horse and was run over. She later died from her injuries.
Views of the natural world before Darwin:
∙ Idea that some advantages will help in the struggle for existence. o Favorable variations will help a species to thrive and evolve over time. ∙ Natural selection takes place over time.
o Inadequate species are weeded out for much stronger counterparts.
The voyage of the Beagle:
∙ Mission: “To go where no man has gone before”, or in this case, any place that wasn’t filled in on a map. Don't forget about the age old question of What is a theory that places the sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it?
∙ A scientific expedition.
∙ Darwin invited to join by friend Captain Robert Fitzroy.
∙ Darwin spends 5 weeks studying various species in the Galapagos.
Origin of Species:
∙ Darwin’s book published in 1859.
∙ Highlights Darwin’s findings and ideas of natural selection and its effects over time.
∙ Wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798)
∙ Darwin is fascinated by this work.
∙ The better species thrive and the weaker ones fall.
∙ Species develop ways of adaptation over time to fit into their surrounding in order to survive.
Alfred Russell Wallace:
∙ Scientist interested in the natural world.
∙ Had basically the same ideas as Darwin.
∙ The idea that natural selection can apply to humanity.
∙ Herbert Spencer: idea of survival of the fittest. Don't forget about the age old question of The raf kinase activates what cascade?
The Road to World War One
New Imperialism: Don't forget about the age old question of It is a stage of transcription that promoters signal the initiation of rna synthesis?
∙ Great Britain was the model for imperialism (ie: India)
∙ Formal Empires:
∙ Informal Empires:
o Proctorate: leaving a ruler in place, but ruling indirectly.
o Sphere of influence: Signing treaties granting specific rights and powers.
Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo Free State:
∙ Very interested in the resources of the Congo:
▪ **Most important due to the rising popularity of cars and bicycles. ∙ Employed Henry Stanley to obtain territories and treaties in the Congo in order to reap its benefits.
o Created a lot of tensions between his company and the French.
Quinine and malaria:
∙ Malaria was a deadly disease among the soldiers in the Congo that was spread through mosquito bites.
o Attacked red blood cells.
o No way of treatment at the time.
∙ Quinine provided a cure and prevention for Malaria in the Congo.
∙ New ship designs meant powerful naval warfare.
o Iron-hulled ships.
o Steam war ships.
∙ Bigger and faster ships.
The Opium War:
∙ War between British government and the Imperial Government of China. ∙ Chinese emperors and officials seize and destroy tons of opium in India. o British send warships and fight with the Chinese.
Battle of Omdurman:
∙ Fight over treaties and territories.
∙ British armed with machine guns against African armies.
∙ Basically mow down all of the African armies. Tons of casualties.
Kaiser William II:
∙ Powerful emperor in Germany.
∙ Wanted Germany to have a strong naval power.
Triple Alliance: (aka: The Central Powers)
Triple Entente: (aka: The Allied Powers)
∙ **Later included Italy and the U.S.
Arms Race: (1880-1914)
∙ A race to develop a strong military standing.
∙ Development of standing armies and massive military expenditures such as new and faster naval designs.
∙ Professional standing armies.
World War One
Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
∙ Assassinated by Gavillo Princip in June 1914.
Von Schlieffen plan:
∙ Called for immediate mobilization of German forces to quickly strike France. ∙ Idea of a 2-front war between Russia and France.
Allied Powers vs. Central Powers:
∙ **Refer to the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.
∙ Started by the Germans.
∙ Very close together.
∙ Separated by “no man’s land” and barbed wire.
∙ Creates a stalemate.
Battle of the Somme:
∙ Series of attacks by British and French forces on the Germans.
∙ Only allows French and British to advance about 5 miles.
∙ Tons of casualties for no real improvement.
Food and rationing:
∙ Germany has little food, start eating turnips.
∙ Institutes a rationing system.
∙ Creates substitute food known as “ersatz”.
Impact of World War One on European society:
∙ Many societies and economies fell after WWI.
∙ Russia experienced the most turmoil due to a brutally weak government and economy causing it to undergo numerous revolutions in efforts to remedy the situation.
The Russian Revolutions and Stalin
Nicholas II and collapse of the Tsarist state:
∙ Nicholas II was head of the autocracy in Russia.
o Autocracy: similar to a dictatorship, with unlimited political power, however shares some form of counsel with a Duma.
∙ Nicholas II makes several bad decisions such as:
o Involving Russian in WWI when few men had weapons.
o Appointing himself as Commander in Chief.
o Prohibiting the sale of vodka.
▪ Caused the entire economy to collapse as it was the mains source of revenue for Russia.
o Instituting a rationing system.
o Stepped down as tsar even leaving Russia with no government at all.
∙ Started due to International Women’s day on March 8th.
o Thousands of women banded together to protest the conditions in Russia. ▪ Convince many of the then to join in as well.
▪ Nicholas II sent in troops in efforts to quell the revolution.
∙ Some opened fire while others actually joined the
∙ March 15th: Nicholas II abdicates and steps down as tsar.
∙ Originally formed by members of the Duma.
∙ Meant to be temporary until elections could take place to elect members to run the government.
∙ Wanted to create a more democratic government.
∙ Made up of various groups of workers who joined together to form “soviets” or counsels of representation.
∙ Many people considered these people to be the real government of Russia.
V.I. Lenin and the Bolsheviks:
∙ Lenin= Leader of the Bolsheviks.
o Joined the Russian Social Democratic Party.
∙ Bolsheviks (aka: “The Majority Men”.
o Received a majority in the Russian congress and then proceeded to take over the government.
∙ On November 6-7 of 1917, the Bolsheviks seize power of the government. ∙ The Bolsheviks team up with the Red Guard and raid the Winter Palace where the parliament was meeting and seize control.
Russian Civil War:
∙ Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party.
∙ The Red v. White Forces.
o Red Forces:
▪ Misfit army.
▪ Made of many members of the Red Guard and led by Trotsky.
o White Forces:
▪ Group of people that banded together over their hatred of the
▪ Later joined by many of the Great Powers.
∙ (Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage) ∙ Gave the Communist Party expanded powers.
∙ Could arrest and execute counter revolutionaries.
∙ Basically the Communist secret police.
∙ Control over a network of prison and labor camps.
Lenin's “Last Testament’’:
∙ Lenin didn’t believe that Stalin was a proper candidate to run the Russian Government.
o Believed that Stalin would become drunk with power.
∙ Begs government not to appoint Stalin into office.
∙ Raised funds for the Communists by robbing banks.
∙ Appointed general secretary to the central committee to the party. ∙ Works his way up through government and gains control.
∙ Wipes out his opponents by rewriting history.
∙ Plan to make the Soviet Union and industrial economy.
▪ Power plants
▪ Steel mills
∙ Focused on infrastructure and heavy industry.
∙ Network of prison and labor camps.
∙ Used prisoners for labor on major construction projects such as the White Sea Canal.
∙ Group of wealthy peasant farmers who resisted the idea of collectivization of agriculture.
Collectivization of agriculture:
∙ The idea of having farmers had over their land to the government in order to create one collective farming system to be shared by all.
∙ Would used science and technology to advance agriculture.
The Great Terror:
∙ Many members were beginning to question Stalin’s reign.
o His seat was up for reelection.
o Stalin is furious.
▪ Decides to send in troops to arrest his opponents.
▪ Massive wave of arrests and executions of his opponents.
∙ ~7 million were arrested.
∙ ~1 million were executed.
∙ ¾ of the congress delegates were executed.
The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
∙ Feb. 1919: recently elected National Assembly met at Weimar to draw up a constitution for a New Germany.
o Created a democratic republic.
Beer Hall Putsch:
∙ Hitler tries to seize power through and armed revolution in 1923. ∙ He is arrested and thrown in jail.
Germany and the Great Depression (1929):
∙ German employment and production dropped by 40%.
∙ Lots of political consequence for Germany and the government collapses. ∙ Nazi Party sees an opportunity and begins to flourish.
o Becomes one of the biggest political powers in Germany after receiving 38% of the vote in government.
Reichstag Fire (1933):
∙ German parliament is set on fire.
∙ Hitler is convinced that this is a demonstration by the Communist Party. ∙ Hitler uses this as fuel for his cause to take control of the government.
Enabling Act (March 1933):
∙ Gives political power to Hitler.
o Control of legislation.
o Budget for 4 years.
o Ability to make amendments to the constitution.
Law for the Reduction of Unemployment:
∙ Banned women from working in factories and mines.
∙ Way to make women stay at home in their own “sphere”.
Law for the Prevention of Hereditary and Defective Offspring:
∙ State sponsored program of sterilization of people who were considered weak or unfit for reproduction.
German Mother’s Cross program: Gave crossed to German mothers honoring them for the number of children then have borne.
Karl Marx’s Theory of History (pp. 482-83)
∙ Marx became widely known in 1848 after a wave of revolutions and violent confrontations proved his theory on history and how the socialist ideals seemed naïve.
∙ Marx was critical of legal privilege and legal repression.
∙ In Paris, Marx studies socialist theory, economics, and the history of the French Revolution.
o Also developed a partnership with Engels.
∙ Marx and Engels join a group of radical artisans called the League of the Just. o League asked Marx to create a draft of its principles.
▪ Became known as the Communist Manifesto.
∙ Laid out Marx’s theories of history:
o History passes through 3 major stages characterized
by clashes of social groups.
▪ 1) Master and slave in ancient history.
▪ 2) Lord and serf in feudalism.
▪ 3) Bourgeois and proletariat in capitalism.
∙ Believed that as capitalism became
more and more concentrated, wager
workers would eventually become
aware of their economic and political
∙ Predicted recurring economic crisis, caused by capitalism’s
need for constantly new markets and the instability caused
Social Darwinism (p. 565)
∙ Natural selection was highly influenced by the social sciences such as: o Sociology, Psychology, Anthropology, and Economics.
▪ New ways of measuring, quantifying, and interpreting human
∙ Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
o Most famous Social Darwinist.
▪ Applied Darwinist concepts of individual competition and survival to relationships among different social classes, races, and even
∙ “Survival of the fittest.”
o Condemned all forms of collectivism as primitive and counterproductive to society.
o Believed that government’s attempts to fix social and economic problems only worked to hinder the advancement of civilization as a whole..
▪ Advancement could only occur through individual adaptation and competition.
o People who supported the idea of laissez-faire capitalism and opponents of socialism highly supported these ideas and used them to justify a natural order of “rich and poor” as well as a free and competitive market.
o Many people used Darwinism to justify an advancement of political objectives and back up prejudices regarding race.
Atrocities in the Congo (p. 535)
∙ Letter by George Washington Williams (an African American) to King Leopold that reported on the conditions of the Congo.
o Highlighted the unjust conditions of the Congo.
▪ Stated how the government was upholding none of the intentions they said that they were going to do such as help and educated that
▪ Stated instead how the government was oppressing the natives,
harassing them, taking their lands, and using them for hard labor.
Women in War (pp. 585—86)
∙ Women had begun doing the jobs of the men while they were away at war. o Germany: 1/3 of the workforce was female.
o France: 684,000 women worked in munitions.
o England: Nearly 1 million women were employed in the workforce. ∙ ***Women held positions such as school principles, mayors, and mail carriers; jobs previously only accessible to men.
∙ Women became nurses, ambulance drivers, and obtained medical knowledge for treating injured soldiers.
o Women were closer to the front lines.
∙ Many restrictions previously placed on women were broken.
o Women could now go to restaurants without chaperones, walk the streets, and ride public transportation alone.
∙ Testament of Youth by Vera Brittain
o Recorded the new social norms that she and many other women developed during wartime.
∙ After the war men expected to resume their jobs and force women back to their own sphere of home life and child rearing.
o Many women refused to revert to ways of the past.
∙ Marie Stopes:
o Opened a birth-control clinic in London in 1921.
▪ Created more freedom for men and women in times of economic hardship.
∙ Britain was the first to grant women suffrage with the Representation of the People Act in 1918.
o The U.S. quickly followed suit with the 19th amendment.
o Followed by Germany and the Soviet Union soon after.
o France was the last to grant women any form of suffrage believing that women would only vote for candidates close to the Catholic church.
Lenin’s View of a Revolutionary Party (p. 562)
∙ Lenin believed that Russian socialists needed to rethink the traditional views presented by Marx.
o Argued that revolution needs a small, but dedicated group of
revolutionaries to lead the working class.
∙ Argued that Social-Democracy was based off of the working class citizens. o Must educate the working class on politics so they could develop a strong political conscious.
∙ Social democracy represents the working class, not in a relation to given groups of employers, but to all the classes in regards to modern society in order to create a strong political force.
The Origins of the Great Depression (pp. 615—18)
∙ Instability of national currencies and the independence of national economies. ∙ Major drops in agricultural prices hurt many economies around the world. ∙ Drops in industrial productivity.
∙ Higher restrictions on free trade.
∙ October 1929: prices in the New York Stock Market Exchange dropped dramatically.
∙ Banks were forced to close and millions of people lost their jobs. o Productivity took a major halt.
∙ The U.S. suffered the most during this time, and Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed the New Deal in an attempt to rescue the nation.
o New Deal: Aimed at getting the country back to normal without destroying the capitalist system.
▪ Government would work to handle the economy, fund public
works, and work to increase purchasing power.
∙ U.S. also began regulating the value of the dollar to fit the needs of the economy. ∙ The New Deal, however, still did not solve the problems of unemployment of millions of people.
Nazi Racism (pp. 613—15)
∙ Keep the strong, and kill the week.
∙ Favored the superior, but wanted ways to weed out who they considered inferior. o Social Darwinism to feed their ambitions and justify their actions. ∙ Improving the human race by eliminating the unfit.
∙ Anti-Semitism towards Jews.
∙ Kristallnacht: (The Night of Broken Glass)
o November 1938:
▪ Nazis attacked ~75 Jewish stores, burned 200 synagogues, and killed over 91 Jews, while injuring thousands.