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Chemistry 101 - Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Raquel Guerra-lewis

Chemistry 101 - Exam 3 Study Guide Chem 101

Marketplace > Washington State University > Chemistry > Chem 101 > Chemistry 101 Exam 3 Study Guide
Raquel Guerra-lewis
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

notes for everything in posted topic list for Exam 3
Chemistry 101
Dr. Michael Finnegan
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Chemistry 101

Popular in Chemistry

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raquel Guerra-lewis on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 101 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Michael Finnegan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 101 in Chemistry at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 11/17/15
Chemistry Exam 3 – Test Notes Intermolecular forces: London dispersion- all molecules Dipole-dipole- polar Hydrogen bonds- N-H, O-H, H-F bonds Ionic Bonds- cations and anions *C-H bonds are polar Kinetic theory of gasses: -a gas consists of many particles, either atoms or molecules moving around randomly with no attractive forces between them -the amount of space occupied by the gas particles themselves is much smaller than the amount of space between particles -the average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the kelvin temperature -collisions of gas particles, either with other particles or with the wall of their container are elastic; total kinetic energy of particles is constant Gas Laws: Boyle’s law: volume of a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature is inversely proportional to its pressure -volume and pressure change in opposite directions P1V 1k P 2 2K P 1 1P V2 2 Charles Law: volume of a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin in temperature. ???? = ???? ????1 = ????2 ???? ????1 ????2 Gay-Lussac’s Law: pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at a fixed amount of gas and a constant volume ???? ????1 ????2 = ???? = ???? ????1 ????2 ????1????1 ????2????2 Combined Gas law: ????1 = ????2 Liquids: Vapor pressure- PV=nRT V=Volume, T=Temperature, P=Pressure, n=moles, R=0.0820575 *Temperature must be in kelvin; °K=°C+273.15 Partial pressure- pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture ????????????????????????% P1= × ???????????????????? 100% Surface Tension- different forces experienced by molecules in interior of a liquid and those on surface Change of State: Heat of fusion- energy required to completely melt a substance ????????????/???? Heat(cal-J) = mass(g) × heat of fusion( ) ???? Heat of vaporization- energy required to vaporize a liquid ????????????/???? Heat(cal/J) = mass(g) × specific heat( ) ???? ????????????/???? Heat = mass(g) × temp(°C) ×specific heat( ) ???? Exothermic- pull heat out (cooling) Endothermic- add heat in (heating) Freezing-exothermic vaporization-endothermic sublimation- endothermic *stronger intermolecular forces = higher temperature for change of state Solutions: Solubility determined by 3 forces: 1. IMF in solute (broken) 2. IMF in solvent (broken) 3. Interactions between solute and solvent (formed) -Solids that are more soluble at high temperatures than low temperatures can form supersaturated solutions Supersaturated- more solute in solution than stable Saturated- dissolved solute in equilibrium with pure solute -solutes become more soluble as temperature is raised (if solid) -solutes become less soluble when temperature is raised (if gas) -gasses become more soluble when partial pressure of gas increases Henrys law: solubility of a gas is directly proportional to partial pressure of gas if temperature if constant ???? ????1 ????2 ???? ????????????= ???? ????1 = ????2 = ???? Concentration: Percent concentration: m/m = ???????????????? ????????????????????????(????)×100% ???????????????? ????????????????????????????????(????) ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? (????????) v/v = ×100% ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? (????????) ???????????????? ????????????????????????(????) m/v = ×100% ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????(????????) ???????????????? ????????????????????????(????) ppm = ×10 6 ???????????????? ????????????????????????????????(????) ppb = ???????????????? ????????????????????????(????) ×10 9 ???????????????? ????????????????????????????????(????) dilution: *amount of solute stays the same , only volume changes by adding more solvent # moles = Molarity(mole/L) × Volume(L) Moles of solute = M V = M V c c d d Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes: Strong electrolytes- substances that ionize completely when dissolved in water Weak electrolytes- substances that only partially ionize Nonelectrolytes- substances that do not produce ions when dissolved in water Colligative properties: -vapor pressure is lover for a solution than pure solvent -boiling point is higher for solution than pure solvent -freezing point is lower for solution than pure solvent -osmosis occurs when a solution is separated from the pure solvent by semipermeable membrane Osmotic pressure- the amount of pressure needed to reach equilibrium ???? (π) = (????)???????? Hypotonic- water passes through membrane into cell Hypertonic- water passes out of cell Acid/Base Definitions: Arrhenius(1887) + -acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H ) when dissolved into water -base produces hydroxide ions (OH ) when dissolved into water -neutralization reaction of acid and base yields H O 2 a salt Conjugate Base Pairs: - On opposite sides of equation + - Only differ by hydrogen ions (H ) Acid Strength: Strong acids (top 6) – give up protons easily – 100% dissociated Weak acids - Give up protons with difficulty - Less than 100% dissociated Strong base - Picks up protein easily Weak base - Has difficulty picking up proton Equilibrium reactions: c d K a (C) __(D) a b (A) (B) Auto-Dissociation of Water: pH = 7.00 -Defined as neutral Acidic/Basic/neutral salts: -if cation is weak acid, then salt will be acidic -if anion is weak base, then salt will be basic pH and pOH: ???????????????? pH = pk +alog ( ???????????????? ) pk = -log k a a Buffer solutions: solutions containing weak conjugate acid/base pair that resists changes to pH ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? pH = pk +alog ( ) ???????????????? pk a -log k a


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