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Unit 3 Study Guide

by: Alyssa Schutzenhofer

Unit 3 Study Guide PSY 101

Alyssa Schutzenhofer
GPA 3.5
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross

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About this Document

This is a bundle of all the powerpoint notes in pdf format. It covers all of the lectures for this unit, from finishing up long-term memory information all the way up to the attachment lecture.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 11/17/15
Unit 3 Study Guide Lecture 1 Transfer to LTM amp selfreference lab How quickly must we transfer things to longterm memory before it evaporates from shortterm memory consciousness o Shortterm memory lasts 18 seconds w out rehearsal Effective Encoding strategies 0 Categories vs counting consonants amp vowels categories wins because have to put more thought into it o Stopping and asking what something means Structural Task note pattern of consonants and vowels takes longer Semantic Task have to think about the word and make a decision produces better memory Depth Levels of Processing items thought about deeply remember better than those not thought about deeply Make more connections to existing content Craik amp Tulving Experiment Results when toberemembered information is thought about deeply memory is better 0 SelfReferent Encoding ex of elaborative encoding selfreferent encoding does this word describe me is deeper thinking than superficial encoding Eword so it leads to better retention 0 The intention to learn did not in uence the retention of the material only the ways people studied did 0 More elaborate encoding cues better than simple cued recall better than free recall Does Precision of elaboration matter 0 Imprecise Elaboration do not clarify the significance of the target word cane related to old enhance memory 0 Precise Elaboration clarify the significance of the target word top shelf not related to old impair memory Memory better when context in which you acquired the material is the same context in which you are being tested 0 Encoding Specificity match encoding amp retrieval cues o Encoding specific set of mental strategies frame of mind emotional state physiological state and location Retrieve memories by reinstating these encoding contexts Good Retrieval Cue 0 Strong preexisting associations 0 Cues based on meanings o Selfreferent episodic cues 0 Distributed compared to massed practice Forms of Amnesia o Anterograde Amnesia cant form new memories 0 Retrograde Amnesia impaired memory of past Three R s Read Recite Review Lecture 2 Social Psychology offers dating tips The Power of the Situation the effect of other people s words or actions on our thoughts feelings and behavior 0 Should you play pool in public I Good Players better w audience Bad players worse w audience 0 Social Facilitation amp Interference I Zajonc The Theory of Facilitation Physiological arousal amp type of task to reconcile contradictory results I YerkesDodson Law For a difficult task you need less arousal to make someone s performance increase or peak For an easy task you need more arousal to get peak performance I Cockroach experiment IV for running through a maze and trying to escape bright light maze complexity IV presence of audience with audience on the simple maze was helpful on the complex maze made it harder DV How fast did the cockroaches scurry When simple and watched went fast when complex w many roaches took longer when watched Ps the spectators had to be alive and of their own species to in uence the roaches I SUMMARY arousal makes it harder to do new or lesspracticed behavior Social Interference Arousal amp Attraction 0 Two key ingredients for attraction I Heightened state of physiological arousal I Belief that arousal was triggered by something 0 Twofactor theory of emotion I Arousal cognitive label emotion o Attribution of Arousal I IV Gender of Experimenter as participant walked the bridge were the approached by female or male research assistant I DV Did the stories contain sexual content When male participants more likely to call researcher for more info I When research assistant male no differences in sexual content or of phone calls on high or low bridge I Sexual content of stories in uenced by gender of research assistant female only and location of interaction arousing location I Arousing location significantly more calls to female researcher only I Period of 5 minutes for date to attribute any arousal to you and not the actual source roller coaster o Mere Exposure I More attendance greater liking even though no interaction I Frequency breeds familiarity familiarity breeds likeability o Similarity or Complementarity I Complementarity opposites attract I Similarity similarity promotes liking I Successful relationships more likely w similarity Lecture 3 Cognitive Dissonance amp The Social Balance Lab Social Psychology unconscious ways in which the social world shapes how we act and think 0 Attitudes beliefs amp feelings that predispose our reactions to objects people and events 0 Festinger amp Carlsmith spool and pegs task I DV ratings of enjoyable for the dull tasks I Those who were paid 1 found the tasks for more enjoyable and would participate again because when important behavior and thoughts are inconsistent cognitive dissonance occurs Cognitive Dissonance unpleasant emotion that is felt when actions don t line up with beliefs When we are induced to say something we don t believe we are more likely to change our beliefs to correspond with the action 0 The condom experiment people forced to tell how often they use condoms and told the risks associated Implications The more you are forced to confront the discrepancy between your beliefs and behavior the more dissonance you feel the more dissonance motivated to change behavior 0 Cognitive dissonance successfully applied to eating disorder prevention dissonance induction forecasted improvement of the thin ideal o 3 Ways to REDUCE dissonance I Change your behavior to fit tour attitudes I justify the behavior I Change your attitudes to fit the behavior Effort justification an application of cognitive dissonance theory 0 Effort expended is more than the value of being part of the group cognitive dissonance you cant change behavior because of the group then you must change your attitudes o Newcomb politically conservative women who went to liberal college became more liberal because the sought balance in their lives and became more like the campus which was liberal if they stayed conservative more likely to be socially exiled I Kinds of people we surround ourselves lasting impact on attitudes Lecture 4 Face Recognition amp False Memory 7 Sins of Memory ways that our longterm memory lets us down 0 Errors of Omission forgetting retrieval difficulties omit details I 1 Longterm memory is Transient lose memory over time when not rehearsed I 2 Absentmindedness everyday failures of memory I 3 Blocking temporary loss of info 0 Errors of Commission bias reconstructions false memories distortions I 4 Bias knowledge and beliefs distort past memories and in uence current and future judgments I 5 Suggestibility info provided by other incorporated into own recollection of event I 6 Persistence memories that we cannot forget even if we wish we could I 7 Misattribution attributing events to an incorrect source or context 0 False Memory Experiment I Associative Memory falsely recall words that are semantically related I The wording of the questions posed after the accident Reconstructive Memory 0 Signal Detection Theory isolates source of memory failures person faces stimulus and a distraction that is similar to the stimulus then asked to decide if there was a signal or not I EX of Signal Detection Traffic Control Tower planes going to crash Xray Exam cancer Radar Operator that an enemy Hearing Test beep or ringing ear I Perceptual Sensitivity detect signal in the presence of noise I Response Bias misattribution cognitive bias 0 Familiarity Effect people who view the same foils on the second day will have worse discrimination than those that have different foils I Error in source monitoring is when there is misjudgment of the foils I The Most Wanted Experiment On day 1 there was a high hit rate and low false recognitions rate on day two the false alarm rate was significantly higher Lecture 5 The Power of the Situation Social Norms beliefs of a group about how member should behave in a given context unwritten rules 0 There are social norms in roles family life and medicine Broken Windows Crime Theory when there are signs of blight then it seems that law and order are not normal and that lawbreaking is normal Crossnorm inhibition negative effect of observing others violations of norms on your own behavior Conformity tendency to adopt behaviors attitudes amp values presented by others make changes to fit in any behavior that comes from the in uence of others 0 Compliance 0 Obedience is situational power following directions of an authority figure I Milgram s teacher and learner experiment Majority of people continued shocking I The Lucifer effect Those given a role become the role Implicit Assumption The people we obey have legitimate authority Lecture 6 What is your personality Cognitive Approach how cognitive structures in uence how information is processed and creates personality Trait Approach what are the most important personality traits The Big 5 Factor Analysis statistical technique that tells you how closely things are related which cluster together The Big Five 0 Openness to Experience original comes up with new ideas curious o Conscientiousness thorough job reliable worker o Extraversion Inversion Is full of energy assertive and the opposite of that o Agreeableness helpful amp unselfish trusting o Neuroticism Emotional Stability Worries a lot moody Limitations of Trait Approaches o No mechanism for behavior no description for how a trait leads to more of that behavior No Trait Therapy 0 In different situations the consistency of the behavior is very low so traits can not predict behavior in certain situations Lecture 7 Attachment is a basic need Classical Conditioning Cupboard Theoryquot explanation of attachment 0 Attachment is learned being close to parents is associated with feeding and feeding produces positive affects so being close to parents positive affect o This explanation does not fit the data Evidence for Biological Need for attachment 0 Monkeys formed attachment to pads even though they didn t provide food Need for attachment separate from need for necessities IV Conditions of Feeding metal or cloth mother DV time spent on surrogate mother Cloth mother preferred OOOO Conclusion contact comfort of great importance lactation unimportant Attachment provides comfort and reduces fear Less fear in presence of cloth mothers Isolation socially incompetent difficulty mating aggressive or cant defend self behaviors suggest psychopathology bad parents when grown up Attachment Styles I Securely Attached protest and unhappy without parent present I Insecurely Attached Anxious not easily soothed by parent I Insecurely Attached Avoidant little or no distress without parent and when they returned


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