NTC 362 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment- Protocol Paper - Copy
NTC 362 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment- Protocol Paper - Copy
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Fundamentals of Networking 1 Fundamentals of Networking NTC/362 Fundamentals of Networking 2 Fundamentals of Networking Network communication is vital to any organization that is trying to conduct any type of business, but a lot of people fail to realize all the vital components that must work together in order to make this work. This is why it is important to know the OSI model is constructed and how data moves up and down this stack. However, there are other components that are just as important such as, TCP/IP, circuit and packet switching, and the major protocols that circuit and packet switching use. These processes are truly important because without them the way we communicate today would not exist. With that said let’s take a look and see how this information travels by means of the OSI model. Describe the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model. Open System Interconnection or OSI remains the universally accredited outline for principles in communicating midst diverse systems manufactured by dissimilar vendors. The objective of OSI is to create an uncluttered working situation, which every manufacturer’s PC, linked toward every network so data can remain shared with any additional computer on or off the network. Most dominate protocols used currently need a configuration within them established on the OSI. The, “OSI is a model and not an actively used protocol with very few OSIbased products on the market today however they have a specific structure” (Stergiou, Leeson & Green, 2004). The first physical layer is the ability to send data over lines; examples would be Tcarrier and SONET. The second would be the data link layer through processes and protocols in place designed for the operation of the communication lines. It can as well find and correct Fundamentals of Networking 3 communication errors, examples would be frame relay, point to point. ATM also runs in layers one and two also. The third layer is the network layer that regulates how the data transfers among computers. It also uses routing among individual networks. Layer four is the, “transport layer that outlines the rules for information exchange and manages end to end delivery of information within and between networks, including error recovery, and flow control” (Stergiou, Leeson & Green, 2004). TCP is an example of the transport protocol that encompasses layers on its own. Layer four protocols ensure end to end integrity of the data in session. Layer five is the session layer using dialog administration, managing the process of the communication ability with the transport protocol. Layer six is the presentation layer delivering clear communication amenities by screening modifications of wavering data designs, like character codes between different systems. Text compression and decompression exemplify the presentation layer functions. Layer seven is known as the application layer and holds tasks for specific application requests “Some examples that take place at the layer seven layer are, file transfer, remote file access, and virtual terminals. TCP/IP protocols such as FTP, SMTP, SNMP, and TELNET” (Stergiou, Leeson & Green, 2004). The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Now that we have covered the OSI model we can take a look at the TCP/IP protocol. The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or otherwise known as TCP/IP plays a vital part in computer communications over the web and with each other. There are two parts to the TCP/IP, which are Transmission Control Protocol the TCP and Internet Protocol the IP. The Following is the construction of a TCP/IP packet: Fundamentals of Networking 4 Though TCP and IP protocols work together to provide computers a way to communicate they both act in different ways to get the job done. Let’s examine each protocol and rate them from one to five in the following areas with five possessing the top rating: Performance Speed End to end reliability each The first part of the TCP/IP stack is the IP protocol. The IP protocol works in the network layer of the OSI model, it is responsible for the end to end transmission, the maximum packet size is 65535 bits, and the IP packet will fragment of it is too large. The IP protocol is responsible for the end to end communication of the TCP packet because it holds the destination IP and source IP information. The IP packet is the taxi driver for the entire TCP/IP packet; the user only hopes that it does not get lost. When an IP packet becomes “lost” the main reason is that it was too large. When this happens the packet will fragment or split up make it through the data link layer. The packet can become corrupted, Fundamentals of Networking 5 duplicated, delivered out of order or can become lost. This is because it does not use the three way hand shake to communicate and has no way of telling what packets are missing or corrupted. So based on this information lets rate this protocol: Performance = 3 Speed = 4 End to end reliability = 2 The IP protocol is not the most reliable protocol. This is why TCP is actively used in conjunction with IP protocol. The major issue with the TCP protocol is that it does not contain any of the source or destination data and cannot be routed by itself. This is why the IP protocol needs to be involved contains the information for the destination. The TCP protocol has a large amount of overhead, which means it can take longer to establish a connection. This is because the TCP protocol is connectionoriented and uses the three way handshake to establish a connection with another system. The Three way hand shake is as follows: A SYN is sent to system B to initiate a connection System B responds with a SYN/ACK to system A System A responds with a ACK to system B The connection will be established Once the connection is established between two systems the information sent is guaranteed to reach its destination. This is possible with the use of the checksum, which detects error codes. The TCP protocol is awesome for downloading and uploading information because it is fast and it provides a way of checking to see if the data has been received. It would stink if a Fundamentals of Networking 6 user went to download a song it and kept skipping because of missing packet information. This protocol prevents that from happening. So based on this information lets rate this protocol: Performance = 5 Speed = 4 End to end reliability = 5 This protocol seems to be the “answer all” too every communication type on a network; however, in this case this is not true. If the user were going to use this same protocol to stream media the rating would be as follows: Performance = 1 Speed = 1 End to end reliability = 1 The rating went down because the amount of data that streaming media carries is massive. This would slow down the streaming rate because the TCP connection would have to establish each time a packet was sent over to the user’s computer. This would take forever and user would not be able to watch the program or listen to any music. The Bottom line is that IP alone is not the best thing and TCP would not know where to go if it were used just by itself. This is why TCP/IP together is the best choice concerning connectionoriented communications. When using a protocol just remember that the performance, speed, and end to end reliability depend on the application that it being used for because what works good for download may not working very well for streaming media. Advantages and Disadvantages of Circuit Switching and Packet Switching Fundamentals of Networking 7 As you can see the TCP/IP protocol plays a vital rule in how information is transferred across a network, now let us take a look at how Circuit and Packet Switching effected this communication. The advances in switching technology has for over 100 years been one of the largest determining factors in advancing communications technology. Though many switching techniques have been invented in this time, all can be broken down into two primary groups: The old and faithful circuit switching technologies and the quickly developing packet switching technologies. When trying to determine which technology is best, it quickly becomes apparent that neither is a clear winner, and that both technologies have a great deal of advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. Below is a look at both. Circuit switching has been the goto standard for telecommunications from inception, and it currently remains the champion of realtime communications. “Circuit switching comes in multiple flavors including spacedivision switching; timedivision switching; timespacetime switching, which is a combination of the prior two; frequency switching; frequency division switching; and wavelength division switching” (Farahmand & Zhang, 2007), but all of them share these common advantages. Once a route is established across nodes, and a connection is made, the connection remains until disconnected. This has two primary implications. One is that there is no storage needed anywhere between the two endpoints of the connection, because all singles pass directly from one end to the other with no buffers needed anywhere in between. The other is that once the connection is established delays are minimal, and the quality of service and predictability are very high. With the primary advantages of circuit switching established, it should be highlighted that one is a double edged sword. The dedicated connection is wonderful, but for data traffic, Fundamentals of Networking 8 which is often referred to as bursty, it can be less than ideal. The dedicated connection means that all resources along its path are reserved for the single communication regardless of utilization. So even when the line is quiet or there is no data traffic, resources are still being used. The result of bursty data traffic is low utilization, and therefore a waste of resources. Packet switching is to data, what circuit switching is to voice. Though either can be used to do either, this comparison is the common divider separating the two. As with circuit switching there are a variety of methods used for packet switching, though packet switching can be further divided into two groups: connectionless packetswitched networks and connection oriented packetswitched networks. The first is primary occupied by TCP/IP networks, the foundation of the Internet, and the second group is occupied by X.25, Frame Relay, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networking techniques. All of these techniques share a common advantage. All packet switched techniques break data down into manageablesized chunks called packets. Packets are only sent when there is need, and they have a means of finding their way across a network without the need of a constant connection. The result is very efficient use of network resources. It should be noted that it is how packets find their way across a network that defines the two groups and what offers each their unique advantages. TCP/IP is a very important packetswitching technique, and it will be covered indepth below. Also for the sake of keeping this paper a reasonable length all connectionoriented techniques will be covered as a group, as they all share the same primary advantages and disadvantages. Connectionoriented packetswitching techniques use a common system of directing packets. According to (Goleniewski 2007), “In connectionoriented techniques only the first Fundamentals of Networking 9 packet contains routing information and all subsequent packets fallow the same route, which is taking plays right out of the circuit switching playbook.” It is perhaps because of this more than anything else that connectionoriented techniques are beginning to encroach on circuitswitched territory concerning predictability and quality of service. Also with less processing required on each packet, latencies, the Achilles heel of packetswitched networks, are greatly reduced compared to connectionless networks. That is not to say that because latency is lower, connectionoriented networks do not still suffer from jitter, which refers to the slowing and speeding up of data as it travels through the network. On the contrary, all packetswitched architectures suffer from this to some extent, as it is unavoidable when at each node a packet is stored before it is forwarded. One thing that we can all agree on is that fact that circuit and packet switching are very important, but now we need to find out what make this vital technology work. Identify major protocols for circuit switching and packet switching. Circuit switching is a method of implementing a communication network in which two nodes establish a dedicated circuit through a network before the nodes can communicate. The circuit is guaranteed full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected during the session. Both individuals on the call session have the full use of that circuit until one party disconnects the talk session. Circuit switching can have one downfall and that can be the cost. This circuit can be expensive in price for the privacy it provides. Virtually voice telephone calls remain circuit switched as well as dial up modems. Circuit switching has a bit delay, which is constant during the connected call while providing a dedicate path. With packet switching data is sent through a Fundamentals of Networking 10 network to remote locations. “The data that is being sent is assembled by the PAD (Packet Assembly Disassembler) into individual packets of data, involving a process of segmentation of segmentation or subdivision of larger sets of data as specified by the native protocol of the transmitting devise.” (Colizzi, 2008). There are two ways of making a call. The most common would be dialing the telephone. The local switch finds an unused path to the individual being called, and the call’s joined. During the conversation the circuit is totally private. Packet switching is different in the way that conversation can be by voice, video, or data. Each packet stands specified with a unique identifier and transmits its own endpoint as of where it is traveling. Each packet may go a different route. Packets arrive in different order; sequencing of the data and reassembling in the proper sequence is packet switching. Packet switching is the way that the Internet works while sending and receiving information. In conclusion, with all the components that are used in communication it is truly amazing to see all of them work together. From the OSI model to the protocols that are used to move data across the internet to a distant network. These components all provide a vital piece of the puzzle in the way that data and information is transported. Though there are some protocols and processes that are better than others, they provide everyone that uses the internet or other network systems the same result and that is the ability to communicate. Fundamentals of Networking 11 References Stergiou, T., Leeson, M. S. & Green, R. J. (2004, March 2). An alternative architectural framework to the osi security model. Computers & Security, 23(2), 137–153. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from http://www.mendeley.com/research/alternativearchitectural frameworkosisecuritymodel/ Farahmand, Dr. F, and Zhang, Dr. Q (2007) Circuit Switching. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from http://web.ccsu.edu/technology/farahmand/ccsu/courses/cet543/resources/ch69_circuit_s witcing.pdf Goleniewski, L. (2007). Telecommunications essentials. (2nd ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson. Colizzi, E. (2008, July 21). Driving innovation in optical networking: 30 years of research and development results from circuit to packet transport. Fiber and Integrated Optics, 27(4), 161175. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from http://www.mendeley.com/research/driving innovationopticalnetworking30yearsresearchdevelopmentresultscircuitpacket transport/ Fundamentals of Networking 12 Fundamentals of Networking 13 References T. Stergiou, (., M.S., L., & R.J., G. (2004). An alternative architectural framework to the OSI security model. Computers & Security, 23137153. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2003.09.001
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