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Study Guide 2

by: Sergio Castro Rachmacy

Study Guide 2 KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance

Sergio Castro Rachmacy

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About this Document

Here is a study guide with most of the answers from the guide on Blackboard for exam #2.
Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance
Wesley Smith
Study Guide
Study Guide, Exam 2, Heart, Diabetes, Obesity, Osteoporosis, diseases, nutrition, KIN 202
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sergio Castro Rachmacy on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 270 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 03/31/16
1. Coronary Artery Disease Blood clots Takes years to develop Body develops alternate blood vessels Can be reversed through healthy eating, as well as exercising Carriers of cholesterol There is only one type of cholesterol VLDLs (Lipoproteins) Deliver lipid to the body May become HLDLs Opposite of the LDL Take fat out of the artery and into the liver LDLs ("bad") Deliver fat throughout the body Accumulates in undesired areas If it is 5% smaller, it has a 50% increased risk of contributing to artery disease The small ones are really bad High sugar diets make really small LDLs Gets through a damaged area of the wall Damage comes from High blood glucose High blood pressure Inflammation Chemicals released during inflammation cause damage Reduced by plants, omega 3s, exercise Adhesion molecules result due to the blood vessel damage, making it sticky When fat is left out somewhere it turns rancid (gets oxidized) and macrophage consumes it, becoming filled with pus Atherosclerosis plaques Rupture causes heart attack 2. ABCs of Prevention for Heart Disease Aspirin Lowers inflammation (weight loss, exercise and plants also lower inflammation) Blood pressure medication (exercise on a daily basis serves as a substitute, fiber, omega 3s) Cholesterol-lowering medications Side effects Lower vitamin d levels Free radicals Muscles more prone to be sore after working out Don't smoke, vitamin D Exercise Fish oil, folate Glucose-control medication Polypill A,B,C,G Anti-inflammatory foods Hot peppers and hot sauce Resveratrol Apples Blueberries and grapes Wine is the best source Also lowers blood clotting Garlic and onions Contain a chemical similar to aspirins called allycin Ginger Wasabi Black and green tea Two cups of green tea is the same as walking 2 extra miles a day or burning 200 calories Apples Quercetin Helps wake people up Tomatoes Better when cooked 3. CAD Risk factors HDL 60 or more subtracts one risk factor Family history First degree relative Male: before 55 Female: before 65 Smoking Benefits found in a matter of days after quitting 140/90 blood pressure on 2 separate occasions in a doctor's office High cholesterol: low HDLs, high LDLs Fasting glucose BMI over 30, waist circumference over 40" males, 35" females Inactive lifestyle 4. Minimum requirements to not be considered inactive or sedentary 150 minutes a week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous activity For additional benefits 300 minutes a week of moderate exercise 5. Exercise Allows arteries to become larger Causes collateral circulation angiogenesis Lowers inflammation Increases HDL 6. Capsaicin, resveratrol, diallydisulfide, curcumin, catechins 7. Omega 6s are used to help increase white cell movement through the blood. Omega 3 is the opposite. Corn and soybean oil, besides being GMOs, are fed to animals 1:1, 4:1 omega 6/omega 3 ideal ratio 8. The natural weight of a person regulated by the hypothalamus as well as genetic feedback from fat cells. 9. Ages 0-1, 3-5, adolescence Stages where fat cell numbers are established 10. First On, Last Off Theory Spot reduce fat cannot be done 11. The Thrifty Genotype is a theory that states that the cause of obesity in western society is the evolution of the metabolism due to periods of feasting and famine. Fat would be stored during periods of famine in order to survive. 12. Fructose, alcohol, stress. 13. Metabolic syndrome High waist circumference High triglycerides Low HDLs High blood pressure Elevated blood glucose 3 of these 5 syndromes make up 2400% increased risk of T2DM 50% of 50 year olds suffer from it 14. Measures CAD risk of an individual. 15. 115/75. Every 20 SBP points higher and every 10 DBP points higher doubles the risk of CAD. 16. 17.Exercise can take a person from Stage 1 to Prehypertensive 20 minutes can reduce blood pressure for 8 hours Phytochemicals, purples and greens, plant-based diet reduce blood pressure 1kg of weight loss is equivalent to a 5 point reduction in blood pressure 18. Fruits and vegetables, low sodium, low saturated fat, tea; reduces hypertension. 19. Elevated homocysteine (amino acid) are linked to heart disease High meat diet and low plant intake increases homocysteine levels 20. If people don't smoke, BMI under 30, eat 5 fresh fruits and vegetables and exercise at least 150 minutes a week for four years reduce cardiovascular disease by 40%. 4 things for 4 years 40% 21. Lifestyle change is more effective than prescription drugs. To prevent 1 case of diabetes in 3 years, 6.9 pre-diabetics would need to enroll in a lifestyle intervention program, or 13.9 pre-diabetics would need to take medication 22. Type 1 Insulin need Type 2 Not responding to insulin 23. Eat breakfast to curb midnight feast Protein and fiber-rich Nutrient density Fruits and vegetables Avoid processed carbs if no exercise Stay hydrated Carbohydrates should not exceed 45% of diet Replace fat with protein to increase thermic effect of food Consume 500 calories less Eat with no distractions (no TV, newspaper, phone, tablet) 20 minutes a day on stress reduction Lowers cortisol levels Frequent small amoprotein throughout the day Lean body mass Feel full Lose weight 24. A calorie is the amount of heat to increase 1kg of water at 1˚C 25. There are 3500 calories in one pound of fat 26. Body weight * 11 = RMR RMR * 1.25 = non exercise energy expenditure 175*11*1.25=2400 *1.5 activity factor 3600 Goal=1lb per wk 4wks=171lbs TDEE=3600 per day 1lb per wk = 4 wks 175-171lbs M T W R F S S Exercise x x 400 x 100 x 300 calories Diet 3100 3100 3500 3100 3200 3100 3300 Deficit -500 -500 -500 -500 -500 -500 -500 -3500 Increase protein 5x per day Increase fiber Satiety Increase metabolic rate 3.6L of water per day Decrease processed carbs fructose Drink a lot of water Helps aid satiety Stress reduction Sleep At least 6 hours (8 preferable) Eat breakfast 27. Increased eating Increased weight lifting Cycle training Decreases sensitivity Sensitivity factor Someone who hasn't been exposed to weights will get results faster compared to someone who performs it routinely High volume weight training mainly focused on muscle mass Increase calories by 400-500 a day Starchy vegetables and high quality meats 1.6-1.8g of protein per kgbw Whey protein Sugar and proteing together 30 minutes after workout Fruit and greek yogurt smoothie 0.1g of creatine monohydrate after workout Beta Alanine and HMB Sleeping 8 hours a day Alcohol abstinence Optimal hydration Alter weight train program 28. Milk Whey and casein Chocolate milk has a 3/1 CHO to protein ratio Organic soy milk Nearly a complete protein Leucine Raises hormone level Too much may cause cancer 1.5g CHO per kgbw and .5g PRO per kgbw HMB Grapefruit and Catfish Leucine metabolite Increases protection against muscle breakdown May stimulate protein synthesis Creatine 1 week of loading 15-25g per day After loading: 0.1g per kgbw-d after exercising Greatly enhances recovery Beta Alanine Combined with histidine makes carnosine Root starchy vegetables Nutrients and glycogen carbohydrate replacements 29. Anti-Cancer Diet Lowering metabolism (caloric intake) Leptin increases angiogenesis, which reduces cancer risk Fruits and vegetables 10 servings of vegetables a day Can be met by juice, but it's not the same without fiber High fiber diet No refined sugar and flour Sugar feeds tumors Sugar and insulin are the highest No red meat or processed meat High folic acid and vitamin B12 Rich in antioxidants Red meat and processed meat Higher risk of cancer Increased risk of mortality Make less carcinogenic Eliminate HCAs by microwaving for 2-3 minutes before grilling Clean the grill to get rid of all the tar No well done ore charred steak Consume with green leafy vegetables High IGF1 leads to cancer 30. Angiogenesis New blood vessels (See 32) 31. Blocked angiogenesis prevents blood vessels from feeding microscopic cancer. 32. 32.1. Quercetin, lutein, zeaxanthin 32.2. Sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol, carotenoids 32.3. Selenium, Alicin 32.4. Anthocyanins 32.5. Anthocyanins, ellagic acid, flavanoids 32.6.Beta carotene, lutein, lycopene and carotenoids 32.7. Catechin, curcumin, diallydisulfide, capsaicin, gingerol 33. Calcium, phosphorous and magnesium make up bone density. 34. 1300mg is the daily recommended intake of calcium for adults 35. Bone density increases most from age 3-late puberty. More than 1/3 of adult bone mass is acquired during adolescence. By age 20 a daughter will have attained 90% of her mother’s height and bone mass 36. Diet in midpuberty and sedentary activity in prepuberty predict peak bone mass. 37. GLVs Broccoli, collards, grape leaves, kale, edamame 38. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average) as measured by DXA. 39. Death results one year after a fracture. 40. 1 of 2 women will suffer from an osteoporotic fracture after age 50. 41. 50% of children get 400mg of calcium per day. 42. Female Athlete Triad Disordered eating Osteoporosis Amenorrhea 43. Women with a delayed menarche have a 300% increase of fracture during and after menopause. Before menopause, irregular cycles increase the risk of scoliosis, stress and vertebral fractures. 44. Build strong bones before age 30 Weight exercises Bone density testing Sunlight Vitamin D Calcium Higher Calcium intake = higher bone mass Vitamin K Prunes 45. Vitamin D comes from sun exposure. It increases calcium absorption. 46. Approximately half were diagnosed with osteopenia. 47. 48. Deep venous thrombosis Pulmonary embolism 49. 50. Vitamin K Osteocalcin Builds up bones by taking calcium from blood 51. Prunes High in phytoestrogens Estrogen keeps calcium in the body May increase cancer risk 52. Bone is added where strain is highest. Versatile movements Rest intervals Bone cells saturate rapidly Bone loses more than 95% of its mechanosensitivity after 20 loading cycles 10 jumps performed 3 times per day with 2-4 hours between each seems best compared to 30 jumps consecutively


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