Problem Based Learning Contents Prof ethics Final PBL may 14 anfd june 5 FC
Problem Based Learning Contents Prof ethics Final PBL may 14 anfd june 5 FC
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Status: Checked By: Dr.Shafee Khan Problem Based Learning – Section 2 Professional Ethics in IT and IS, FC Spring 2015 Please try to relate every reading to the objectives of sharia and try to objectives will get damaged in the absence of sharia rulings and how will it impact the society. 2. Protection of Life 1 3. Protection of Progeny 4. Protection of Intellect 5. Protection of Wealth 6. Protection of Honor When analyzing the issues / problems please look at the following aspects, if the problem is not removed: 1. How will it impact my deen, my family’s deen, my countrymen’s deen, my ummah’s brothers and sisters deen 2. How will it impact my life, my family’s life, my countrymen’s life, my ummah’s brothers and sisters life 3. How will it impact my intellect (aqal), my family’s intellect (aqal), my countrymen’s intellect (aqal), my ummah’s brothers and sisters intellect (aqal) 4. How will it impact my Nasal, my family’s Nasal, my countrymen’s Nasal, my ummah’s brothers and sisters Nasal 5. How will it impact my wealth, my family’s wealth, my countrymen’s wealth, my ummah’s brothers and sisters wealth 6. How will it impact my honor, my family’s honor, my countrymen’s honor, my ummah’s brothers and sisters honor Reading Material and Methodology Problem Based Learning Methodology – Learning through asking questions and seeking replies with references from the Quran and Sunnah. We will use islamqa.com, one of the best and comprehensive Web Site supervised by Shaikh Salih bin Munajid from Saudi Arabia. The following questions will provide detailed understanding on the topics. Section 1 – General Zahin Sazi material 1. Who is to say what is halaal and haraam ? 2. What are the sources of Islamic legislation?. 3. Why are the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) counted as proof? 4. The Importance of Prayer 5. The status of prayer in Islam 6. Is work one of the excuses for which it is permissible to delay prayer beyond its time? 2 7. Sometimes he feels too lazy to pray – what is the remedy? 8. Conditions Acceptability of Deeds by Allah 9. Attitude of Islam towards other religions 10. Are rizq (provision) and marriage written in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz? 11. The importance of being truthful 12. Is it permissible to lie to kaafirs? 13. Beware of rumors at times of crisis (Surah Hujrat Ayat) – Link to IT & telecom professional 14. Is it permissible for him in his job to help jobseekers to work in haraam organisations? 15. What are haraam types of jobs? How did the Sahaabah earn a living? What is the best way to earn a living? 16. Does committing a sin openly put a person beyond the pale of Islam? 17. The wisdom behind calamities 18. Ridding oneself of arrogance 19.Is it correct to think that fatwas may vary according to time and place? 20. How to choose a good wife 21. Commentary on the hadeeth, “A woman may be married for four things…” 22. Who is the woman who is religiously committed? 23. Attributes of the ideal Muslim husband 24. Seeking worldly characteristics in the fiancé and fiancée 25. What should a Muslim do when he wants to consummate his marriage? 26. What are the rights of the husband and what are the rights of the wife? 27. He asking about the proper Islamic way to celebrate weddings 28. How should an Islamic wedding party be? 29. The negative and harmful consequences of exaggerating concerning the dowry 30. Reducing the mahr is the Sunnah 31. Is she sinning by attending wedding parties that involve reprehensible things if she sits far away and helps them with cooking (or other chores) etc? 32. Attending wedding parties in which there are objectionable things (munkaraat) 33. Ruling on extravagance in wedding party and honeymoon Section 2 – Case Studies–Riba and Riba Based Jobs/ Projects in IT 34. Definition of riba and ruling on work that helps with riba 35. Harmful effects of Riba 3 36. Working in a riba-based bank without directly dealing with riba and depositing money in such a bank 37. Working in a programming company whose clients include riba-based banks and companies that produce alcohol 38. Ruling on working in a programming company that has another section which designs websites for advertising alcohol 39. He has been offered a job in a bank that deals in riba (interest) 40. Invitation to a dinner given by a riba-based bank 41. Regarding riba as permissible Section 3 – Case Studies - Sample Issues in IT related Projects – Just to highlight issues and corresponding rulings 42. Ruling on programming electronic games 43. Electronic games 44. Can he sell computer programs even though he is afraid that they may be used for haraam purposes? 45. Developing an iPhone program on a personal computer contrary to the agreement with the Apple company 46. Ruling on animated drawings (cartoons) 47. Prohibition of images and erecting statues, and the effect this has on ‘aqeedah 48. Ruling on drawing animate beings 49. Using the company’s property for personal things 50. Ruling on copying programs 51. Ruling on buying copied computer programs 52. Copying programs, crack and serial Section 5 – Relationship with Non-Muslims; Risks and Mitigation Strategies for Migrating to Non-Muslim Countries for Muslim IT professionals 53. Principles and guidelines for Muslims’ relations with non-Muslims 54. What is the aqeeda of Alliance and Disavowal. The Concept of Love & Hate in Islam 55. Qualities which must be present in the land to which one makes hijrah 4 56. Travelling to the land of the kuffaar to seek knowledge, and helping the kuffaar to make software? Should he go back and live in a kaafir country? 57. Staying in a country where one cannot practice one’s religion openly. Can Muslims settle in kaafir countries for the sake of a better life? 58. Guidelines concerning imitation of the kuffaar Section 5 – Case Studies – Islamic Finance & Contracts related issues for IT Entrepreneurs, Projects 59. Paying in installments 60. Selling before taking possession and selling by installments Section 6- Issues Specific to Mixed Environments and Muslim Women in IT What are some challenges faced by a Muslim IT Professional in mixed environments and how to deal with them? 61. Does Islam regard men and women as equal? 62. Should she continue working in place where she mixes with men? 63. Guidelines on women working outside the home 64. Is zinaa intercourse only? 65. Evidence Prohibiting of Mixing of Men and Women 66. Is it permissible for a father to force his daughter to work in a mixed environment? 67. Verses and hadeeth about hijab 68. Ruling on covering the face, with detailed evidence Problem Based Learning Contents 5 Life & Living Course Contents for IT Department Problem Based Learning Content Details Section 1 – General Zahin Sazi material Who is to say what is halaal and haraam ? Assalamua'laikum How can we make things haraam or halaal (such as smoking or avoiding tax or insurance) when Allah (SWT) Himself is the only One to say what is halaal and what is not? Praise be to Allaah. Allaah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meanings): “The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allaah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him…” [Yoosuf 12:40] “And say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely: ‘This is lawful and this is forbidden.,’ so as to invent lies against Allaah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allaah will never prosper.” [al-Nahl 16:116] “Say [O Muhammad, to the polytheists]: ‘Tell me, what provision Allaah has sent down to you! And you have made of it lawful and unlawful.’ Say [O Muhammad]: ‘Has Allaah permitted you (to do so) or do you invent a lie against Allaah?’” [Yoonus 10:59] 6 It is only for Allaah to say what is halaal and what is haraam, because He is the Law-giver, and there is no law-giver besides Him. When we say that a given thing is haraam, or halaal, 1. we refer to the evidence in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Whatever we find is prohibited therein, we take as haraam, and whatever we find is permitted, we take as halaal. 2. We refer to the sayings of the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and 3. the Taabi’een (the generation after the Sahaabah) – may Allaah be pleased with them – and 4. the commentaries of the Salaf (first generations of Islam) on the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and 5. we refer to the sayings and ijtihaad of the scholars. It is not permissible for us to allow or prohibit however we wish. When new issues come up, if we do not find a text in the Qur’aan or Sunnah, or in the sayings of the scholars of the salaf or the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah who came before us, then we have to refer to trustworthy scholars and people of understanding, as Allaah commands us (interpretation of the meaning): “… so ask of those who know the Scripture…” [al-Nahl 16:43]. These are the scholars, who can do ijtihaad, examine the matter and make analogies (qiyaas) with the existing texts of Islam, taking into consideration the principles of necessity, and taking note of what is harmful to the interests of sharee’ah and what is beneficial, relying on the basic general principles of sharee’ah, such as the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), “… he allows them as lawful al-tayyibaat [(i.e., all good and lawful things as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.]…” [al-A’raaf 7:157] and the hadeeth, “There should be no 7 harming nor reciprocating harm” (reported by Ibn Maajah, 2331), and avoiding following whims and desires. Every evil thing that is proven to be harmful is haraam, and every good and beneficial thing is halaal. If it is not known that it is either harmful or beneficial, then the general rule is that it is permissible (mubaah). And Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid Principles of Fiqh » Usool alFiqh » Sources for Islamic Rulings and Shariah. Sources of Islamic legislation What are the sources of Islamic legislation?. Praise be to Allaah. The sources of Islam on which all beliefs, principles and rulings are based are represented by the two Revelations: the Qur’aan and Sunnah. This is what is implied by Islam being a divinelyrevealed religion: its pillars are based on infallible texts that were sent down from heaven, which are represented in the verses of the Holy Qur’aan and the texts of the saheeh Prophetic Sunnah. Imam alShaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: No view is binding unless it is based on the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Everything other than them should be based on them. End quote. Jimaa’ al‘Ilm. 8 From these two sources the scholars derived other principles on which rulings may be based. Some scholars called them the sources of sharee’ah or the sources of Islamic legislation. They are: ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) and qiyaas (analogy). Imam alShaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: No one has any right whatsoever to say that something is halaal or haraam except on the basis of knowledge, and the basis of knowledge is a text in the Qur’aan or Sunnah, or ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) or qiyaas (analogy). End quote. AlRisaalah (39). Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If we say Qur’aan, Sunnah and ijmaa’, they all stem from the same source, because the Messenger agrees with everything that is in the Qur’aan, and the ummah is unanimously agreed upon it in general. There is no one among the believers who does not believe it is obligatory to follow the Book. And everything that the Prophet enjoined in his Sunnah, the Qur’aan obliged us to follow it. So the believers are unanimously agreed upon that, and everything on which the Muslims are unanimously agreed can only be true and in accordance with what is in the Qur’aan and Sunnah. End quote. Majmoo’ alFataawa (7/40). Dr. ‘Abd alKareem Zaydaan said: What is meant by the sources of fiqh is the evidence from which it is derived and on which it is based. If you wish, you may say: The sources from which it is derived. Some people call these sources the “sources of sharee’ah” or “the sources of Islamic legislation.” No matter what they are called, the sources of fiqh all derive from the Revelation (wahy) of Allaah, whether it is Qur’aan or Sunnah. Hence we prefer to divide these sources into original sources, namely the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and secondary sources to which the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah refer, such as ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) and qiyaas (analogy). End quote. AlMadkhil li Diraasat alSharee’ah alIslamiyyah (p. 153). 9 With regard to sources other than these four, such as the opinions of the Sahaabah, istihsaan (discretion), sadd aldharaa’i’ (blocking the means that lead to evil), istishaab, ‘urf (custom), the laws of those who came before us, almasaalih almursalah (things that serve the general interests of the Muslims) and so on, the scholars differed as to how valid it is to use them as evidence. According to the view that they are acceptable – all or some of them – they are secondary to the Qur’aan and Sunnah and should be in accordance with them. And Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A Hadeeth ur Why are the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) counted as proof? Praise be to Allah Hadeeth means the words, actions, approvals or attributes that have been narrated from the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). A hadeeth may either confirm things that are mentioned in the Quran, such as prayer, zakah (poordue), etc., or it may give details of things that are mentioned in the Quran in general terms, such as the numbers of rak’ahs (units) in each prayer, the thresholds for paying zakah, the details of Hajj, etc. It may also explain rulings which are not mentioned in the Quran, such as the prohibition on being married to a woman and her (paternal or maternal) aunt at the same time. Allah revealed the Quran to His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and commanded him to explain it to the people, as He said (interpretation of the meaning): “And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad) the Dhikr [reminder and the advice (i.e. the Quran)], that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought.” 10 [al-Nahl 16:44] The hadeeth of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is a revelation (wahy) from his Lord. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Your companion (Muhammad) has neither gone astray nor has erred. Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only a Revelation revealed.” [alNajm 53:24] Allah sent His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to call mankind to worship Allah alone, and to disbelieve in any (god) apart from Him, and (He sent him) to bring the glad tidings of Paradise and warnings of Hell: “O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner, And as one who invites to Allah [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone)] by His leave, and as a lamp spreading light (through your instructions from the Quran and the Sunnah/the legal ways of the Prophet). [alAhzab 33:4546 – interpretation of the meaning] The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was anxious over this ummah; he did not know of anything good but he told them of it, and he did not know of anything evil but he warned them against it: “Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad) is anxious over you; for the believers (he is) full of pity, kind, and merciful.” [alTawbah 9:128 – interpretation of the meaning] Every Prophet was sent only to his own people, but Allah sent His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to all of mankind: “And We have sent you (O Muhammad) not but as a mercy for the ‘Alameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists).” 11 [alAnbiya 21:101 – interpretation of the meaning] Because the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) conveyed the revelation that was sent down to him from His Lord, it is obligatory to obey him. Indeed, obedience to him is obedience to Allah: “He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad), has indeed obeyed Allah.” [alNisa 4:80 – interpretation of the meaning] Obedience to Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the way to salvation and victory, and to happiness in this world and in the Hereafter: “And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hellfire and will be admitted to Paradise).” [alAhzab 33:71 – interpretation of the meaning] Hence it is obligatory for all people to obey Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), because therein lies their success and salvation: “And obey Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad) that you may obtain mercy.” [Al ‘Imran 3:132 – interpretation of the meaning] Whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) only harms himself, he does not harm Allah in the slightest: “And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.” [alNisa 4:14 – interpretation of the meaning] Once Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) have decided a matter, no one has the right to choose concerning it or to object to it; rather it is obligatory to obey and to believe in the truth: “It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error. [alAhzab 33:36 – interpretation of the meaning] 12 A person's faith is not complete until he loves Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and love implies obedience. Whoever wants Allah to love him and forgive his sins must follow the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): “Say (O Muhammad to mankind): ‘If you (really) love Allah, then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Quran and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.’” [Al ‘Imran 3:31 – interpretation of the meaning] Love of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is not simply the matter of words to be repeated, rather it is the matter of belief and conduct, i.e., obedience to what he commands, belief in what he tells us, avoidance of what he forbids, and avoidance of worshipping Allah in any way except that which he prescribed. When Allah had perfected this religion and the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had conveyed the message of his Lord, Allah took him to be with Him. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) left this ummah (his followers) with clear proof in which there is no ambiguNo one deviates from it but he is doomed: “This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [alMaidah 5:3 – interpretation of the meaning] By the grace of Allah, the Sahabah/Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) preserved the ahaadeeth (prophetic teachings) of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon them), then the righteous salaf (pious predecessors) who came after them compiled them in books which are known as the Sihah (Saheehs/authentic collections), Sunan and Musnads. The most sound of them are: 13 1. Saheeh alBukhari, 2. Saheeh Muslim, 3. the four Sunans, 4. the Musnad of alImam Ahmad and 5. the Muwatta of alImam Malik, etc. Allah has perfected this religion. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did but he warned them against it. So whoever introduces anything into the religion, of bid’ah l (innovation) or myths, such as praying to the dead or circumambulating (tawaf) their tombs, or praying to the jinn and awliya (“saints”), and other things that have not been prescribed by Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), all of this is to be rejected and not accepted, as the Prophet (peace and bless:ngs of Allah be upon him) said “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (Islam) that is not a part of it will have it rejected.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1718) . From Usool alDeen alIslami, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraheem alTuwayjri The Importance of Prayer What is the Importance of Prayer ? Praise be to Allaah. 14 The importance of the prayer in Islam cannot be understated. It is the first pillar of Islam that the Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned after mentioning the testimony of faith, by which one becomes a Muslim. It was made obligatory upon all the prophets and for all peoples. Allah has declared its obligatory status under majestic circumstances. For example, when Allah spoke directly to Moses, He said, "And I have chosen you, so listen to that which is inspired to you. Verily, I am Allah! There is none worthy of worship but I, so worship Me and offer prayer perfectly for My remembrance." [Taha 13-14] Similarly, the prayers were made obligatory upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) during his ascension to heaven. Furthermore, when Allah praises the believers, such as in the beginning of surah al-Muminoon, one of the first descriptions He states is their adherence to the prayers. Once a man asked the Prohpet (peace be upon him) about the most virtuous deed. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated that the most virtuous deed is the prayer. The man asked again and again. The first three times, the Prophet (peace be upon him) again answered, "The prayer," then on the fourth occasion he stated, "Jihad in the way of Allah." [This is form a hadith recorded by Ahmad and ibn Hibban. According to al-Albani, the hadith is hasan. 15 Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani, Sahih al-Targheeb wa al-Tarheeb (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1982), vol. 1, p. 150] The importance of prayer is demonstrated in the many of the Prophet’s statement. For example, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The first matter that the slave will be brought to account for on the Day of Judgment is the prayer. If it is sound, then the rest of his deeds will be sound. And if it is bad, then the rest of his deeds will be bad." [Recorded by al-Tabarani. According to al-Albani, it is sahih. Al-Albani, Sahih al-Jami, vol.1, p. 503. The importance of the prayers lies in the fact that no matter what actions one performs in his life, the msot important aspect is one’s relationship to Allah, that is, one’s faith (imaan), God-consciousness (taqwa), sincerity (ikhlas) and worship of Allah (`ibaadah). This relationship with Allah is both demonstrated and put into practice, as well as improved and increased, by the prayer. Therefore, if the prayers are sound and proper, the rest of the deeds will be sound and proper; and if the prayers are not sound and proper, then the rest of the deeds will not be sound and proper, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself stated. 16 In reality, the prayer is performed properly – with true remembrance of Allah and turning to Him for forgiveness – it will have a lasting effect on the person. After he finishes the prayer, his heart will be filled with the remembrance of Allah. He will be fearful as well as hopeful of Allah. After that experience, he will not want to move from that lofty position to one wherein he disobeys Allah. Allah has mentioned this aspect of the prayer when He has said, "Verily, the prayer keeps one from the great sins and evil deeds" (al- Ankaboot 45). Nadwi has described this effect in the following eloquent way, Its aim is to generate within the subliminal self of man such spiritual power, light of faith and awareness of God as can enable him to strive successfully against all kinds of evils and temptations and remain steadfast at times of trial and adversity and protect himself against the weakness of the flesh and the mischief of immoderate appetites. [Nadwi, p. 24] The overall affect that the properly performed prayers should have upon humans is described in other verses in the Quran: "Verily, man was created impatient, irritable when evil touches him and niggardly when good touches him. Except for those devoted to 17 prayer those who remain constant in their prayers…" (al-Maarij 19- 23). As for the Hereafter, Allah’s forgiveness and pleasure is closely related to the prayers. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "Allah has obligated five prayers. Whoever excellently performs their ablutions, prays them in their proper times, completes their bows, prostrations and khushu` [Khushu` in the prayer is where the person’s heart is attuned to the prayer. This feeling in the heart is then reflected on the body. The person remains still and calm. His gaze is also lowered. Even his voice is affected by this feeling in the heart. For more details on this concept (as well as the difference between it and khudhu`), see Muhammad al-Shaayi, al-Furooq al- Laughawiyyah wa Atharahaa fi Tafseer al-Quran al-Kareem (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ubaikaan, 1993), pp. 249-254.] has a promise from Allah that He will forgive him. And whoever does not do that has no promise from Allah. He may either forgive him or punish him." [Recorded by Malik, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’I and others. According to al-Albani, it is sahih. Al-Albani, Sahih al-Jami, vol. 1, p. 616.] ] The prayers are a type of purification for a human being. He turns and meets with his Lord five times a day. As alluded to above, this 18 repeated standing in front of Allah should keep the person from performing sins during the day. Furthermore, it should also be a time of remorse and repentance, such that he earnestly asks Allah for forgiveness for those sins that he committed. In addition, the prayer in itself is a good deed that wipes away some of the evil deeds that he performed. These points can be noted in the following hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him): "If a person had a stream outside his door and he bathed in it five times a day, do you think he would have any filth left on him?" The people said, "No filth would remain on him whatsoever." The Prophet (peace be upon him) then said, "That is like the five daily prayers: Allah wipes away the sins by them." (Recorded by al- Bukhari and Muslim.) In another hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The five daily prayers and the Friday Prayer until the Friday prayer are expiation for what is between them." (Recorded by Muslim.) The status of prayer in Islam I hope that you can explain to us the status of prayer in Islam. 19 Praise be to Allaah. Prayer occupies a great status in Islam that is not shared by any other act of worship. This is indicated by the following: 1 – It is the pillar of the religion, which cannot stand without it. According to a hadeeth narrated by Mu’aadh ibn Jabal (may Allaah be pleased with him), the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:“Shall I not tell you of the head of the whole matter and its pillar and top?” I [Mu’aadh] said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said, “The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is prayer and its top is jihad.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2616; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2110. 2 – It is second in status to the Shahaadatayn (twin testimony of faith) as further proof of the soundness of a person’s belief and as visible evidence of the beliefs that reside in the heart. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Islam is built on five [pillars]: the testimony that there is no god but Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, establishing prayer, paying zakaah, performing pilgrimage to the 20 House, and fasting Ramadaan.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 8; Muslim, 16. Establishing prayer means performing prayer in full with all its words and actions, at the appointed times, as it says in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, As-Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours” [al-Nisa’ 4:103] i.e., at defined times. 3 – Prayer occupies a special position among other acts of worship because of the way in which it was enjoined. It was not brought down to earth by an angel, rather Allaah wanted to bless His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by taking him up to heaven and addressing him directly concerning the obligation of prayer. This is something that is unique to prayer among all the rituals of Islam. Prayer was enjoined on the night of the Mi’raaj [Prophet’s ascent to heaven], approximately three years before the Hijrah. 21 Fifty prayers (per day) were enjoined at first, then the number was reduced to five, but the reward of fifty remains. This is indicative of Allaah’s love of prayer and its great status. 4 – Allaah erases sins by means of prayer Al-Bukhaari (528) and Muslim (667) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said – and in the hadeeth of Bakr it is narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say – “What do you think if there was a river by the door of any one of you and he bathed in it five times a day, would there be any trace of dirt left on him?” They said, “No trace of dirt would be left on him.” He said, “That is like the five daily prayers, by means of which Allaah erases sin.” 5 – Prayer is the last part of religion to be lost, and if it is lost the whole religion is lost. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Between a man and shirk [associating others with Allaah] 22 and kufr [disbelief] there stands his giving up prayer.” Narrated by Muslim, 82. Hence the Muslim should be keen to perform the prayers on time, and not be lazy or take the matter lightly. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “So woe unto those performers of Salaah (prayers) (hypocrites), Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)” [al-Maa’oon 107:4-5] And Allaah warns those who cause their prayers to be lost by saying (interpretation of the meaning): “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As- Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell” [Maryam 19:59] 6 – Prayer is the first thing for which a person will be brought to account on the Day of Resurrection: 23 It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “The first deed for which a person will be brought to account on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayer. If it is good then he will have prospered and succeeded, but if it is bad then he will be doomed and have lost. If anything is lacking from his obligatory prayers, the Lord will say, ‘Look and see whether My slave did any voluntary prayers, and make up the shortfall in his obligatory prayers from that.’ Then all his deeds will be dealt with likewise.” Narrated by al-Nasaa’i, 465; al-Tirmidhi, 413. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 2573. We ask Allaah to help us to remember Him, give thanks to Him and to worship Him properly. Reference: al-Salaah by Dr. al-Tayyaar, p. 16; Tawdeeh al-Ahkaam by al-Bassaam, 1/371; Taareekh Mashroo’iyyat al-Salaah by al-Balooshi, p. 31. Is work one of the excuses for which it is permissible to delay prayer beyond its time? 24 I work at a time when it is not possible for me to offer Fajr and Zuhr prayers. It is permissible for me to offer them at a time after work is over?. Praise be to Allaah. It is not permissible for a Muslim to delay his prayers beyond the time when they are due without a legitimate excuse. Legitimate excuses which allow a Muslim to delay his prayers until the time for them is over include sleeping and forgettiDoing worldly work is not an excuse for not praying or for delaying a prayer until its time is over. Rather one of the characteristics of the sincere believers is that they do not let business or trade distract them from remembering Allaah and establishing regular prayer. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “In houses (mosques) which Allaah has ordered to be raised (to be cleaned, and to be honoured), in them His Name is remembered [i.e. Adhaan, Iqaamah, Salaah (prayers), invocations, recitation of the 25 Qur’aan]. Therein glorify Him (Allaah) in the mornings and in the afternoons or the evenings, 37. Men whom neither trade nor sale (business) diverts from the remembrance of Allaah (with heart and tongue) nor from performing As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah) nor from giving the Zakaah. They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (out of the horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection). 38. That Allaah may reward them according to the best of their deeds, and add even more for them out of His Grace. And Allaah provides without measure to whom He wills” [al-Noor 24:36-38] Even though these men engaged in trade, buying and selling, that was no excuse and it did not distract them from giving precedence to “the remembrance of Allaah (with heart and tongue) nor from performing As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah) nor from giving the Zakaah.” Rather they made obedience to Allaah and worship of Him their ultimate goal and purpose, and whatever came between them and that goal, they rejected it. Because giving up worldly interests is hard for most people, and earning and various kinds of trade are dear to them, and it is hard for them to give that up in most cases, and to give precedence to 26 the rights of Allaah, Allaah mentions that which will motivate and encourage them, as He says: “They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (out of the horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection)” – because of the intensity of its horrors and suffering. Hence they will fear that Day, so it become easier for them to strive for the Hereafter and give up that which distracts them from it. Tafseer al-Sa’di. Concerning the obligation of offering prayers and the ruling on its timing, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, As-Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours” [al-Nisa’ 4:103]. Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di said: This means it is enjoined at its time, which indicates that it is obligatory and that it has a time (to be offered) and is not valid at any other time. These are the times that are well known among the Muslims, young and old, scholars and ignorant. They learned that from their Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Pray as you have seen me praying.” The 27 phrase “on the believers” indicates that prayer is the measure of faith, and a the quality of person’s prayers corresponds with his level of faith. Tafseer al-Sa’di. And Allaah says, warning those who delay their prayers until the time for them is over with no legitimate excuse (interpretation of the meaning): “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As- Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell. 60. Except those who repent and believe (in the Oneness of Allaah and His Messenger Muhammad), and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught” [Maryam 19:59-60] And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “So woe unto those performers of Salaah (prayers) (hypocrites), 28 5. Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)” [al-Maa’oon 107:4-5] Ibn Katheer said: It was narrated from Ibn Mas’ood that it was said to him that Allaah mentions prayer a great deal in the Qur’aan: “Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)” [al-Maa’oon 107:5] and “Those who remain constant in their Salaah (prayers)” [al- Ma’aarij 70:23] and “and they are constant in guarding their Salaah (prayers)” [al-An’aam 6:92]. Ibn Mas’ood said: (This means) offering prayers at the stated times. They said: We thought that these verses referred to not praying at all. He said: That is kufr. Al-Awzaa’i said, quoting from Ibraaheem ibn Yazeed, that ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez recited: “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As-Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell” [Maryam 19:59]. Then he said: “Their giving up their prayers does not mean that they do not pray at all, rather it means that they have given up praying at the proper times.” 29 Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/128, 129. So it is not permissible for you to delay your prayers from the proper time based on the excuse of work. If you cannot pray on time at work, then you should leave this job and look for another job which will not cause you to miss your prayers. The wise Muslim should not expose himself to the threat of his Lord and he should not sell his religious commitment for the sake of passing worldly interests. And Allaah knows best. Sometimes he feels too lazy to pray – what is the remedy? I am a young Muslim man who believes in Allaah and His Messengers and His Books, praise be to Allaah. But sometimes I feel too lazy to pray. I am looking for a solution and a way to make me not be so lazy. Please note that this is what I want but the tricks of the Shaytaan are too strong. Praise be to Allaah. If a person truly believes in Allaah, His Messengers and His Books, and believes that prayer is obligatory and is the greatest pillar of Islam after the Shahaadatayn, we cannot imagine that he would 30 neglect to pray or be careless in performing the prayers. Rather he would never feel at ease unless he performs this important ritual regularly. The more a person’s faith increases, the more he will be concerned to do that which Allaah has enjoined upon him, and this is also because of his strong faith. Hence the way to make you pray more regularly may be summed up as follows: 1 – You should believe firmly that prayer is obligatory and that it is the greatest pillar of Islam. You should realize that a stern warning is issued to the one who neglects prayer, and he is a kaafir who is beyond the pale of Islam according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions, based on a great deal of evidence, such as the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Between a man and shirk and kufr there stands his giving up prayer.” Narrated by Muslim, 82. And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The covenant that stands between us and them is prayer; whoever gives it up is a kaafir.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2621; al-Nasaa’i, 463; Ibn Maajah, 1079; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al- Tirmidhi. 31 2 – You should understand that delaying prayer beyond the time when it is due is a major sin, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As- Salaah (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaah (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell” [Maryam 19:59] Ibn Mas’ood said concerning al-Ghayy [translated in the verse quoted above as Hell): This is a valley in Hell which is very deep and foul. And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “So woe unto those performers of Salaah (prayers) (hypocrites), 5. Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)” [al-Maa’oon :4,5] 3 – You should strive to offer the prayers in congregation in the mosque, and not neglect any of them, knowing that praying in 32 congregation in the mosque is obligatory according to the more sound of the two scholarly opinions, based on a great deal of evidence, such as the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever hears the call to prayer and does not respond, his prayer is not valid unless he has an excuse.” Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 793; also by al-Daaraqutni and al-Haakim, who classed it as saheeh; also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah. Muslim (653) narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: A blind man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: “O Messenger of Allaah, I do not have anyone to guide me to the mosque,” and he asked the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to give him a dispensation allowing him to pray in his home and he allowed him that, then when he turned away he called him back and said: “Can you hear the call to prayer?’ He said, “Yes.” He said: “Then answer it.” And there is other evidence too. See question no. 40113. 4 – There is the hope that if you adhere to that, you will be included among the seven whom Allaah will shade with His shade (on the Day of Resurrection), among whom is “a young man who grew up worshipping his Lord” and “a man whose heart was attached to the mosque”. Al-Bukhaari, 660; Muslim, 1031. 33 5 – You will earn the great reward for prayer, especially prayer in congregation. In al-Saheehayn it is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “A man’s prayer in congregation is twenty-five times better than his praying in his house or marketplace, because when he does wudoo’ and does it well, then goes out to the mosque, only going there to pray, he does not take a single step but he is raised in status and a sin is erased thereby. When he prays, the angels continue to send blessings upon him so long as he is still in the place where he prayed, (saying), ‘O Allaah, send blessings on him, O Allaah have mercy on him.’ And one of you is still in a state of prayer so long as he is waiting for the prayer.” Al-Bukhaari, 647; Muslim, 649. Muslim (232) narrated that ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Whoever does wudoo’ for prayer and does wudoo’ well, then walks to (perform) the prescribed prayer, and offers the prayer with the people or with the congregation or in the mosque, Allaah will forgive him his sins.” 6 – You should read about the virtue of prayer, and the sin of those who are careless or too lazy to pray. We advise you in particular to read the book Al-Salaah, limadha (Prayer – why?) by Shaykh 34 Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Muqaddim; and listen to the lecture, “Limadha la tusalli (Why don’t you pray?) by Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Ya’qoob, as these will be very beneficial for you in sha Allaah. 7 – You should choose good friends who are keen to pray and pay attention to that, and keep away from those who are the opposite, because a person is influenced by his friends. 8 – Keep away from sin in all aspects of your life, and adhere to the rulings of sharee’ah in your dealings with others, especially with women, because sin is one of the things that most distract a person from doing acts of worship and increase the Shaytaan’s influence on him. We ask Allaah to make us and you among His righteous slaves and those who are close to Him. And Allaah knows best. Conditions Acceptability of Deeds by Allah 35 When a Muslim does an action, what conditions make it acceptable and therefore rewarded by Allah. Is it simply that you intended to follow the Quran and Sunnah, and therefore you will be rewarded even though you may have been wrong in your action. Or is it that you must have the intention, but you also need to follow the correct Sunnah as well? Praise be to Allah. For acts of worship to be acceptable to Allah and for a person to be rewarded for them, there are two conditions which must be met: 1. The first condition: the act of worship should be devoted to Allah Alone. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him).” [al-Bayyinah 98:5] The meaning of worshipping Allah alone is that the person should intend in all his words and deeds, both inward and outward, to seek the Face of Allah (i.e., His pleasure). Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And who has (in mind) no favour from anyone to be paid back, Except to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High.” [al-Layl 92:19] “(Saying): “We feed you seeking Allah’s Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.” [al-Insan 76:9] “Whosoever desires (by his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward, and whosoever desires the reward of this world (by his deeds), We give him thereof (what is decreed for him), and he has no portion in the Hereafter.”[al-Shoora 42:20] 36 “Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter, to them We shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and they will have no diminution therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire, and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect is that which they used to do.” [Hood 11:15-16] It was narrated that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: ‘The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or to marry a woman, his emigration was for what he emigrated for.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, Bad’ al-Wahy, 1). It was narrated by Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, says: ‘I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action for someone else’s sake as well as Mine will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.’” (Narrated by Muslim, al-Zuhd wa’l-Raqaiq, 5300) 2. The second condition is that the action should be in accordance with the only way which Allah has prescribed for worship, which is by following the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the laws that he has brought. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever does any action that is not 37 in accordance with this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), will have it rejected.” (Narrated by Muslim, al-Aqdiyyah, 3243). Ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “This hadeeth (narration) forms one of the most important principles of Islam. It is like a scale for weighing up deeds according to their outward appearance, just as the hadeeth ‘The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions’ is the means of weighing up the inner nature of deeds. Just as every action which is not intended for the sake of Allah brings no reward to the one who does it, so too every deed which is not in accordance with the command of Allah and His Messenger will also be rejected and thrown back at the one who does it. Everyone who innovates in Islam something for which Allah and His Messenger have not granted permission, that thing has nothing to do with Islam. (Jami’ al-‘Uloom wa’l-Hikam, part 1, p.176) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) enjoined following his Sunnah (ways) and teachings, and made them binding. He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sa: “You have to follow my Sunnah (way) and the way of my rightly-guided successors (al-khulafa’ al-rashidoon); bite onto it with your eyeteeth (i.e., cling firmly to it).And he warned against bid’ah (innovation), as he said: “Beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is a going astray.” (narrated by al- Tirmidhi, al-‘Ilm, 2600; classed as saheeh/authentic by al-Albani in Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 2157) Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Allah has made devotion of worship to Him alone and following the Sunnah the means of deeds being accepted; if these conditions are not met, then deeds are unacceptable.” (al-Rooh, 1/135) Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 38 “Who has created death and life that He may test you which of you is best in deed.” [al-Mulk 67:2] Al-Fudayl said: “’best in deed’ means, most devoted to Allah alone and most in accordance with the Sunnah. And Allah is the Source of strength. Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid Are rizq (provision) and marriage written in alLawh al Mahfooz? ur Are rizq (provision) and marriage written in alLawh alMahfooz?. Praise be to Allaah. Everything from when Allaah created the Pen until the Day of Resurrection is written in alLawh alMahfooz, because when Allaah first created the Pen, He said to it: “Write.” It said: “My Lord, what should I write?” He said: “Write what is to be. So at that moment it began to write what would be until the Day of ResuAnd it is proven from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that when the foetus in its mother’s womb is four months old, Allaah sends an angel to breathe the soul into it and write down its provision, its lifespan and its deeds, and whether it is doomed or blessed. Provision is also written down and connected to its means, and it does not increase or decrease. Among those means are that man should work to seek provision, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 39 “He it is Who has made the earth subservient to you (i.e. easy for you to walk, to live and to do agriculture on it); so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision. And to Him will be the Resurrection” [alMulk 67:15] Other means are: upholding ties of kinship, such as honouring one’s parents and upholding ties with relatives. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be up“Whoever would like his provision to be abundant and his lifespan to be extended, let him uphold his ties of kinship.” Fearing Allaah (taqwa), as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whosoever fears Allaah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). 3. And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allaah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allaah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed Allaah has set a measure for all things” [al-Talaaq 65:2-3] Do not sa“Provision is foreordained and limited and I will not do any of the things that lead to it,” because this is helplessness; smartness and resolve mean striving to seek provision and that which will benefit you in religious and worldly terms. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said“The smart man is the one who takes stock of himself and strives to do that which will benefit him after death, and the helpless one is the one who follows his own whims and desires and engages in wishful thinking, (assuming that Allaah will forgive him regardless of what he does and that he does not need to strive to good deeds).” Just as provision is written and connected to its means, so too marriage is also written and preordained. For both spouses it is 40 written that he or she will be the spouse of this particular person. Nothing is hidden from Allaah on earth or in heaven. End quote. And Allaah knows best. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) Fataawa Noor ‘ala alDarb (p. 36). Why do people die of hunger if their provision has been decreed by Allaah? b ur If Allah has ordained the "rizk" for everyone then why do people die of starvation. Praise be to Allaah. Allaah is alRazzaaq (the Provider) and the best of those who give provision. “And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah” [Hood 11:6 – interpretation of the meaning]. The rizq (provision) of Allaah will not be brought by the carefulness of the miser, nor will it be prevented by the hostility of one who does not want it to come to another. It is part of the Wisdom of Allaah that He differentiates between His slaves in their provision just as He differentiates between them in their physical creation and their attitudes. So He gives in abundance to whomever He wills and gives little to whomever He wills. He may give plenty to some people and little to others. He is the One Who guarantees the provision of His slaves according to His prior knowledge and decree. Allaah knows and decrees that some of His slaves will be given plenty and some will be given little; He has reasons for that that are beyond our comprehension. In His wisdom, He gives plenty or gives little as a test for His slaves, testing them with blessings or with calamities, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good” [alAnbiya’ 21:35] 41 Allâh says (interpretation of the meaning): “But when He tries him be straitening his means of life, he says: ‘My Lord has humiliated me!” [alFajr 89:16] But then Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Nay!” [al-Fajr 89:16], meaning, it is not as he thinks; Allaah blesses whoever he wills and makes things difficult for whomever He wills, and this is a test, not a sign of honour or humiliation. By means of this test, it becomes apparent who is grateful and patient, and who is the opposite. And Allaah is the Knower of all things. this response was written for us by our Shaykh ‘Abd alRahmaan alBarraak. Commentary on the meaning of the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah” [Hood 11:6] ar Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah” [Hood 11:6], which means that He has obliged Himself to feed everything that lives on this earth of humans, animals or insectsHow do we . explain the famines that affect some countries in Africa and elsewhere?. Praise be to Allaah. The verse is to be understood according to its apparent meaning. The calamities and famines that Allaah decrees do not harm anyone but those whose lives have ended and whose provision has ceased. As for those who still have something left of their lives or provision, Allaah brings their provision to them by many ways, which they may know or may not know, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whosoever fears Allaah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). 3. And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine” [alTalaaq 65:23] 42 “And so many a moving (living) creature carries not its own provision! Allaah provides for it and for you” [al‘Ankaboot 29:60] And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “No soul will die until it has received its provision in full and completed its allotted lifespan.” A person may be punished with poverty and deprivation of provision because of his actions such as laziness and failing to seek means of provision that he is able to do, or because of his committing sins that Allaah has forbidden, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allaah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself” [alNisa’ 4:79] “And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much” [alShoora 42:30] And it is narrated in a saheeh report that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “A person may be deprived of provision because of a sin that he commits.” Narrated by Imam Ahmad, alNasaa’i and Ibn Maajah with a jayyid isnaad. A person may be tested with poverty, sickness and other calamities so as to test his gratitude and patience, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As- Saabiroon (the patient). 156. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return’” [alBaqarah 2:155156] “And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to Allaah’s Obedience)” [alA’raaf 7:168] 43 What is meant by good in this verse is blessings, and what is meant by evil is calamities. And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for all his affairs are good. If harm befalls him, he is patient and that is good for him, and if something good happens to him he is grateful and that is good for him, and this is not for anyone except the believer.” Narrated by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh. And there are many similar verses and hadeeths. And Allaah is the source of strength. End quote. Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz (24/241 Attitude of Islam towards other religions – No to interfaith Dialogue / Harmony – The evil concept I have some
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