MGT 437 Week 5 Team Assignment - Project Implementation, Control, and Termination Paper
MGT 437 Week 5 Team Assignment - Project Implementation, Control, and Termination Paper
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Running head: FINAL PROJECT PLAN 1 Final Parking Garage Project Plan University of Phoenix MGT/437 Patricia Dues April 19, 2010 FINAL PROJECT PLAN 2 Parking Garage Project Proposal Giving the government due credit is a rare and unpleasant act, but modern day project management is a product of the United States government (Meredith & Mantel, 2006). Improving efficiency over a typical functional structure, project management gives management the freedom to delegate work to the project manager while maintaining focus on every day operations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a parking structure by describing the need for the project, identifying stakeholders, defining goals, establishing a time and budget, listing performance criteria, and developing a Statement of Work (SOW). Background and Statement of Need A downtown, professional building, owned by a real estate firm, houses several offices for lawyers, a dentist, and other private businesses. However, congestion in the downtown area is becoming a problem. A parking lot exists next to the professional building and owned by the same real estate firm, but the parking lot fills quickly and its size is not adequate for the number of people visiting the professional building daily. Although the downtown is a desirable location, parking has become such a problem that many businesses in the professional building are experiencing a decline in new clients, and frustration from existing clients is mounting. Constructing a parking structure in the parking lot next to the building will increase the lot’s holding capacity. The addition of a parking structure in a high traffic area of downtown will help to reduce the congestion experienced by business owners and clients alike. Restoring order to an overcrowded downtown will increase consumer confidence by encouraging new clients to conduct business with the various firms that reside in the downtown professional building. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 3 Project Stakeholders The main stakeholder in the garage project is the customer. The customer owns the property and has made the decision to build a garage on this site. The customer will be kept apprised of the progress and milestones of the project. Not the customer using the garage, but the customer commissioning the garage to be built – correct? Additional stakeholders in the project are the funders and the sponsors. The funders too will need to be kept apprised project. The city government will be heavily involved in the garage the project manager will need to acquire permits for the various activities such as pouring concrete, adding electricity for lights, installing water for a sprinkling system. The electric and water city works companies are stakeholders. A survey should be performed to determine the boundaries of the property and whether or not easements are existent. An architect will draw up the plans for the garage using blueprints. Additionally, the labor involved will be concrete workers, electricians, city plumbers. The labor force may each be in a different labor union and have different requirements for insurance and wages. The supply chain for concrete materials, electrical supplies, fencing, and water piping are to be considered stakeholders also. Finally included in the list of stakeholders are the inspectors who will inspect the project along the various milestones. Defining Goals Concerning project goals in relation to triple constraint, projects can be broken down into three categories or factors: time, cost, and scope. When time, cost, and scope is clear as well as precise, the project manager is put to use to facilitate within the values of the aforementioned FINAL PROJECT PLAN 4 factors. Changes to the scope, time, and cost are inevitable, unforeseen events occur, risk transpires, and the project manager must work diligently to minimize these unexpected circumstances to complete the project. A typical project will fail when one does not make adjustments to cope with the change in environment. The goals of this project are to fall in line with time; maintaining a sufficient number of employees on site, to stay on schedule with timelines in relation to the contract. Scheduling the construction company to fence the property, lay concrete, and prep the parking garage for the electrical company as well as the plumbing crew is crucial. The dependency relationship between the Construction Company, electrical team, and plumbing company is important and the project manager will explain the importance to the general contractor overseeing the aforementioned company’s. Cost is important because lack of resources can impede the productivity of the project. Manpower, materials, and unexpected circumstances may affect the cost factor of this project, so maintaining a balance between quality and quantity is of the essence to minimizing cost and satisfying the stakeholder’s. The scope of the project is adjustable to cope with unforeseen events (e.g. political influence, economy, and resources). Leaving the scope of the project open for change will leave room for flexibility in case risk or any other event transpires. Time The project for the parking structure is estimated to take at least four months to build; this estimate includes bad weather. An important step in building parking structure is to have the correct dimensions prior to starting the building of the parking structure. Project Stakeholders will need to calculate the costs and materials for the project in advance. Stakeholders do not want FINAL PROJECT PLAN 5 to be halfway through the project and realize the project cannot be completed because of lack of planning. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 6 Budget A complete budget will include the expenses need to complete the project. The budget will include the purchase of the required permits, and surveillance of the property. Supplies to be included in the budges are the materials to make concrete. These supplies are concrete, aggregate, rebar, construction scaffolding, lighting fixtures, wiring, electrical fixtures, fencing, piping for a sprinkling system, signs, paint, and elevator equipment. The materials to install a ticket system and a payment system will be required. The scale of the garage is determined in the blueprint, and the amount of concrete needed will be calculated from the square footage outlined in the blueprint. The labor will be a major factor in the budget. The labor force includes the architect, the project manager, and various managers for the different labor forces required, including concrete construction workers, truck drivers, electricians, plumbers, elevator installers, ticket machine installers, and painters. The union workers are part of the labor budget. Insurance for accidents should be included in the budget. A 10% to 20% contingency for the variable costs should be added to the budget. Performance Criteria When looking at the completion of the parking garage, one needs to know if it will be easy to use and will it have accessibility at different points to move in and out without a log jam of cars; this is a main point for the project to ensure functionality. The next criteria is how many vehicles will this parking garage have space for. Will it function only for the employees of the building or will the customers be able to use the same parking garage at the same time. In addition, looking at the cost will there be any special features to this garage such as elevators or FINAL PROJECT PLAN 7 something special such as elevators. Further, it must be decided if there will be a fee to park in the garage to help supplement the cost of building. Proposal Summary The parking garage will offer a variety of benefits. Businesses will see an increase in foot traffic because customers will have the luxury of parking in the area in which he or she shops, versus dealing with the lack of parking spaces along the city streets. The parking garage will alleviate traffic jams in the streets and provide a clean as well as safe environment for individuals to park their cars. This parking garage will generate a significant ROI (return on investment) to stakeholders because this area of the city has little or no available parking for consumers, residents, or employees. Another benefit the stakeholders will notice is that parking garages require minimal maintenance. Stakeholder’s pay a small monthly maintenance fee and avoid the numerous headaches owning a condo or any other residential property brings. Consumers will be pleased with the luxury parking facility, the reasonable rates, and the surveillance/security officers patrolling the establishment. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 8 Parking Garage Project Planning Team A will present the technicalities of a parking garage project in two phases. Phase I will present an updated Statement of Work (SOW) in addition to SMART requirements for the project. The SOW lists specific tasks required to complete each item listed and the resources required accomplishing each task. In Phase II of the project tasks will be arranged into a schedule that accounts for dependencies between the tasks. The critical path through the network is identified. Finally, the network results are reviewed and compared to the project’s triple constraint with consideration to timing, budget, and project specifications. Statement of Work The statement of work (SOW) will consist of the following: Blueprints. The blueprints in relation to structural drawings and specifications are in accordance with city ordinances and have been approved by the city. Bid/Bid Approval. Project bids have been received and accepted and contractors will supply a 100% of the contract bid performance bond guaranteeing the project manager that the general contractor will perform 100% of the contract according to blueprint specifications, timelines, and city regulations. General Contractor. The accepted general contractor is in charge of the production of the project. The general contractor will stay abreast of deadlines and report any unforeseen circumstances or risk to the project manager. He or she will hire subcontractors in the fields of construction, electrical, and plumbing. SubContractor. Each subcontractor will perform his or her duties within specifications of the blueprints and any updated city ordinances. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 9 Project Manager. The project manager will frequently visit the location of the parking garage site. The project manager will incorporate contingency planning for the parking garage as well as approve or deny general contractor suggestions in relation to contingency planning. The project manager will hold regularly scheduled project team meetings to document the progress of the project. SMART Requirements The parking garage project is outlined using the SMART rule; specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timebound objectives as follows: Specific. The SOW is specific and clearly defines each task. Questions such as whom, what, where, when, which, and why are posed. The SOW states to whom the parking garage is for, what will be accomplished, where it will be located, which equipment will be used, and why the project is needed. Measurable. Criteria are established for measuring the achievement of each requirement that has been defined. Each contractor has specific plans and instructions. In addition, the blueprints associated with building the parking garage are within the guidelines and specifications of the city council. Achievable. The SOW outlines an achievable plan to build the parking garage. To determine achievability, it is imperative to seek the expertise of the contractors and employees outlined in the SOW. Realistic. The goals and plans for the parking garage meet with realistic expectations. Realism involves the ability to be willing and able to meet with an objective and is critical to meet the goal as well as fit the requirements for the budget. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 10 Time bound. The parking garage project is time bound and a strict schedule must be followed closely. Tasks Required to Complete the SOW Blueprints. The first task on the Statement of Work is to secure blueprints for the parking structure. Completing the task requires hiring an architect to draw the structural blueprints and provide an architect’s seal to prove the blueprints adhere to federal, state, and local building codes. Acquiring electrical blueprints to develop the electrical work within the parking structure is necessary. General Contractor. Hiring a general contractor is necessary to construct the design for the parking structure. According to Kerzner (2006), the general contractor may create his or her own Statement of Work. Regardless, the tasks required to complete the second stage in the Statement of Work are extensive. After acquiring the blueprints, a general contractor needs to be accepted according to an appropriate bid. Once a bid for a general contractor has been accepted, the list of tasks and resources required for the project’s completion must be identified. The list of tasks includes excavating, concrete work, plumbing, electrical wiring, painting, and landscaping. The general contractor’s next job will be to hire subcontractors for each of the tasks; coordinating the varied efforts of the individual subcontractors to ensure the successful completion of the parking structure. SubContractors and Supplies. As mentioned previously, the list of subcontractors needed for the project include excavating, concrete work, plumbing, electrical wiring, painting, and landscaping. The excavating subcontractor will need to hire a bulldozer and a dump truck to remove the existing parking lot. The project manager will need to contact the city to ensure no FINAL PROJECT PLAN 11 power, gas, or sewer lines are buried beneath the existing asphalt. The next task is hiring a sub contractor for the concrete work. The resources required to pour the foundation are wood framing, concrete, and rebar. A sprinkler system to counteract potential fires will require plumbing services to be sub contracted. Additionally, a drainage system for water runoff is necessary. Completing the task includes purchasing PVC pipes, drainage caps, sprinkler heads, and sprinkler tubing. Completing the electrical work requires hiring an electrician. The resources include the wiring, light sockets, circuit breakers, and lights. The driving lines on the surface of the parking structure, and the outside of the parking structure require painting. The resources include subcontracting the painters, the paint, the brushes, the rollers, and the air guns the painters will use. When the structure is complete, the grounds around the parking structure will be landscaped. A tractor, grass, bushes, and an irrigation system are the resources needed to complete the task. Phase II As listed in the schedule below the start of the parking garage project is dated February 1, 2010 and runs through April 1, 2011. The schedule lists in order the tasks and activities required to complete the garage project. As listed in the Gantt chart, later activities cannot start until the completion of earlier dependent activities. The blueprints are dependent upon hiring of the architects, the contractor is dependent upon the blueprints, the subcontractors hiring is dependent upon hiring the contractor. Furthermore, the concrete work cannot begin until the excavation is complete, and the plumbers and electricians cannot begin until the concrete work is finished. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 12 Parking Garage Schedule The following Gantt chart presents the parking garage schedule in a complete and cohesive chart and easy to follow. Critical Path The critical path is the sequence of activities that must occur on schedule in order for a project to be completed on schedule. If a task along the critical path is not on time the entire project will be delayed unless another task can be adjusted (CPM, 2010). The critical path is the longest path through the network of the project. The critical path has four parameters; earliest start time (ES), earliest finish time (EF), latest start time (LS), and latest finish time (LF). ES is the earliest time a task can begin after previous dependencies are completed. EF is equal to ES and the time needed to finish the project. LF is the latest time a task can be completed without causing delay to the project. LS is LF less FINAL PROJECT PLAN 13 the time required to complete the task or activity. The slack time is the time between ES and LS or between EF and LF. The critical path is the path through the network in which no slack time exists. The critical path is when ES is equal to the LS, and the EF is equal to the LF. Network Results and Triple Constraint According to the parking garage schedule from the Gantt chart for the start of the project, excavations will start June, 16, 2010. The project finish date is the end of March 2011. The time frame will depend on changes in weather, delivery issues in the supply chain, and the possible loss of labor. Other issues that could occur are building issues if the work is not completed according to specifications that do not adhere to the design of the architect. The budget could change if the timeline changes. After reviewing and comparing the results to the project’s triple constraints in relation to project specifications, the scope of work for completing the construction of the parking garage is planned out in detail. Each step or phase is in accordance with the blueprints, project management objectives as well as the budget. If the project faces any obstacle; any risk compromises the production of the parking garage, the general contractor will inform the project manager. Both individuals will collectively devise a contingency plan that will address the obstacle or risk and put the construction of the parking garage back on track in relation to time constraints as well as budget. Project Smart (2010) states, Objectives that are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Aligned, Realistic/Relevant, and Timebound) are likely to be achieved. When generic, offthe shelf objectives get the FINAL PROJECT PLAN 14 SMART treatment, they emerge as targets that engage focus, action, feedback and learning. These targets assist development of individual work plans, and also provide a guidance system for supervisorstaff performance review discussions. Planning Summary No reason for a page break here.Parking Garage Human Capital The use of communication to maintain effective teamwork is essential to the parking garage project. Team A has outlined key points in the parking garage project such as communication management, team selection, project revisions, performance monitoring, and risk management. Communications Management Communications Management is important to keep the members of the project management team uptodate on the progress of the project. A communication plan clarifies how the project manager will communicate significant information to the stakeholders who need to know. The goals, strategies, activities, timeframes, and stakeholders are explained in the communication plan. Communication must be provided to project stakeholders so tasks are completed on schedule and conflicts can be resolved. Processes can breakdown when communication among the team members and project stakeholders is not sufficient. Communication breakdown could in turn result in unfavorable outcomes of the final project such as additional costs or time overruns. A communication plan will ascertain what information needs to be communicated to the management and the customer. That information must be reported in a timely manner and readily available. Reports should be FINAL PROJECT PLAN 15 provided with the status of the project, and measures of the progress of the project. Forecasting can occur when reporting if tasks are on time, on whether or not the project is within the budget and within the scope of the project. Conflict will be resolved through communication. With effective communication between the project manager and the team, conflict can be addressed early. The best ways to reduce conflict is to identify areas of opportunity so the team and the project manager can work together and complete the project in a timely manner. Communications management is the basic skill set of developing an agenda to manage meetings, and plans for resolution of conflicts. Deciding the appropriate method of communication, whether it should be an informal memo or a formal report, a facetoface meeting or email messaging, are dependent upon the stakeholders. Presentation techniques can include the use of visual aids such as PowerPoint presentations. Possible barriers that influence the project or conflicts that may occur to interrupt or delay the project should be communicated quickly. Examples are labor strike anywhere along the supply chain, or extreme weather that could include tornado, flood, or earthquake. Documents that provide information can be posted to the company website on a monthly basis. Email bulletins can be sent out regularly. Weekly status meetings to brief management with presentations showing the status of the current stage of the project should be scheduled. A meeting should occur every six weeks to update management on the current state of the project. Team Selection The task of building a parking structure requires strict focus toward the project. Such focus is not typical of a functional structure, which leaves the pure project and matrix structures FINAL PROJECT PLAN 16 the alternatives of choice. The matrix, being a mixture of the functional structure and pure project, is a possible choice, but being functional to a degree the matrix structure usually continues employment of project members after the project’s completion; whereas, the pure project structure disperses project members after the completion of the project. Additionally, a parking structure is a “onetime, highly specific, unique [task]” that lends logic to using a pure project structure (Meredith & Mantel, 2006, p. 199); therefore, the pure project structure is chosen as the organizational structure for completing the parking structure. Organizational Structure The pure project structure is an ideal structure for completing the parking structure for the following reasons. The project manager has the ultimate authority; communication lines to management are short; reactions to changes are fast; and the project is kept simple and flexible (Meredith & Mantel, 2006). The first reason, project manager authority, is important to a highly specific task. The project manager has ultimate authority to accomplish the task of building a parking structure successfully. Because the project manager needs to have ultimate authority in regard to the task, he or she also requires shorter communication lines with the organization’s top management. Changes in plans to the parking structure call for immediate reaction. A project manager in charge of the entire project with direct access to top management can to react quickly to unseen changes. The final reason the pure project structure was chosen is its simplicity and flexibility. Few cogs are needed to run an efficient pure project structure; therefore, it is a desirable choice to the alternative functional and matrix structures. Approval for the project’s organizational structure was obtained by considering the project’s size, time frame, uniqueness, and experience with the structure itself (Kerzner, 2006). FINAL PROJECT PLAN 17 Task Responsibility Tasks Cindy Joe Ryan Raymond Amanda Find a Contractor * Work on the * Budget Out together the * team Communicate * with the customer Set up the plan of * action Project Revisions After a project is started it may be necessary to make revisions to how the project is worked and operated. Because the parking structure is exposed to the elements, the project is subject to various factors. Factors can change the date of completion in three ways. The first is every project’s favorite, the weather. Projects could be suspended because of rain, snow, and other conditions. Poor weather conditions could make the project close down until the weather improves. The next factor that can affect revisions is a delay of supplies that could cause the project to last longer than planned. A revision could be the lack of money and this could change the time frame of the project completion. The more time it takes to complete the project, the more money the client will lose, and a loss of time incurs an increase in expenses. The last factor is a lack of good communication. One person may be performing a task incorrectly, and he or she may have to redo that portion as a result of the misunderstanding. Resource Availability FINAL PROJECT PLAN 18 Potential Conflicts Good Issues Communication Strong teamwork and Lack of communication and not communication skills with understating what is going on project manager Delays Backup plan in place No backup plan and paying more for a rush delivery. Time On time Bad weather and lost time because of poor communication. Budget On budget and schedule Lost time and need to use more money and also paying more for a rush on supplies. Revisions will be communicated by briefings held in the morning. Communication via e mail to the whole organization with status updates will occur regularly. A phone call can take place if meetings are not possible. Performance Monitoring To communicate important variables of the project, such as time, cost, scope, and parameters of deliverables, the project manager and team must have performance monitoring. Objectives are to provide clarity of progress as the project continues, so management and the team can engage in corrective action early if the performance of the project alters considerably from the initial plans. With the parking garage project, there is a set schedule of work to be performed by the builders. If the plans should go awry, a corrective action plan must be set in place to get the project back on schedule. To avoid confusion or mishap the project manager will set standards to be followed consisting of the following: An example of informing people on a consistent basis in meetings, facilitated by the project manager. This reassurance, especially given by an effective leader, would go a long way to show others that they are cared about. This FINAL PROJECT PLAN 19 will also, in turn, keep the stakeholders abreast of any new information involved with the project. Performance can be measured by comparing real progress to projected progress. Risk Management The contractual agreement will address the risk management items in relation to level of risk, contingency planning as well as policies and procedures. The project manager and the general contractor will maintain open lines of communication throughout each phase of the project. The deliverables of the project will be clear and precise, in agreement between the project manager and the general manager, and executed by the general manager. The project manager will monitor the progress of the parking garage on a daily/weekly basis. The deadlines will provide a scope of work for the construction, electrical, and plumbing teams. The deadlines are critical and must be met to stay within budget constraints. In addition to the budget, the dependency relationships between the construction, electrical, and plumbing teams are critical and must be met by the general contractor. The project status information will be in accordance with the earned value (EV) concept. The EV values of each team will be as follows: construction 60%, electrical 20%, and plumbing 20%. As each phase reaches its completion stage, the value of that milestone will be added to the earned value. The earned value concept will provide a clear precise status for project management and enable the project manager to operate within the guidelines of triple constraints. Cost, schedule, and performance alternatives will be in accordance with the contract. The contract will cover the cost of materials and labor for the construction, electrical, and plumbing crews. The general contractor will submit additional cost and schedule concerns and performance alternatives to the project manager for approval. The project manager will FINAL PROJECT PLAN 20 implement contingency planning for the budget as well as schedule completion in the event of an unfavorable occurrence. The general contractor and the project manager will work together to cope with unforeseen events as well as ensure the parking garage reaches its completion stage. The general contractor will manage expectations on site with the construction, electrical, and plumbing teams. The project manager will conduct weekly meetings with the general contractor to ensure the project is on schedule, resources are available, and potential risks do not affect the production of the parking garage. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 21 Parking Garage Implementation, Control, and Termination Overall Evaluation An evaluation of the completed project consists of reviewing the triple constraints: time, budget, and specifications. The original project proposal summarized the triple constraints and requested contingency funding in the budget as necessary for the project’s success. Additionally, weather was factored into the project’s completion because of the outdoor environment, and project specifications included ease of use, holding capacity, and customer satisfaction. Most projects include tradeoffs and the parking structure project was no different. An extensive rain storm delayed laying concrete by nearly two weeks. Thus, the project experienced its first tradeoff between time, cost, and performance. Because customer satisfaction and cost are important, a time delay was a worthy tradeoff. Staying true to the schedule would have increased costs unnecessarily and extended the curing process for the concrete because of the rain. Therefore, postponing the concrete work during the rain storm was a logical choice. However, once the concrete foundation and structure were formed, weather was no longer a factor. The proposed budget called for a 10% to 20% contingency for variable costs. Factoring costs into necessary tradeoffs, and extending time when needed, the project performed on par with the forecasted budget. Certainly, the budget included contingency costs; nevertheless, the project remained on par with management’s predictions. The final evaluation of the project includes the project specifications. As mentioned previously, the project objectives included ease of use, holding capacity, and customer FINAL PROJECT PLAN 22 satisfaction. The finished parking structure relieved overcrowding on the downtown streets by adding adequate parking spaces, and the customer’s tenants in the office buildings are noticing an increase in new customers because of the additional parking. Therefore, the project specifications, or objectives, were met successfully. Return Human Resources to the Organization The project manager and project team who have been working on this major project have completed a big accomplishment. The entire project team will return to the positions in which they each came from. The main project manager and the upper management who put this project in motion include the owner of the building, the companies’ accounting team, and the city planning manager. These individuals will stay at the correct position with the company that owns the building and property. The other individuals on the team included subcontractors, the blueprint designer, a general contractor, plumbers, electricians, and frame workers who will be terminating this project and relocating back to their original companies. This project has shown that teams from different companies can pull together and complete a project in the time allotted. It will not be an issue to bring them all back to the regular population due doing the same jobs and the transition will not take long to complete. Input for Future Projects Effective communication was the main thing that went right with the project. In business, especially in relation to a project; communication is crucial. In the beginning, the project manager as well as the architect put into place a blueprint that was clear and precise. The blueprints provided the foundation to the parking garage in addition to specifications that were acceptable by the city. The project manager and the general contractor communicated with one FINAL PROJECT PLAN 23 another and held weekly meetings to keep one another uptospeed on the parking garage. The project manager explained the objectives in relation to triple constraints and the general contractor conveyed the goals and objectives to the subcontractors. Ezine (2010) states, For managers in organizations, the use of effective communication skills is the most likely activity to ensure success for their team. It is where a manager needs to spend most of their time, in the conversations they hold, dayin, dayout with each of their people. In relation to wrongdoings or miscalculations, nothing went wrong. Communication between parties (project management, general contractor, and subcontractors) alleviated any possible errors or setbacks. The parking garage in connection to production fell in line with the schedule and budget as well as scope. Whenever an unfavorable event occurred, the general contractor and the project manager devised a contingency plan together to minimize the effect on the project. Effective communications as well as a strong project team are the core ingredients needed to repeat the results of the aforementioned project. FINAL PROJECT PLAN 24 References CPM, online, (2010). NetMBA Business Knowledge Center, Operations > Critical Path, Retrieved April 4, 2010 from http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/cpm/ Ezine articles, (2010) The Valuable Management Benefits of Effective Communication. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from http://ezinearticles.com/?TheValuableManagementBenefitsof EffectiveCommunication&id=3689646 Kerzner, H (2006). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. (9th ed). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Meredith, J.R., Mantel, S. J. (2006) Project Management: A Managerial Approach. (6th ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Project Smart (2010). Use SMART Objectives to Focus Goals, Plans and Performance. Retrieved April 3 , 2010, from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/usesmartobjectivesto focusgoalsplansandperformance.html Excellent job with the paper and the project! I hope it helped to see how a project is developed from start to finish! You developed an excellent paper and met all of the objectives of the requirements. Total points = 15 points
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