Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide PSY 1113
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Moriah Cheng on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 11/18/15
Unit 3 Study Guide Chapter 9 Human Develonment Development the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life They occur through physical processes changes in a biological nature cognitive processes changes in thought intelligent and socioemotional processes changes in relationships Study methods Cross sectional at number of people are assessed at different ages and differences are noted Longitudinal studies assess the same participants multiple times over a lengthy period Nature vs Nurture Nature is a person s biological inheritance genes genotype Nurture is an individual s environmental and social experiences phenotype is a combination of both nature and nurture Resilience is a person s ability to adapt or recover from difficult times Developmental psychologists study how and to what extent early childhood events effect characteristics later in life Prenatal Development germinal zygote gtembryonic embryogtfetal 0 Teratogen any agent causing a birth defect smoking drugs fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD Infant re exes rooting turning head when something strokes their teeth evolutionary benefit feeding gripping toe curling startle Babinski toes fan out The amount of brain material in some areas can almost double in only a year up to children of four years of age synaptic connections are formed and strengthened Piaget s theory of Cognitive Development 0 Assimilation incorporation of new information into existing knowledge 0 Accommodation adjust schemas to new information 0 birth2 coordination of sensory experiences seeing and hearing with motor actions physical 0 Object permanence crucial accomplishment understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they can t be directly seen 0 Preoperational stage 27 egocentric thought principle of conservation 0 Concrete operational stage 711 logical thinking concrete thoughts 0 Formal operational stage 1115adulthood abstract thought formal logic hypotheticaldeductive reasoning Socioemotional Development temperament an individual s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding 0 Easy child positive mood quickly establishes regular routines easily adapts 0 Di icult child react negatively and frequently cries irregular daily routines slow to accept new experiences 0 Slowtowarmup child low activity level somewhat negative in exible cautious about new experiences 0 Infant attachment close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver infant monkey experiment 0 Attachment secure mom is home base unhappy when she leaves fine when she returns avoidance changes are physiological not observational anxiousambivalent anxious before mom leaves ambivalent when she returns Erikson s Theory of Socioemotional Development 0 Trust vs mistrust birth18 months trust is developed when basic needs are met once trust is established toddlers can begin to see themselves as independent agents 0 Autonomy vs shame and doubt 18 months 3 yrs toddlers can develop either a positive sense of independence and autonomy or negative feelings of shame and doubt 0 Initiative vs guilt 35yrs children develop a initiate otherwise they feel guilty and anxious 0 Industry vs inferiority 6 yrs puberty mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills or they feel inferior Parenting 0 Authoritarian strict controlling 0 Authoritative encourages independence but still places limits and controls on behavior 0 Neglectful lack of parental involvement 0 Permissive placing few limits Moral Development 0 Preconventional morality is judged in terms of rewards and punishments no they would go to jail 0 Conventional morality means pleasing others acting as good members of society no against the law against the commandments O Postconventional morality can transcend the law broader principles are applied yes it s the right thing to do to save a life PubertygtCognitive development 0 Testosterone androgen males Estradiol estrogen females 0 Adolescent egocentrism cause of adolescent suicide Socioemotional development identity vs identity confusion 0 Marcia s Four Identity Statuses Identity Diffusion no exploration or commitment Identity Foreclosure commitment without exploration Identity Moratorium exploration without commitment Identity Achievement commitment after exploration Aging see lecture notes 0 Cellularclock theory free radical theory hormonal stress theory 0 Cognitive changes speed and memory declines general information does not decline brain compensation 0 Erikson s Socioemotional Theory intimacy vs isolation generativity vs stagnation integrity vs despair O Socioemotional development marriage midlife crises social environment Chapter 11 Gender and Sexualitv 0 Sex properties that determine classification as male or female 0 Gonads glands that produce sex hormones ovaries in females tests in males 0 Secondary sex characteristics traits that differ between the sexes but are not part of the reproductive system 0 Gender social and psychological aspects of being female or male 0 Gender identity sense of belonging to male or female sex 0 Androgynous individual high on both instrumental masculine traits and expressiveness female traits O SRY gene acts on Y chromosome essentially turning the embryo into a male 0 Theories of Gender Development 0 Biological Theories looks at how biology in uences gender Gender differences in toy preferences from birth Similar patterns seen in nonhuman primates O Evolutionary Theories views gender differences from the perspective of adaptation and natural selection 0 Social Cognitive Approaches children learn gender through reward and punishment observation and modeling 0 Social Role Theory biological sex differences led to specialized roles division of labor 0 Gender Schema mental image of what is appropriate for males and females in their culture 0 Gender Roles expectation for how men and women should think act and feel 0 Gender Stereotypes overly general beliefs and expectations about what men and women are like 0 Gender Similarities Hypothesis men and women are much more alike than different 0 Men usually engage in overt aggression direct physical or verbal O engage in behavior meant to harm the social standing of another person ie Mean Girls 0 Sexual orientation is the direction of someone s erotic interest does not mean simply sexual behavior includes desires behaviors feelings fantasies and sense of identity 0 Sexual orientation is NOT due to observational learning Likely causes genetic heritability prenatal hormone and brain differences hemisphere symmetry epigenetics more males in a family more likely youngest male to be gay Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion ODrive aroused state of tension that occurs because of a physiological need need deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate the deprivation 0 Theories of motivation 0 Optimum arousal theory individuals are motivated to maintain an optimum level of internal arousal YerkesDodson Law performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal Maslow s hierarchy of needs Physiological needsgt safetygt love and belonginggt esteemgt selfactualization Selfdetermination theory three basic organismic needs competence selfefficiency mastery relatedness engaging in warm relations with 0 0 others autonomy we are in control of our own lives 0 Intrinsic motivation doing something out of interest or organismic needs 0 Extrinsic motivation doing something because of external incentives such as rewards and punishment 0 Selfregulation controlling behavior in order to pursue important objectives 0 Emotion felling or affect that can involve physiological arousal O ANS breathing heart rate digestion SNS rapid reactions to threats faster heart rate blood ow rapid breathing PNS calms body drops heart rate food digestion increases 0 Theories of Emotions o emotions from an I feel sad because I m crying Perceive external stimulus gt physiological arousal gt interpretation of physiological change gt emotion O emotions and physiological reactions I feel sad and I m crying Perceive external stimulus gt physiological arousalemotion simultaneous and independent 0 emotion is determined by two factors O Facial feedback hypotheses facial expressions can in uence emotions as well as re ect them 0 Display rules sociocultural standards that determine when where and how emotions should be expressed O Classifying Emotions O Valence pleasantness or unpleasantness O Negative a ect anger guilt sadness 0 Positive a ect joy happiness interest 0 Arousal intensity of the emotion active vs passive High Mousul Tinse Aler Marmara Excited rmed Elnled LJw1 HEW LBW Positive High ll39tl39lanre legume 39Iinlenre Sad nn en Depressed Serene lethargir Hellde Fmig ued nlm Law Amusm Chapter 12 Personalitv 0 Personality a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts emotions and behavior that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world 0 Psychodynamic perspective emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious 0 Freud iceberg analogy 0 Id unconscious drives reservoir of sexual energy 0 Ego demands of reality abides by reality principle attempts to give the id what it wants within the norms of society 0 I harsh internal judge of behavior conscience 0 Defense mechanisms tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality 0 Developing personality oral stagegtanal stagegtphallic stagegtlatency periodgtgenital stage 0 Oedipus con ict boy s intense desire to replace father and enjoy the affections of his mother 0 Females have penis envy only satiated by having a male child 0 Trait Theory personality consist of broad enduring dispositions that lead to characteristic responses traits 0 Big Five openness conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness neuroticism 0 Biological Approaches O Evsenck s Reticular Activation Svstem Theorv reticular formation And its connections controls our optimal arousal levels which differ based on personality 0 Introversion quiet reserved passive above optimal level keeping distractions to a minimum being alone 0 Extraversion outgoing social dominant below optimal level seeking distractions 0 Grey s BISBAS Theory behavioral inhibitionactivation systems direct attention to awards and punishments BAS approach sensitive to rewards in the environment predisposes one to feelings of positive emotion underlies the trait of extraversion BIS avoidance sensitive to punishments avoidance learning predisposes individual to feelings of fear underlies trait of neuroticism 0 Behavioral genetics the study of inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics 0 Difficult to separate genetics and environment to determine Which is most important 0 Genetic factors are responsible for about 50amp of the variance in the Big Five traits the rest is nonshared environment
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