Intro to Anthropology, Test 2 Study Guide
Intro to Anthropology, Test 2 Study Guide ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Intro to Anthropology – Professor Starrett – Test 2 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Society, Culture, Social Organization - Emile Durkheim – compared society to an organism; proposed the theory of social organization - organismic analogy i. structure and function a. a structure observable trough action i. social facts 1. manners of acting, thinking, and feeling 2. external to the individual 3. are invested with coercive force 4. exercise control over the individual b. emergent properties – qualities or characteristics of a system that are not shared by the elements that make them up, only by the elements in a group i. transcendent ii. pre-existing ii. what does culture do for society? a. establishes boundaries i. external ii. internal 1. race/ethnicity 2. gender 3. socioeconomic class b. establishes identifications with a group c. establishes expectations i. how to be happy 1. social order – content with their lot; convinced they have no right to more d. structures thought and perception i. anomaly – something that falls out of our normal societal expectation; studied by Mary Douglas 1. we deal with anomalies by a. re-categorizing them b. controlling them c. avoiding them d. labelling them as “dangerous” - totem – represents members of a group - language in culture and social interactions - tag questions – a question following a statement or fact - modal – asks for information - affective – manages interactions between people - facilitative – initiates an interaction - softener – lessens the force of a command - most women use facilitative - most men use modal - interruptions and overlaps - overlap – a mistake in conversational turn-taking - interruption – breaking into someone else’s turn and taking over -same-sex conversations had the same amount of overlaps and interruptions between speakers -in opposite-sex conversations almost all overlaps and interruptions between men and women were made by men - ethnocentrism – the opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct and, indeed, the only true way of being fully human - cultural relativism – understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living Foraging/Hunting and gathering - foragers - diet – food found in their environment (fruit, berries, nuts, roots, hunted animals) - social life – egalitarian (every member of the band is seen as socially equal) - roles in !Kung society - men provide meat, 40% or less of all calories consumed by a band - women provide almost all plant food, 60% or more of all calories consumed by a band - band – small social group - subsistence – getting what one needs to survive - !Kung birth control – 44 month gap between children (on avg.) - post-partum sex taboos (a couple cannot have sex for a year after the birth of their child) - abortifacients - infanticide - post-partum amenorrhea – menstruation stops for a period of time after giving birth -prolactin – hormone that stimulates the production of breast milk; suppresses the period. Since !Kung women breast feed their children until they are about 3 or 4 years old, the almost constant production of prolactin induces prolonged post-partum amenorrhea, explaining the wide birth spacing that the !Kung have despite not having modern birth control - sedentarization – as South Africa became colonized, the !Kung were no longer allowed to live a nomadic lifestyle, and had to stay in one place - nomadism – a lifestyle of moving across a landscape on a regular basis to hunt and forage - levelling mechanisms – generalized reciprocity, gossip, arrow sharing - generalized reciprocity – if you have something that someone else doesn’t, you’re obligated to give it to them Systems of Exchange - exchange – movement of things between human beings - gift exchanges – noncapitalist forms of economic exchange that are deeply embedded in social relations and always require a return gift - commodity exchanges – interpersonal economic exchanges typical of the capitalist market in which goods are exchanged for cash and exchange partners need having nothing further to do with one another - reciprocity – the exchange of goods and services of equal value - generalized – idea that you live in a social group and everyone has claim to material objects -a system of reciprocity in which the value of things exchanged is not calculated; time of exchange is not specific - balanced – form of exchange where you do calculate value of change and appropriate time exchange - negative – theft, competitive exchange, cheating - redistribution – collection of items and redistribution of them to people - stratified -taxes – income of common people goes up to the government to pay for services like police, fire department, roads, etc. -corvee – taxation that is taken in the form of labor - leveling – brings a person down in wealth but up in prestige -mayordomia – a practice in Latin America where a wealthy member of the community (mayordomo) is in charge of planning the town’s patron saint celebration -potlatch – Native American chiefs in the Pacific Northwest would compete to give each other more gifts during a yearly gathering -pig feasts – a practice in Melanesia where a farmer with a lot of pigs kills most of them and gives the meat to the people in their village and neighboring villages - market - place where people can buy, sell, and barter - time (specific times when a market may take place) - process through which material goods circulate through society - system where everything necessary for holding a productive life is available for sale - concept - commodities – things that are manufactured solely for sale - capital – productive property - money – medium that rests on very complicated set of considerations Systems of Marriage - marriage – the socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of different ways - monogamy – a marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one spouse at a time - polygamy – a marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one spouse at a time - polygyny – a marriage pattern in which a man may be married to more than one wife at a time - polyandry – a marriage pattern in which a woman may be married to more than one husband at a time - hypergamy – marrying “up”; someone above your status - hypogamy – marrying “down”; someone below your status - endogamy – marriage within a defined social group - exogamy – marriage outside a defined social group - Nuer ghost marriage – if a man dies without heirs, a woman can marry his ghost and take on lovers; the children she has with said lovers are bared in the name of the deceased - woman marriage – an older, wealthy Nuer woman marries a younger woman and encourages her to take male lovers and have children in the wealthy woman’s name (thus becoming a “female father”) - levirate – brothers considered equivalent to one another in terms of marriage - sororate – sisters considered equivalent to one another in terms of marriage - incest taboo – rules against committing incest - inbreeding – reduces genetic variation; increases the proportion of homozygous alleles already present in a population - arranged marriage - minor marriage - a practice in Southeast China where a family with a daughter but no sons will adopt a boy as their son and later marry him to their daughter, whom he was raised with - bridewealth – the transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride on the occasion of their marriage. It represents compensation to the wife’s lineage for the loss of her labor and childbearing capacities - brideservice – the man hunts/works for the wife’s family for a number of years until he has “paid” them back for marrying their daughter - dowry – the wealth transferred, usually from parents to their daughter, at the time of her marriage - marriage as a social strategy - can be used to increase one’s socioeconomic status - increase one’s land ownership Systems of Descent and Kinship - lineage – the consanguineal members of descent groups who believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors - clan – a descent group formed by members who believe they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical links - patriliny – a social group formed by people connected by father-child links - matriliny – a social group formed by people connected by their mother-child links - cross cousins – the children of a person’s parent’s opposite gender siblings (a father’s sister’s children or a mother’s brother’s children) - parallel cousins – the children of a person’s parents’ same-gender siblings (a father’s brother’s children or a mother’s sister’s children) - corporate descent groups – defined by ancestry and consequently exist in time; use parent-child links to transmit group identity and incorporate new members - inheritance – money or goods passed down from parents to their children - affinal relatives – relatives by marriage (sister-in-law, father-in-law, etc.) - consanguineal relatives – kinship connections based on descent; relatives by blood - lineal relatives – exist within line of descent (parents, self, children, etc.) - collateral relatives – exist on either side of line of descent (uncles, cousins, etc.) - fictive kinship – the use of ideas of kinship to transfer to other people (ex., calling a close family friend your “aunt” or “uncle”) family tree symbols ▲ – males ● – females = -- means marriage | -- means relationship of descent __ -- indication of siblinghood Ego – self F – father M – mother B – brother Z – sister S – son D – daughter C – cousin A – aunt U – uncle example ▲ =● ●= ▲ | | ▲__● =▲__●__● =▲ | | ●___● ▲
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