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BSU / History / HIST 150 / What is a theory that places the sun as the center of the universe, an

What is a theory that places the sun as the center of the universe, an

What is a theory that places the sun as the center of the universe, an

Description

School: Ball State University
Department: History
Course: The West in the World
Professor: Malone
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: economic expansion, scientific revolution, colonization, enlightenment, political revolution, and Society
Cost: 50
Name: History Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material including: Economic expansion Colonization Scientific revolution Enlightenment Political revolution Industrial revolution Responses to changes in society
Uploaded: 11/18/2015
26 Pages 50 Views 8 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study guide


What is a theory that places the sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it?



Economic expansion Colonization  

Scientific revolution  Enlightenment  

Political revolution

Industrial revolution  

Responses to changes in  society

__________________________________________________________ Vocab

 Tools for exploration: Magnetic compass. Mariners of the 1400s were improving their latitude readings. The circular astrolabe was a bulky instrument with two viewing  holes on the circumference and a moving pointer in the center of the circle. The  pointer stayed parallel to the horizon when the instrument was directed towards the North Star. Mariners could read the angle between the viewing holes and the pointer to determine the ship's latitude. Quadrants were similar to the astrolabes but  weighed much less because they were shaped only as quarter circles. 


Who is the father of observational astronomy and father of modern physics?



If you want to learn more check out It is a rare childhood tumor of the retina, arising in the photoreceptor cells, is normally observed in about 1 in 20,000 children, what is it?

Old World/New World exchange: crops, diseases, animals, plants, spices,  technologies, farming methods, religions, etc.  

Capitalism: free enterprise, free market. An economic and political system in which  a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather  than by the state 

Incentive – self interest

Competition – efficient use of resources

Markets - free market

Government role  

1. Allow basic freedoms

2. Protect property rights  

3. Establish and enforce basic civil and criminal laws

4. Provide for national defense


Who is maximilien françois marie isidore de robespierre?



5. Be relatively stable

Copernicus: presents the idea that the sun is at the center of the universe  (heliocentric model of the solar system)

Heliocentric universe: a theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe,  and the planets orbiting around it. The heliocentric model replaced geo-centrism,  which is the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe. If you want to learn more check out Who are avery mccarty and macleod?

Brahe: known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and  planetary observations; he has been described more recently as "the first  competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact  empirical facts. 

Kepler: known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia  nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also  provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between the surface and deep structure of sentences?

Galileo: built an improved version of the telescope; Galileo has been called the  "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", and the "father of science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic  confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites  of Jupiter, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the gateway to the akropolis behind lysistrata in the background?

Newton: widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book “Mathematical Principles of Natural  Philosophy" laid the foundations for classical mechanics. He formulated laws of  motion and universal gravitation 

Bacon: rejected the reliance on ancient authorities and advocated the collection of  data without preconceived notions. Then scientific conclusions could be reached  through inductive reasoning – drawing general conclusions from particular concrete  observations

Voltaire: French enlightened thinker, strong views on religion. Of all religions  Christians should inspire the most tolerant, but until now Christians have been the  most intolerant of all men. Faith consists in believing when it is beyond the power of reason to believe. If you want to learn more check out What are the three types of acid-base titrations?
We also discuss several other topics like How is lifespan development defined?

 Locke - Two Treatises of Government: government deprives its power from the  consent of the governed, people have the supreme power, and it is possible to  remove tyrannical government. He switches idea of power coming from the top  down

Declaration of Independence: the formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson  declaring the freedom of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain. An  example of the Declaration of Independence was the document adopted at the  Second Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776. 

Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations: smith does not invent capitalism but makes a  few key observations. Ex. Taxes should be kept as low as possible, the more money  taken as taxes the less money people have to spend, invest, expand businesses,  etc. If tax money collected higher than what the government needs, people left  living off each other. Smith said there should be free trade within a country and  between nations (Let them operate on a global scale//Increasingly efficient). The  wealth of nations can expand, not a fixed amount of wealth

Neo-classical art and architecture: Greco roman façade; government buildings in  Washington built with neoclassical style from the enlightened period. Paintings from  the enlightenment (examples of patriotism to the state, self-government).

Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of  the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts and,  to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, which was also a source for academic Late Baroque architecture. 

How and why the American Revolution was unusual: the American Revolution was  the first of many that starts because they want to break away from the rule of the  British King (the king was across the sea - challenges of distance). Self-government  is set up, did not end in military control like many others. Leadership of the  revolution were enlightened thinkers. People paid low taxes in American colonies.  

French Revolution: first revolution in Europe. King XVI was in terrible debt; into  deficit spending for years. Called an estates general. An uprising in France against  the monarchy from 1789 to 1799 which resulted in the establishment of France as a  republic. An example of the French Revolution is the storming of the Bastille by  the French citizens. 

3 Estates: 1st estate (clergy), 2nd estate (nobility), and 3rd estate (commoners)

King Louis XVI: Louis XVI, also known as Louis Capet, was King of France from 1774  until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was King of the  French. He was guillotined on January 21 1793 

Bastille: the royal prison symbolizing the old regime that was destroyed in the  French Revolution

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: France’s revolutionary 1789  declaration of rights stressing liberty, equality, and fraternity  

Reign of Terror: the violent period of the French Revolution between 1792 and 1794

Robespierre: Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer  and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French  Revolution and the Reign of Terror. 

Jacobins: a member of a democratic club established in Paris in 1789.  The Jacobins were the most radical and ruthless of the political groups formed in the wake of the French Revolution, and in association with Robespierre they instituted  the Terror of 1793–4. 

Napoleon Bonaparte: Military general, sets himself up in Paris as a dictator ending  the French Revolution. Napoleon will institute some enlightenment reforms, but not  what the middle class had intended with self-government.

Retreat from Moscow: the French caught up with the Russian army which had dug  itself in on hillsides before a small town called Borodino, seventy miles west  of Moscow. The battle that followed was the largest and bloodiest single-day action  of the Napoleonic Wars. A French victory, the Russian army was able to extricate

itself and withdrew the following day, leaving the French without the decisive victory Napoleon sought. 

Waterloo: site in Belgium of a decisive defeat of Napoleon in 1815

Industrial revolution: the rapid emergence of modern industrial production during  the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries beginning in England and spread to  Western Europe and United States. Economies were expanding, caused greater  farming efficiency

Steam engine advantages: fast, efficient, higher quantities, less people needed for  production, steam engine can run all the time, more powerful than other options,  built in different sizes; adaptable

Factory system: many workers producing goods in a repetitive series of steps and  specialized tasks using powerful machines

Corporation - limited liability: Prior to the industrial revolution there were joint stock  companies and share in some of the profits (Great if company makes profits, but if  the company goes bankrupt you are potentially liable for the company’s debt). With the Industrial Revolution corporations began limited liability which limited the  amount of your investment for losses, which provides a great pool of capital that did not exist before… investment was needed for advances

Social changes – Leisure time with work days ending earlier, transition problems

Cities: Growing at rates that could not have been predicted, forced adaption to large populations. Poor sanitation and issues with trash and sewage removal, air  pollution, fires, disease, overcrowding  

Working conditions: dangerous at times, hot, and overcrowded in many factories

Child Labor: early 1800s, kids viewed as small capable adults who could do work in  mills, factories, and mines. Tough overall living conditions, families needed the  income from children to survive. Standard of living begins increasing in the second  half of the 19th century, then child labor laws are passed.

Middle class: rapid growth in the middle class with positions such as clerks,  accountants, engineers, lawyers, physicians, etc. Picked up in the second half of the 19th century, a dramatic difference from previous society with nobility and clergy

Standard of living: very low even harder than life may have been on the farm,  eventually raised half way through the 19th century. A lot of new jobs and  opportunities eventually

Conservatism: supported traditional status quo of power. Support traditional order  monarchy, clergy, and so on based on belief people are basically bad or wicked who  need control to be kept in check  

Liberalism: support ideas of enlightenment. Advocates on things like freedom of  press, assembly, government by consent of the governed, free market, people are  basically good and rational actors

Socialism: origins in the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.  The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed  'scientific socialism'. In the last third of the 19th century in Europe social democratic parties arose in Europe drawing mainly from Marxism. 

Romanticism: a cultural ideology during the first half of the nineteenth century  stressing feeling over reason

Nationalism: a nineteenth and twentieth century ideology stressing the importance  of national identity and the nation-state

Darwinism: the theory of evolution of species by natural selection advanced by  Charles Darwin

Social Darwinism: is a modern name given to various theories of society that  emerged in the United Kingdom, North America, and Western Europe in the 1870s,  which claim to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the  fittest to sociology and politics

Marxism: a variety of socialism propounded by Karl Marx stressing economic  determinism and class struggle – “scientific socialism”

Imperialism: the policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or  by the establishment of economic and political control over other nations or peoples

Reasons for, how accomplished, impact  

Berlin Conference 1884: also known as the Congo Conference; regulated European  colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided  with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and  organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome,  the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of  the Scramble for Africa. 

Dates to Memorize

1497 - Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope (Africa) to India

1543 - Heliocentric theory is described by Copernicus in On the Revolution of  Heavenly Spheres

c.1760s - invention of steam engine by James Watt

1789 - French Revolution begins

1815 - Napoleon defeated at for the final time at Waterloo, exiled to St. Helena 1848 – Marx publishes Communist Manifesto

Economic expansion

∙ Early modern period

∙ If compared Europe’s wealth to other places like china, middle east, etc. in  the 1400s Europe looks far behind, move forward 300 years Europe looks  significantly wealthier and well off

 ∙      Capitalism 

o Free enterprise, free market

o Main economic decisions are made by private individuals as owners,  consumers, and workers

o Individuals make main economic decisions in contrast to socialism  where government makes main economic decisions

 Economic decisions made by producers include: business focus,  who to hire, how many employees, prices, production,  

advertising, who to sell to, land needed for production, materials needed

 Economic decisions made by consumers: what products to buy,  how much they want to spend

 Workers decide: who they want to work for, acceptable wage,  benefits needed from employment besides salary, influence they have on leadership

∙ There is not a fixed amount of wealth designating in order for you to get  wealthier someone else has to get poorer, new wealth can be created ∙ If you get to keep the profit from what you produce, then you have incentive  to do well

o Incentive driven by self interest

o ONLY works if you are making someone other people want  

∙ What sets prices in a community?

o Supply and demand  

o Prices are set by the marketplace

∙ Competition drives resources for their most efficient/important use o Ex. Land may have better use being a mill than farming produce ∙ Wealth is created by one thing, productive activity 

o Clearing land, farming, creating barrels, selling goods, etc.

∙ Government can affect the production of wealth but cannot create wealth ∙ We only get things in a community if we have money left over to purchase  them

o Money is needed for:

 Schools, hospitals, community centers, food banks, shelters,  parks

o The United States spending on household spending is smaller than  other countries

 Spend more on health care because of wealth is produced to  invest there

 The United States is by far the most charitable nation in the  world, because of an excess of wealth (money spent on

hurricane relief or disease research is because we have extra  money and resources to do so)

∙ Capitalism – key points

1. Incentive – self interest

2. Competition – efficient use of resources

3. Mesh with human nature

4. Wealth created only by productivity

5. Overall wealth can increase

6. Increased wealth allows for education, charity, healthcare, etc. 7. Government must do a few basic things

∙ Including:  

 defense (protection of you and your property from  

foreign invasion)

 property must be protected from the government itself

 property protected from your neighbor (others in the  

nation)

8. Provides opportunity, not guarantee  

∙ In order for capitalism to work, government MUST:

6. Allow basic freedoms

7. Protect property rights  

8. Establish and enforce basic civil and criminal laws

9. Provide for national defense

10.Be relatively stable

∙ Interconnected trends affecting economic expansion  

(All these things coming together as you use your knowledge and hard work  to create wealth)

1. Growing freedom and opportunity – capitalism

2. Increased farming efficiency  

∙ Better technology

∙ Better use of land

∙ Crops from the new world

 Corn/ Potatoes (very efficient than most crops)

 Peanuts, squash, pumpkins, cacao, manioc, chili  

peppers, pineapples, papaya, avocadoes, tomatoes

 Cash crop: tobacco  

3. Technological advances

∙ Better looms, printing presses

∙ Not quite factories, just better equipment  

4. Less chaos and marauding warfare

∙ Not the kind of thing where the land was devastated  

regularly or cities being burned down

∙ Warfare more restricted to the battlefield or the seas

∙ In western Europe not regularly in cities or country side

5. Expanding markets

∙ The bigger your market place the more efficient they operate ∙ Very little trade in middle ages between cities and villages…  if our market expands over towns competition increases

∙ Trade expands (imports/exports worldwide)

6. Increasing capitalisms

∙ Creating more wealth// more wealth to expand// build more//  explore more// technological advances

∙ Countries with lower taxes, who took less from their citizens, and relatively  freer citizens grew faster (ex. The Netherlands)

Colonization  

∙ In the early 1400s China had the largest ocean vessels in size, with the  largest fleets

o They sailed to India, and sailed as far as the eastern coast of Africa  (accepted historical fact)

o Decision by the emperors in the 1420s didn’t want to colonize  Why?

∙ At this time Western Europe is beginning from the middle  

ages

∙ Chinese very advanced at this time

∙ What they brought back in trade didn’t seem very  

impressive to them

∙ Chinese view: there is China and there’s everyone  

else(barbarians)

o That view combined with stuff is not impressive,  

Confucius view that merchants were leaches on  

society  

∙ Brought fleet home, make use of fleet for other things…  

felt there were better things to invest in

∙ Europeans very anxious to make money

o Small kingdoms

o Want to establish themselves

o Interested in goods from the East

o Trade by land, pay off all the merchants along the way and make the  journey those goods end up being very expensive

 Travel with large quantities of seasonings for example over sea  and make a killing

∙ Why seasonings

o Taste

o Show wealth

o Preserves meat, bottom line it is an extender of  

food

 Food kind of old now palatable, can eat it  

months longer

o Portuguese trying to go around Africa  

 Continue to go around Africa and eventually into India

 Can bring back shiploads full of spices

and silk from the East

 Maps for trade kept secret, protect

monopoly as long as they can for

bringing goods to Europe

 Wealth in Western Europe is available to

invest

∙ Stock companies to try to get in

on the wealth of trade

 Went around Cape of Good Hope

∙ Initially named Cape of Storms

o Name not very good to get

sailors and investors interested

o Renamed Cape of Good Hope to encourage sailors  

and investors

o Dutch, English, etc. jump to settle lands along new continent to find  gold, silver, timber, indigo, crops, tobacco… to make money  

∙ Expanded market

o Did better financially when they could trade peacefully

o When Europeans and Asians brought their diseases (like small pox) they  wiped out 80% or more of the new world out  

 Inhabitants of the new world had no more understanding of  

diseases than Europeans… when they saw so many people dying  and very few of the new people get affected (psychological  

concept – new world beliefs must be stronger, their God keeps them safe// out Gods must be angry with us)

o Spain

 Brings back HUGE amounts of wealth  

 Gold, silver, sugar, timber, indigo

 Colonies owned by handful of people at the top

 Spanish colonies of the new world looks like traditional Spain, looks  like middle ages

 Few at the top bring wealth to Spain, spent on palaces and wars  All the money poured into Spain, essentially detrimental to them  because it’s in the hands of people at the top

 Wealth brought in at the top – inflation  

 Common citizens NOT making more, doing worse

 Money in the hands of the government goes right back out again  Second rate power, despite all the wealth brought from trade o Dutch colonies in the East

 Driven by incentive to work hard, keep what you work for

 Own the land

o English colonies

 Within a century America becomes an economic power house Scientific revolution

∙ Same time as Renaissance  

∙ Revolution – dramatically different  

∙ What is revolutionary about it?

∙ What kinds of things does a good scientist do?

o Observe o Create  

hypothesis o Collect  data

o Exchange  informatio

n

o Ask  

questions

o Experimen t  

o Predict  o Invent

o Teach  

o New  

perspectiv e

o New  

theories  

and laws

∙ To make great scientists you need: creativity, imagination, philosophy,  questions, visual arts, ideas… in addition to the math and science ∙ So significant was the impact of the Greeks and specifically Aristotle  (astronomy/ the solar system) was not questioned in the middle ages… in the Scientific Revolution people decided to open up and question the traditional  ideas which is what people have believed for two thousand years…  questioning science and religion overall  

∙ After 1500-2000 years why did people begin asking questions in the first  place?

o Humanism, heart of the Renaissance is human ideas matter… YOU can  use your reason and it can be as good or better than ideas of people  before you

o Economic expansion allows for time to explore new options  o Economic expansion – expanded education

∙ Copernicus: presents the idea sun is at the center of the universe  (heliocentric model of the solar system)

o Didn’t publish his book himself

o Left instructions for publication after he died

o His ideas were blasphemous, church would have persecuted him o Was up for harsh criticism  

∙ Areas of scientific growth

∙ Early modern period

∙ Aristotle viewed spheres around the earth,

o Orbits of the moon, sun , etc. around the earth

∙ Copernicus viewed the sun at the center

o Had the concept, later astronomers had to put together observations o Kepler’s laws of planetary motion: predicts the movements of the  planets

∙ Galileo did not invent the telescope, but did build an improved version of the  telescope  

o Galileo tests long time theory that things that are heavier hit the  ground faster… the lighter and heavier object hit the ground at the  same time

o Ideas of physics beginning

o Constantly in trouble with the church for his blasphemous ideas  (majorly saying the sun was at the center of the universe)

∙ Vesalius studied the human skeleton  

∙ Scientists began to study the human body/human anatomy ∙ In the field of medicine  

o In general physicians were a 50/50 proposition until the 1700s o They could do minor surgeries

o Some herbs aided

o Also practiced some very harmful practices

o Begin to see advances such as vaccinations

∙ Impact of scientific revolution

∙ Sir Francis Bacon, not a scientist himself… big believer in what science could  do for man kind

o In writings he described what science should be about

 Should collect facts

 Ignore ideas of witchcraft

 Science should be used to improve man’s material condition  o People are beginning to figure out the scientific method, and  advocating the use of it

∙ Scientific revolution DOES impact and improve man’s material condition ∙ Provided a psychological boost

o Encouragement to want to understand more

o Apply reason and investigation into other topics like politics,  philosophy, economics, religion, etc.

∙ Contributes to more than just advance in the field of science  ∙ Enlightenment  

∙ 1700s, product of other topics… building on humanism and emphasis on  reason, study economics, draw upon economic success and surplus to do  more things, exploration and discovery of new places, and inspiration from  the scientific revolution

∙ Term enlightenment: shedding light from the dark corners of the mind ∙ Politics

∙ Enlightenment thinkers have ideas that sound familiar to today o Wanted to limit power of kings  

o Increase power of the legislature  

o Some suggest getting rid of kings all together

o From beginning of civilization religion has been tied to government   Authority was from ties to religion

 Kings divine because of the Gods, chosen one

o If power isn’t from the top down, then where does it come from  Where does government get authority over people

 ∙      John Locke  

o Government derives its power from consent of the governed  o The people have the supreme power

o Can remove tyrannical government  

∙ (Power rests legitimately within the hands of the people, he switches the idea of power coming from the top down)

∙ Economics

∙ Adam smith, author of The Wealth of Nations published 1776 o In Wealth of Nations, Smith does not invent capitalism… he explains  what is going on

o S m

it

h  

makes a few key observations

 Taxes should be kept as low as possible, the more money taken  as taxes the less money people have to spend, invest, expand  businesses, etc.

 If tax money collected higher than what the government needs,  people left living off each other

 Smith said there should be free trade within a country and  between nations

∙ Let them operate on a global scale

∙ Increasingly efficient  

 The wealth of nations can expand, not a fixed amount of wealth ∙ Religion  

∙ Enlightened thinkers free to question things and explore

o Examples:

 People question where the bible came from and who wrote it  Explore things the bible says in light of scientific understanding  Applied reason to the bible and overall religious doctrine  

∙ Voltaire on religion

o French enlightened thinker

o Of all religions Christians should inspire the most tolerant, but until  now Christians have been the most intolerant of all men

o All men are born with a nose and ten fingers, but no one was born with  the knowledge of God

o Faith consists in believing when it is beyond the power of reason to  believe

o Whenever an important event, a revolution, or a calamity turns to the  profit of the church, such is always signalized as the Finger of God ∙ Jefferson makes statement that an all-powerful God could make people  believe one things if that is what he wanted, perhaps god wanted debate ∙ Notion of freedom of religion  

∙ Social thought

∙ Enlightenment thinkers applied what they believed to be natural laws and  issues to social issues (ex. Slavery)

∙ Concept that people are equal is new in the history of the world  o Off notion people are equal in the eyes of God

o Not fully formed in the beginning

o Equality such a powerful idea that it won’t even take a century to get  rid of slavery

∙ Education  

o If a populous is going to decide their political destiny and control  business

 Need for reading, writing, etc.

 Importance of education recognized

o Set aside 1/16 of sale of new land for education in the 1700s ∙ Crime

o Discussion on the causes of crime  

 Poverty, injustice, moral issues, family, drink, etc.

∙ Rights of women

o No change overnight but allows the idea to grow

∙ *Overall the enlightenment is very optimistic, life can continually be made better*

∙ Art and architecture

∙ Neo-classical style

o Greco roman façade

o Government buildings in Washington built with neoclassical style from  the enlightenment period

o Painting from enlightenment

 Examples of patriotism to the state, self-government

∙ Political revolution  

∙ American Revolution

∙ First of many  

∙ Different than most revolutions  

∙ Starts because they want to break away from the rule of the British king ∙ Violent, but not excessively so… no mayhem through all the cities ∙ Stops being a revolution

∙ Start and end with the same purpose in mind (most revolutions lose sight of  original goal)

∙ Self-government is set up, and people then go on with their lives ∙ Why is the American Revolution different? With a relatively happy peaceful  resolution  

o King has to send troops across the ocean... challenges of distance o Leaders of the revolution that are enlightened thinkers that will lead o International support (France)

o Freedom of enterprise/ productive and efficient economy

o In the American colonies people paid low taxes and had relatively more freedom than anywhere else in the world at this time

o Driven in large measure by the freedoms they already enjoy politically  and economically (had practice governing themselves/ more free to  live how they want)

o Very few rich, very few poor… most people in a middle range  Similar interests and issues

o No powerful entrenched clergy/ interior power structure/ no nobility ∙ Even with all the advantages American’s had, it was very close to turning into military control

o Plan by continental officers to march and take control of colonial  government

o Washington stopped it

o People proposed Washington be the King

 Washington made a point to the continental congress to turn in  his sword and go back to be a farmer in America

∙ 1/3 of Americans against American patriots

∙ 1/3 colonists took active role in fighting for independence  ∙ French revolution

∙ First revolution in Europe

∙ King louis XVI

o In terrible debt

o In deficit spending for many years (spending more that they are taking  in)

o State essentially bankrupt

∙ France 1789

∙ King

∙ 1st estate clergy 2nd estate nobility 3rd 

estate commoners

∙ Out of desperation he calls an Estates General

∙ The bourgeoisie starts bringing bills that go along

with ideas of enlightenment (proposals and

reforms)

o Each estate got one vote

o The 3rd estate is making these proposals

keeps getting voted down 2-1

∙ Within Paris there is a rising of the population  

 ∙      Storming of the Bastille 

o July 14, 1789

o In the middle of this huge affair reinforcements arrive

o National guard troops march to the middle of the square

o This national guard units joins the citizens and fires upon the Bastille o National assembly has to be listened to

 ∙      The Great Fear 

o Summer 1789

o Attack nobility or the clergy

o a period of panic and riot by peasants and others amid rumors of an  “aristocratic conspiracy” by the king and the privileged to overthrow  the Third Estate 

∙ French revolution under way 

∙ First couple years known as moderate stage of the French Revolution o During that time the national assembly is attempting to pass reforms  o The government at least has to listen 

∙ National Assembly (middle class) Attempted Reforms 

∙ 1. Abolish special privileges of nobility and clergy 

∙ 2. Statement of human rights – liberty, equality 

∙ 3. Subordinate church to state 

∙ 4. Constitution > limited suffrage 

∙ 5. Administrative and judicial reforms  

∙ 6. Aid for business (get the gov’t out of the way… Ex. get rid of  tariffs between provinces in France) 

o Accomplish some goals

∙ Pressures on the National Assembly  

o Want far more radical changes

∙ French will end up in war with neighboring

countries

∙ Radical Stage Reign of Terror 1792-1794

o Maximilien Robespierre  

o Use terror as government policy

 Execute all those standing in

the way

o Arrest so many people they can’t kill

them fast enough

o Gallows, shooting with cannons, trying

to drown people

 Invention of the guillotine  

 French basically murdering each

other

o Not all people rounded up are enemies of the government, some  suspect because of their birth

o Essentially any enemy of the revolution up for potential execution  o Eventually Robespierre is accused of being an enemy and is killed o Likely around 40,000 killed

∙ Reign of terror simmers down and French still at war with neighboring  countries

o Enemies inspires by revolutionary fervor

∙ Ultimately a military general, Napoleon Bonaparte 

o Napoleon returns to Paris  

o Sets himself up as a dictator

o 1799 revolution ends with military dictator, looks how most revolutions end

o Napoleon will institute some enlightenment reforms, but not what the  middle class had intended with self-government

∙ Causes of this revolution

o Inefficient government  

o Economic hardships  

o Enlightenment  

∙ in order to get self-government you have to have a middle class ∙ Significance of French Revolution  

o HUGE impact

∙ Impact of French Revolution

1. Revolutionary spirit spread to other Western European Nations 2. Pushed the enlightenment ideas

3. Shocking violence and fanaticism (terrifies Europe with the terror and  bloodshed that can occur)

∙ Napoleon

∙ 20 when the revolution starts, works his way up to general quickly because  he is very skilled and a tactical genius… lots of jobs and officer positions open because traditionally officers were members of the nobility

o Revolution busy killing members of the nobility

o Napoleon right place, right time

∙ Takes over at the end of the French revolution

∙ Napoleon succeeded in beating the

neighboring states and creating an empire

∙ Builds a large empire and even beats

countries in eastern Europe and forces

them into alliance  

∙ No self-government  

∙ No political freedom

∙ No toleration for opposition to Napoleon

o Does take away a lot of the feudal structure of the

government

∙ Napoleon himself does spread some of the enlightenment reforms  o Impact on France and all of the continent  

o When Napoleon is done there are fewer countries because he puts  together many little principalities that were previously under separate  rule

∙ The Great Man Theory – was he the cause OR the product of his age? o In reference to Napoleon  

o Would the changes of happened without Napoleon?

o Was he necessary for reform?

∙ Industrial revolution

∙ Prior to industrial revolution nails along with many other things were made by hand

o Nails were expensive because of the work required

o If you took apart something that had nails in it, you would take them  out and reuse them

o Common use of wooden pegs because nails were expensive – example  of one small item entirely changed by industrial revolution (now cheap and bought in bulk)

o Consider that across the range of daily items affected by the industrial  revolution

∙ Terms of how people live has not changed much at all since the industrial  revolution

∙ Prior to the industrial revolution 80-90% of people were farmers… the 10-20% lived in cities doing specialized work

∙ Beginning of the industrial revolution

∙ Increases in farming efficiency

o Provide more food; others can leave the farm and work in factories  o Production of farming equipment improves the farming efficiency

∙ Begins in England  

o Late 1700s

o Has good natural resources

 Coal

 Iron ore

o Economy was expending  

o Water access  

o Growth overseas; colonies and trade

o Relatively free capital market

∙ Spread to western Europe  

∙ Spread to the United States

o 1800s

o Roughly ¾ of the population involved in farming

o ¼ doing other jobs

o Into the mid-1800s 50 years less of the population farming  o By the time it hit the 1900s, ½ the population was farming o Half a century later about 3% of the population farming in the United  States

 Some of that exports

o Dramatic shift in jobs

∙ Agriculture  

o Efficiency in Europe expanding, specifically western Europe  New crops  

 Land use

 Crop rotation

o Hybridization

o Machines: plows, tractors, etc.  

∙ Technology

∙ Brand new source of power, developed in the 1760s by James Watt and  others

o Invention of the steam powered engine

o 4 sources of power prior to the steam engine

 Wind  

 Man power  

 Water  

 Animal

o How the steam engine works;

 Spins a drive shaft

 Power take offs that cause the

spinning of the belt to power your

machine

o Advantages of steam power:

 Fast

 Efficient

 Higher quantities

 Less people needed for

production

 Steam engine can run all the time

 Can put a steam engine anywhere

∙ Put it where it is most efficient, generally in cities

 More powerful than other options

 Can build them in different sizes

o Steam engines used in farms, factories, etc.

∙ Cotton textiles

o Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney

o Prior to invention

 Separation of seed by hand

 Time consuming

 Hard labor  

o Cotton separated into seeds and clean cotton

o Spin cotton into thread

 o Spinning jenny 

 One person spins multiple spools at a time

 Eventually machine made to spin many spools powered by  steam engine  

o Weave into fabric used to be done by hand originally

o Steam powered looms creates fabric in bulk

o Mid-19th century intention of the sewing machine

 Sew cloth into various clothing items  

 Production faster and cheaper  

o Besides the rich people could now afford clothing in larger quantities,  have more than a couple sets of clothes now

∙ Mining industry  

o Steam engine powered into mines

o Coal or whatever is needed is lifted out of the mines

o Cleaner metals

 Stronger

 More malleable  

 Lighter weight  

∙ Iron and steel industry take off

∙ Transportation  

o early 1800s flurry of canal building in Western Europe and United  States

o move goods cheaper over water

o dig canals connect them to existing road

systems

o construction challenges

o cannot be used in many places –

development of the railroad 

o late 1820s begin developing the railroad

o development very fast  

o most efficient way to move goods over land

o development of rails  

 steam power didn’t work for cars without rails

o moving goods across land efficiently changes the dynamic of regions  completely  

 prior to trains challenge was getting your product to market   railroads allowed access to a world market

∙ sold

∙ shipped

∙ processed  

o tunnels developed  

 early 1800s

o bridges developed

 steal used

 better design

 faster travel, commerce, exchange  

o steam engine powers boats

∙ Communications

o Transatlantic cable (undersea cable used for telegraph  

communications)

∙ Business changes  

∙ Development of factories

o Materials, labor, machinery in one place

∙ Development of the modern corporation 

o Prior to the industrial revolution there were joint stock companies and  share in some of the profits  

 Great if company makes profits, but if the company goes  bankrupt you are potentially liable for the company’s debt

o A corporation has limited liability 

 Limited to the amount of your investment for losses

o With limited liability more people are willing to invest, take the risk  Provides a great pool of capital that did not exist before

 Investment needed for advances  

∙ Increased use of insurance

o Used originally for merchant voyages

o Then used for fire insurance, flood insurance, etc.

 Spend more on a house if you are insured for accidents that  could happen

o Encourages people to build more… take more risks

o Increased investments and efficiency  

∙ Social changes (impact of industrial revolution)

∙ Europe’s population more than doubles in the 1800s  

o Agricultural efficiency  

o Better diet

o Increased standard of living  

o Marry younger – can afford to do so

 Have more kids if you start sooner

o Growth primarily in cities

∙ Issues in cities

o Poor sanitation – deal with trash removal, human waste, animal waste   Water supply affected

o Dumping sewage in the same water source as water supply collected  o Disease  

o Overcrowding  

o Fires

o Air pollution  

o Homes heated by coal burning  

 More pollution than there is today

o Pace of growth made dealing with problems of expansion harder  ∙     Child labor  

o Early part of the 1800s we see children

working in harsh conditions

 Dangerous, hot, crowded

o Long hours not different than working on the

farm (different view than today)

o Kids viewed a small adults, seen as capable

o In mills, factories, mines

o Early industrial revolution, the standard of

living for workers and their families could go

either way; could be equivalent or rougher than life on the farm. Early  families needed the income from mom, dad, and kids in order to pay  for a place to live and food.

o By the second half of the industrial revolution there were huge  benefits…  

 Standard of living overall increases

 They make more money, the majority of working class families  no longer need the children’s labor to put food on the table

 If kids do not need to work, then they are sent to school

∙ HUGE expansion of schools in second half in the 19th 

century

 Wealth available to build schools

o By the end of the 19th century we see the passing of child labor laws o Prior to benefits reaching the working class when families needed the  kids incomes… laws, if they existed, would simply be broken. Laws  would not have fixed child labor in the 1820s when it was needed, only worked once families did not need child labor.  

∙ Rapid growth in the middle class

o Clerks, accountants, engineers, lawyers, physicians

o Pick up steam in second half of the 19th century

o Dramatic difference from, ideals of nobility and clergy

∙ The second half of the 19th century  

o Industrial revolution is paying off economic benefits throughout o Standard of living coming up

 Travel, leisure time, clothing, etc.

o Leisure time – traditionally people worked all the time

 Notion that your workday ends with enough time to go do  something else is relatively new  

 Working days and hours go down

 Work week moving from 6 to 5 days… 12 hour shifts to 8 hour  shifts

 Sports – baseball, football, basketball invented late 1800s  Clothing begins to change – women riding bicycles

 Enjoy music

 Travel, go to beaches, neighboring towns, visit relatives, plays,  circuses

 Literacy rates climbing  

∙ Time of rapid transition; change  

o Some jobs going away

 Blacksmiths, mason, etc.

o New jobs  

 Factory, build and design steam engines, gather raw materials,  sales people to sell products from factories, etc.  

o Transition can be very unsettling  

 Some people very upset about changes  

o New opportunities  

o Standard of living improving; overall changes good for majority of the  population  

∙ Responses to changes in society

∙ Political standpoint  

∙ Early part of the 19th century

o Status quo for forms of government: government in hands of monarchy and nobility at the top with a powerful clergy at the top

o What people were rebelling against

o Conservatives of the early 19th century: supported traditional status  quo of power

 Support traditional order monarchy, clergy, and so on based on  belief people are basically bad or wicked. Need control to keep  

people in check and society under control.

o Edmund Burke – conservative views

 Made predictions that movements would turn bloody, messy,  and violent because they are knocking down authority that  

keeps their actions in check. Going to release mob violence  

before it’s all over.

o Liberals in the early 19th century: support ideas of enlightenment   Advocates of the enlightenment

 Freedom of press, assembly

 Government by consent of the governed, people have the  

ultimate power

 Free market  

 People are basically good and rational; get government off their  back they need to take away the limitations the government  

puts on them – optimistic view

o John Stuart Mill – leading liberal  

 Government is legitimately used to prevent harm from others,  common defense, etc.… but other roles of government like  

taking away property is wrong

∙ Terms change over time; meanings change  

o Conservatives and liberals at this time different than what those terms  mean now. Can say a little about each term that always applies  

generally

 Conservatives: tendency to keep things in the status quo

 Liberalism: tendency to change what the status quo is

o Media likes simple terms for publicity; often does not accurately  describe views  

∙ 19th century

∙ 21st century  

America

∙ Unrestricted free  

market

∙ Liberal

∙ Conservative,  

libertarian

∙ Economy heavily  

controlled and  

regulated by  

government

∙ Radical, socialist

∙ Liberal

∙ Universal suffrage

∙ Radical

∙ Accepted by all  

major groups

∙ Romanticism – react against rapid change, popular early 14th century o Dominate in arts, trend will fluctuate (visual, philosophy, poetry) o Reaction against bad changes or changes are too slow

o Revolt against Enlightenment ideas (largely pessimistic)

o Escape – look to nature, middle of nowhere, the past (middle ages),  fairy/folk tales, dark stories, dreams, love, religion (experience), drugs  (alcohol and opium), death

o Architecture – towers, rounded edges, middle age looking

o 1960s were romantic (feeling it)

∙ Nationalism – passion for country or people

o A lot like romanticism (stir the emotions)

o Get new government, take down the invader

∙ Communist Manifesto – well for revolution, predicting a revolution of the  working class seizing control

o Pretty hard to follow

o Workers rise, workers own all elements of business, people will be paid  based on need, work based on skill, no private property, government  disappear and religion disappear

∙ Imperialism – drive to get control of territory

o 1884 Berlin Conference – who occupies territory, claims it

o In Asia and Africa

o Japan is involved late in time, don’t want to pushed around o United States – 2 minded about imperialism  

 They could keep expanding and keep up with others (security,  speed, liberty)

 Not an empire, no interest

o Reasons why: trade/resources, sell stuff back to countries, power of  nationalism, military, security, religion, civilize countries

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