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UTD - CLDP 3362 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UTD - CLDP 3362 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image     Growth Mindset    Fixed vs. Growth Mindset    How children and adults think about learning influences  how well they learn and how they bounce back from 
obstacles. 
1.  Fixed mindset: failure due to a lack of ability  2.  Growth mindset: failure due to a lack of effort      5 th  graders given a relatively easy test of puzzle (Dweck)  They were given feedback consistent with one of two  mindsets:    Fixed:  “you must be smart at this”     Growth:  “you must have worked really hard”  Then offered a choice of an easier or more challenging  puzzle  Findings:    Growth feedback: 90% of kids praised for effort  chose the harder set of puzzles, worked hard to  learn from mistakes, showed improvement    Fixed feedback: Many chose the easier set of puzzles,  were easily discouraged, showed decrease in 
performance 
Beyond the experiment    Middle school students with a growth mindset did  better     College students trying to learn English with a  growth mindset did better    In the workplace, managers with a growth mindset  more willing to take feedback    And, recently, low-achieving 7 th  graders trained to  have a growth mindset improved motivation and  math scores compared to a control group      How to encourage a growth mindset:  Instead of praising ABILITY, praise EFFORT    “You are a fantastic baseball player” vs. “You  connected with the ball much better this time”  Tell stories about achievements through hard work.  When a child receives a poor grade, try to focus on effort  and future actions.  Talk to children as they get older about how they can  “strengthen” their brains.  Demonstrate to children that you think learning is  important.   
background image   Executive Functioning Skills, including self-control    Working Memory: ability to hold information in mind and  mentally work with it    Inhibition: ability to control one’s impulses, attention, and  emotions    Cognitive flexibility: ability to change perspectives, adjust  priorities based on new information    Delay of gratification task  4 year old child given a treat  Child told that experimenter will leave room for a while and 
kid has two choices: 
  Wait for experimenter to return = 2 treats    Ring a bell = get 1 treat   The better children were at delaying gratification, the better 
they were at: 
  explaining ideas    paying attention    coping with stress     SATs (around 200 points higher) years later!!      How do we delay?  Distraction – shift our attention elsewhere  Cognitively Reframe – “Think Cold, Think Cognitive”    Preschoolers directed to think “hot” thoughts about  a control item were able to wait about 17 minutes  on average to earn their reward.       Developmental Changes in strategies to delay  4 yo often choose the least effective strategies  As they begin to use better strategies able to wait longer  The value of abstract thoughts (i.e., cool thoughts) is later 
developing, often not occurring until 3
rd  to 6 th  grade.  Criticisms of the marshmallow task?       Moffit et al., 2001    Self-control composite  What was the purpose of the study? Looking at the  extension to which self control scores predicted as 
far as intelligence, etc.   
What type of study was it? Longitudinal  How was the study conducted?  Main findings:    Longitudinal research examining nine  different measures of self control during the  first decade of life finds that, controlling for 
background image SES and intelligence, self control in childhood  is related to many factors such as health,  wealth, and crime    Criticisms?     Why do the researchers argue that we should take a 
“targeted approach” to addressing self-control? 
“Early childhood interventions that enhances self 
control is likely to bring greater return on 
investment than harm reduction programs targeting  adolescents alone.”  Argue we should TARGET self-control in early 
childhood versus developing lots of programs for 
adolescents that address common problems (e.g., 
drugs, teen pregnancy, truancy, anger  management,…)     Other comments?      Blair, 2016    Neurobiology   Subcortical regions (often from stress response)  signal prefrontal cortex to direct our attention  Moderate stimulation facilitates EF  Too much stimulation overstimulation  Too little stimulation inhibits neural activity    Self regulation  Recursive at first: Primarily outside of conscious 
awareness during infancy and toddlerhood (“top-
down”)  Grow older, more conscious (“bottom-up”)  STILL early and later EF seems to be connected    Individual differences in EF (visual memory,  emotional reactivity) predict later EF    Measurement difficult and somewhat unreliable. Why?  Poor at measuring construct of EF?  EF poorly defined or operationalized?  EF changes?    In poverty  Because situations of poverty are often stressful, 
hormone levels can be altered in ways that alter the 
stress response.   Protective factors through:    Positive parenting    Supportive relationship with mother  Also, changes our need and want for food.    Training works 

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School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Psychology
Course: Cognitive Development
Professor: Meridith Grant
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: cognitive development
Name: CLDP 3362: WEEK of 3.29
Description: These notes cover the material discussed in lecture for the week of 3/29, including notes on articles posted to eLearning.
Uploaded: 03/31/2016
7 Pages 64 Views 51 Unlocks
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