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PSY150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Study Guide for Midterm Exam #3
Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology
• Describe the changes that happen during the zygote, embryo, and fetus stages of prenatal development.
o Zygote: the first stage of prenatal development where the egg is fertilized and then called a zygote. This stage lasts around 14 days and the zygote attaches to the uterine wall.
♣ 23 pairs of chromosomes make up a zygote, ½ from the
egg (X) and ½ from the sperm (Y). XX- female XY-male ♣ cellular differentiation begins
o Embryo: the second stage of prenatal development which lasts from week 2-8.
♣ Major axis of body forms
♣ 1st signs of organ development (heart begins to beat)
o Fetus: the third stage of prenatal development which starts at week 9 and goes until birth
♣ By 6 months, organs are developed enough to possibly
survive premature birth
♣ Fetus is both sensitive to light and sound (DCasper and
Fifer study with the cat and the hat)
• What are teratogens? Give some examples of teratogens. o Teratogens: chemical, virus, or radiation that causes damage to the zygote, embryo, or fetus.
♣ Hormones-cortisol (stress hormone)
♣ Viruses-HIV, Rubella
♣ Drug Use-nicotine (lower birth weight and high risk of
• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- caused by a mother’s
heavy drinking during pregnancy which causes;
intellectual disability, social deficits, stunted growth,
facial abnormalities, and cognitive problems in the
• What is Down syndrome?
o Down Syndrome: Also known as trisomy 21 because it is caused by a 3rd copy of the 21st chromosome. It prevents proper neuronal development.
Don't forget about the age old question of econ 101 ucsc
♣ 1 in 800-1000 births
♣ may be because of the age of the mother, the older she is
when she gets pregnant, the higher the risk.
♣ Symptoms- facial abnormalities, pore muscle tone, sleep
apnea, intellectual disability (avg. IQ- 50-55), average life span is 50 years, there is no treatment
• Describe the contributions of Jean Piaget. Be sure to include the following:
o Thought of children as active thinkers
o What is a schema, and how do the processes of assimilation and accommodation help shape a schema? ♣ Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and Don't forget about the age old question of born preterit
♣ Assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of
♣ Accommodation: adapting schemas to incorporate new
info (more details)
o What are Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development? When do each of the following skills emerge?
♣ Sensorimotor stage: stage one, starts at birth and goes to Don't forget about the age old question of 12. find dg by implicit differentiation:
age two. World knowledge is based on sensory info and motor activities
• object permanence- awareness that objects
continue to exist when not perceived (starts at
around 8 months. Peek-a-book no longer works)
♣ Preoperational Stage: stage two from ages two through seven. Ability to create mental representations.
• Conservation- principle that quantity remains the
same despite changes in shape.
• mental representations- can envision ideas based on schemas
• theory of mind- the ability to attribute mental states to yourself and others (allows us to infer feelings,
perceptions, and thoughts, and take other’s point of
♣ Concrete operational stage: stage three, lasts from ages
seven to twelve. Ability to create concrete operations
(manipulating mental representations of concrete objects, emergence of logic and reversibility)
♣ Formal operational stage: stage four, starts at age twelve
and lasts the rest of your life. Expansion of logical
capabilities, you can imagine abstract realities.
• What is autism? What are the 3 main categories of autism symptoms? Describe current theories about the causes of autism.
o Autism: a brain development disorder, usually diagnosed in infancy and is based on behavior. (no babbling by 12 months, no single words by 16 months)
♣ 1) Social interaction impairments: impaired theory of
mind, difficult understanding social emotions. Little eye contact or smiling, unlikely to approach others, little
♣ 2) communication impairments: delayed onset of We also discuss several other topics like are diatoms in toothpaste
babbling, decreased responsiveness, difficulty
♣ 3) repetitive behavior: useless movements, preference for
sameness, enjoys patters and organization.
o Causes? NOT VACCINES!!! Might not be caused by one thing. Could possibly be genetics (strong in families), extreme male brain, strong negative correlation between mirror neuron activity and severity of autism symptoms.
• What is attachment? Who/what do young children usually become attached to? Be sure to include the work of Harry Harlow and Konrad Lorenz when answering this question.
o Attachment: emotional tie with another person or thing ♣ Attachment figure: a person that a child usually becomes
attached to (usually a parent) seeks closeness to AF and has distress upon separation.
o Harry Haslow did research on monkeys and their attachment, found that they had a strong preference to the cloth mother and used them as a base for exploring and would cling to them when anxious.
o Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting (attached to the first moving thing they saw). He studied how a group of ducks imprinted on him. Don't forget about the age old question of suppose you are studying two different species of monkeys and one has a larger brain in relation to body weight than the other. you might reasonably believe that the species with a larger brain in relation to body weight _____.
o What are the 4 attachment styles?
♣ Secure attachment: about 65% of 1 year olds. Active
exploration when AF present, when separated they may be upset. Outgoing with strangers especially if AF is
♣ Resistant attachment: about 10% of 1 year olds. Stays
close to AF and does little exploring, when separated they become very distressed and when reunited, they are
happy but act betrayed
♣ Avoidant attachment: about 20% of 1 year olds. When
separated there is little distress, and they are detached from AF
♣ Disorganized/disoriented attachment: about 5% of 1 year
olds. Most insecure, combination of resistant and Don't forget about the age old question of geo 231 study guide
avoidant. Confusion about whether to approach or avoid AF. Very common in abused children.
• What changes happen to the teenage brain?
o 1) pruning of neural connections (getting rid things you no longer use)
o 2) myelin growth (better/faster communication)
o Limbic system (emotion) before frontal lobe (control, judgment)
♣ Impulsiveness, risky behavior
♣ Brain doesn’t mature until age 25
• Describe Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stages of moral development. o Preconventional stage: morality of self-interest
o Conventional stage: care for others, follow rules because they are rules
o Postconcentional stage: broad abstract ethical principles of right vs. wrong .
• Define dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and what we know about their causes.
o Dementia: decline of cognitive functioning beyond normal aging. (disorientation in time, place and person)
o Alzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disorder. Deterioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical functioning. o Causes are unclear but 70% of risk is genetic, loss of brain tissue, deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine (memory/thinking deficits)
• How do happiness and well-being change in old age? o Inglehart 1990; found that the 65+ year olds are the happies people.
o As people reach the middle of their lives (midlife crisis) they attempt to reclaim youth.
Chapter 13: Personality Psychology
• Describe the contributions of Sigmund Freud and the fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis.
o What is the unconscious? Why did Freud say that the unconscious is important? How did Freud believe that we could access the unconscious?
♣ Unconscious: a collection of unacceptable thoughts,
wishes, desires, feelings and memories. Powerful
influence over thoughts and behavior.
♣ Psychoanalysis: ASSOCIATED WITH FRUED. Hydraulic
theory that attributes thoughts and behavior to
unconscious motives and conflicts
♣ Too much “pressure” in the conscious. Accessing
♣ Freud found a deeper meaning in almost everything! ♣ Dreams: the royal road to the unconsciousness. (manifest
vs. latent content)
o Describe the 3 components of the Freudian personality (id, ego, superego). What is the role of each, and how do they interact with each other?
♣ ID: unconscious psychic energy-sexual and aggressive
urges. The unconscious force that really drives us.
• Pleasure principle: demands immediate
gratification, regardless of social norms and
♣ Superego: internalized ideals and standards for judgment.
The conscience. Developed at age 4-5. How one should act. Mostly unconscious, some conscious.
♣ Ego: mostly conscious part of personality that mediates
ID vs. Superego.
• Reality principle: seeks to gratify ID in ways
acceptable to superego
o What are erogenous zones, and how do they influence psychosexual development?
♣ Erogenous zones: is a part of the body that is sensitive to
sexual stimulation. This influences psychosexual
development (developmental periods that children pass though during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges) because children go through different sexual phases thought their lives.
o What are defense mechanisms? Describe each of the following defense mechanisms: repression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation.
♣ Defense mechanisms: ways of reducing anxiety by
unconsciously distorting reality.
♣ Repression: blocking unacceptable thoughts from
♣ Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by
attributing them to others “a thief thinks everyone else is a thief”
♣ Reaction formation: unconsciously switching
unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
♣ Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from
negative outlets, toward positive outlets.
• How do you feel about Freud? Why do some psychologists embrace his ideas, while others denounce them?
o Personally I think he had good ideas but I think he’s crazy especially when it comes to the oedipal complex.
o The bad: doesn’t predict behaviors, only explains them post hoc. His ideas are based on his memories and interpretations, not research evidence. Very sexist.
o The good: intro to the unconscious, modern definition of the unconscious, processing of which we are not aware. Defense against anxiety. First personality and psychotherapy theories.
• What are traits? How could we use the lexical approach and statistical approach (i.e. factor analysis) to identify the most “important” traits?
o Gordon Allport: founder of modern personality psychology o Traits: characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act a certain way.
o Lexical approach: important individual differences encoded in language over time. Invent words to discuss meaningful differences, natural selection amongst words.
o Statistical approach/ factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies clusters of items that co-vary but do not co-vary with
other clusters. This reduces a huge number of traits to more manageable set.
o What traits are included in the five-factor model (aka. Big Five)? What does a high/low level of each of these traits look like in a person?
♣ Conscientiousness: how we control, direct, and regulate
• High- organized, neat, orderly, practical, and
• Low- disorganized, disorderly, careless, sloppy
♣ Neuroticism: tendency to experience strong negative
• High- moody, anxious, insecure
• Low-calm, relaxed, stable (emotionally)
♣ Agreeableness: concern with cooperation and social
• High: sympathetic, kind, warm, avoid conflict
• Low- unsympathetic, hard, confrontational, proud
♣ Openness: willingness/eagerness to try new things
• High- creative, imaginative, intellectual, preference
for new and exciting things.
• Low- uncreative, practical, set in their ways, routine and habit.
♣ Extraversion: engagement with the outside social world.
• High- talkative, assertive, forward, outspoken
• Low- shy, quiet, bashful, prefers being alone
Chapter 9: Intelligence
• What is intelligence? Describe the differences between general intelligence and multiple intelligences.
o Intelligence: a social construct, a concept. The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
♣ General intelligence: factor that underlies specific mental
♣ Multiple intelligences: multiple ways to be intelligent
(linguistic, logical mathematical, naturalist, special, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
• Above is Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences.
How smart are you vs. how are you smart?
• What is emotional intelligence, and what does it predict about life outcomes?
o Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
♣ High EQ-higher quality friendships, relationships, better
job performance, etc...
• What is creativity? What are the differences between convergent thinking and divergent thinking?
o Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. ♣ Convergent thinking: closing in on the single right answer
• Deficits- Damage to the left parietal lobe
♣ Divergent thinking: imagining multiple possible answers
• Deficits-damage to frontal lobe
• Describe the development of the following intelligence tests: o Binet-Simon test
♣ Assumption: intellectual development is the same for all
kids, but faster for some than others.
♣ Measured mental age (chronological age typical of a
given level of performance) avg. 10 year olds mental age is 10
o Stanford-Binet test
♣ Used test as a measure of innate intelligence which is
very bad. You’re either smart or you’re dumb.
♣ High reliability
o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
♣ 11 subtests: 6 are verbal and 5 are performance.
Difference between scores may indicate learning
disabilities, brain disorders, personal strengths.
♣ Very high reliability
• How is IQ calculated? What is an average IQ score? o 100 x (mental age/chronological age)
o the average IQ is 100
• What does it mean to say that an IQ test is reliable? What does it mean to say that an IQ test is valid? Why is each of these qualities important?
o Reliable: getting consistent results. If you took the IQ test multiple times, would your scores be close? If it is reliable, you will have similar scores, if it isn’t reliable, your scores will change a lot every time you take it.
o Valid: the test measures what it claims to measure. Is it actually measuring intelligence?
• What are the criteria for intellectual disability? Why does intellectual disability happen? What are islands of excellence? o Criteria:
♣ 1) IQ score of 70 or below
♣ 2) significant limitations in everyday life
♣ 3) present since childhood
o They happen due to many things, like an extra chromosome, premature birth, lack of development, problems before birth (mother had a drug/alcohol problem) etc.
o Island of excellence: areas in which disabled people perform remarkably well.
• What does it mean to be gifted? What life outcomes are more common for gifted people?
o People with an IQ of at least 130. (gifted boys- lower testosterone levels than non gifted boys. Gifted girls- higher testosterone levels than non gifted girls)
o These people are likely to discover things, and keep learning and become successful.
• How do brain size and brain speed relate to intelligence? o Brain size: correlation between brain volume and IQ scores= +. 40
♣ Potential causes: genes, nutrition, environment.
♣ Postmortem studies: highly educated-17% more neural
o Brain speed: correlation between speed and IQ is also +.4 ♣ High IQ-quicker brain waves to stimuli, simple tasks
• What evidence do we have that genetics influence intelligence? What evidence do we have that culture/environment/experiences influence intelligence?
o Genes: In adopted children, there are higher correlations of IQ with biological parents rather than adoptive parents. In twins, they have more similar IQ’s compared to just brother and sister.
o Environment: higher IQ if you have a higher socioeconomic status. Sex differences in intelligence (average IQ equal across gender, but variability is different)
• What is stereotype threat? What does it suggest about group differences that we see in IQ testing?
o Stereotype: socially shared beliefs about a group and its members.
♣ Teen talk Barbie, Steele and Aronson (race), Spencer and
Quinn (gender). This shows that people perform
differently if they are told it has something to do with their stereotype.
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
• What is a psychological disorder? What is the DSM-5, and what are the pros and cons of using it?
o Psychological disorder: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
o DSM-5: book with list of symptoms and diagnostic criteria for all disorders. This is the most common tool for diagnostic and disorders are organized into categories.
♣ Pros- standardized diagnosis (guides treatment), fairly
♣ Cons- more disorders=more mental illness, nearly 30% of
all adults qualify for at least one disorder. The labeling
problem influences perceptions.
• Describe David Rosenhan’s famous study (“On Being Sane In Insane Places”). What does this study say about our understanding of psychological disorders?
o David Rosenhan’s famous study was done in order to find out if regular people can be misdiagnosed. He send 8 psychologically healthy people (including himself) to try and get admitted to mental hospitals by telling only three lies. The lies included; using a fake name, using a false career, and saying (only once while trying to get admitted) they heard voices last week saying words like “hollow, empty”. All 8 people were admitted into the hospitals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. After they were admitted, they were told to act completely normal and to not lie about anything else and said they only heard the voices that one time. The people spent anywhere from 7-52 days in the hospitals and were discharged with “psychosis in remission.” This shows that people can be miss diagnosed, and if they are labeled as one thing, it is hard to see their actions as anything else but the symptoms under their label.
• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following anxiety disorders:
o generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)- persistent state of anxiety, continually waiting for something bad to happen. Restless, jittery, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, increased heart rate and muscle tension.
o panic disorder (PD)- sudden period of intense fear. Repeated uncued panic attacks. Short breathing, sweating, dizziness. ♣ Cued- situationally bound, in response to a trigger
♣ Uncued- unexpected “out of the blue” not connected to a
o Agoraphobia- fear of inescapable situations where help me not be available. These people stay very close to home, or some may never leave home. Fear of future panic attacks in public.
o Phobias- intense anxiety from fear of an object/ situation. Results in complete avoidance of that thing.
o social anxiety disorder (SAD)- anxiety in social situations. Fear of embarrassment and humiliation. Comforted by avoiding others.
o obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- uncontrollable anxiety due to obsessions and/or compulsions
♣ obsessions- unwanted, repetitive thoughts (dirt, order) ♣ compulsions- unwanted repetitive behaviors (washing
o post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)- anxiety dues to haunting memories resulting in nightmares, social withdrawal, insomnia etc. Happens 4+ weeks after a traumatic event (incubation period) can come as a result from war, natural disasters, accidents abuse, etc.
• Brain areas
o Anterior cingulate cortex: frontal lobe region that monitors our actions, checks for mistakes
♣ Hyperactive in people with OCD
o Locus ceruleus: controls norepinephrine (fight-or flight) ♣ Hyperactive in people with panic disorders
♣ Hypersensitive CO2 alarm which induces panic attacks
• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following mood disorders:
o Mood disorders run in families. Can be chemical imbalances o The can also be caused by psychological influences, like self defeating beliefs (negative assumptions about self), explanatory style (how you describe situations), and can be caused by negative experiences.
o major depressive disorder (MDD)- repeated depressive episodes with 5 or more symptoms from the DSM
♣ most common depressive diagnosis
♣ low mood, feeling of worthlessness, reduced interest in
activities, weight loss, insomnia, thoughts of death.
♣ Dysthymia: “mild” for of depression, some of the above
symptoms for very long periods of time.
♣ In depression, you have very low levels of the
neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.
o seasonal affective disorder-people who get symptoms of depression in the winder. Caused by lack of sunlight, circadian rhythm gets messed up, your body slows down.
♣ Common therapy is called Light therapy, where light is
constantly shined in someone’s eyes throughout their day. o bipolar disorder-
♣ Mania: manic episodes. Euphoric mood, hyperactivity,
high energy, racing thoughts, short attention span,
• Manic episode: have above symptoms for most of
the day, most days, in one week
♣ Bipolar 1: 1+ manic episodes
♣ Bipolar 2: cycling between manic and depressive
♣ Cyclothymia: manic and depressive episodes that do not
meet DSM criteria (like bipolar 2 but more “subtle”)
♣ In mania, you have very high levels of norepinephrine.
• Describe the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia. Be sure to include:
o Schizophrenia is the distortion of thoughts, perceptions, moods, and bizarre behaviors (hallucinations, delusions)
o Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality. ♣ Thought broadcasting: thinking their thoughts are being
broadcasted to the world.
♣ Thought insertion: thinking that people are putting
thoughts inside their minds.
♣ Thought withdrawal: thinking people are taking thoughts
out of their head (they are being stolen from them)
o word salad
o poverty of content
• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following personality disorders:
o antisocial personality disorder
o borderline personality disorder
• Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. Why is this a controversial diagnosis among some psychologists? • Describe the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
• Describe the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia. Be sure to include: o Schizophrenia is the distortion of thoughts, perceptions, moods, and bizarre behaviors (hallucinations, delusions)
o Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality.
▪ Thought broadcasting: thinking their thoughts are being broadcasted to the world.
▪ Thought insertion: thinking that people are putting thoughts inside their minds.
▪ Thought withdrawal: thinking people are taking thoughts out of their head (they are being stolen from them)
o word salad: jumping from one idea to the next, little coherence in language o clanging: pairing words with no relation other than rhyming or sounding alike o poverty of content: using many words, all grammatically correct, but conveying very little.
o Neologisms: creating new words by combining regular words; using words in new ways
▪ Maybe schizophrenics know what to say but can’t find the right words to say it.
o Hallucinations: sensory experiences without sensory input.
▪ Any sense but auditory is the most common (70% of schizo.)
▪ Some are aware that the hallucinations aren’t real, but some are un aware ▪ In PET scans, there is activity in the Broca’s area while hearing voices o Reactive: rapid development, recovery is likely
o Process: more gradual onset, recovery is doubtful
o Type 1 Schizophrenia: positive- presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, word salad, usually respond well to medication)
o Type 2 Schizophrenia: negative- absence of appropriate behaviors (flat affect, toneless voice, rigid body, doesn’t really respond well to medication)
▪ Excess dopamine receptors- intensifies neural signals
▪ Shrinking brain- tissue loss in the cortex and thalamus
▪ Environmental factors- flu during pregnancy
• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following personality disorders: o antisocial personality disorder- psychopathy
▪ lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward close others.
▪ More common among men
▪ Adrenaline at 13 YO negatively correlated with criminal convictions at 18- 26 YO.
▪ Reduced activity in frontal lobe and amygdala
▪ 11% less frontal lobe tissue
• Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. Why is this a controversial diagnosis among some psychologists?
o Aka Multiple personalities
o 2+ distinct personalities (alters)
o alternate control of person
o evidence for: distinct body, brain states across alters, no memory transfer, different pain tolerances, insulin responses, shifting visual acuity, eye-muscle balance.
o Evidence against: created by therapists? 1930-60s 2 diagnoses per decade, in the 80s (first DSM listing) 20,000+ cases. Symptoms most dramatic/ common after therapy starts.