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UA / Psychology / PSY 150 / interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called


School: University of Arizona
Department: Psychology
Course: Structure of Mind & Behavior
Professor: Adam lazarewicz
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Midterm 3 Study Guide
Uploaded: 11/19/2015
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PSY150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior

Chemical, virus, or radiation that causes damage to the zygote, embryo, or fetus.

Study Guide for Midterm Exam #3

Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology

• Describe the changes that happen during the zygote, embryo,  and fetus stages of prenatal development.

o Zygote: the first stage of prenatal development where the egg is  fertilized and then called a zygote. This stage lasts around 14  days and the zygote attaches to the uterine wall.  

♣ 23 pairs of chromosomes make up a zygote, ½ from the  

egg (X) and ½ from the sperm (Y). XX- female XY-male ♣ cellular differentiation begins

o Embryo: the second stage of prenatal development which lasts  from week 2-8.

♣ Major axis of body forms

♣ 1st signs of organ development (heart begins to beat)

o Fetus: the third stage of prenatal development which starts at  week 9 and goes until birth

♣ By 6 months, organs are developed enough to possibly  

What changes happen to the teenage brain?

survive premature birth

♣ Fetus is both sensitive to light and sound (DCasper and  

Fifer study with the cat and the hat)

• What are teratogens? Give some examples of teratogens. o Teratogens: chemical, virus, or radiation that causes damage to  the zygote, embryo, or fetus.

♣ Hormones-cortisol (stress hormone)

♣ Viruses-HIV, Rubella

♣ Drug Use-nicotine (lower birth weight and high risk of  


• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- caused by a mother’s  

heavy drinking during pregnancy which causes;  

intellectual disability, social deficits, stunted growth,

facial abnormalities, and cognitive problems in the  


• What is Down syndrome?

o Down Syndrome: Also known as trisomy 21 because it is  caused by a 3rd copy of the 21st chromosome. It prevents  proper neuronal development.  

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets life.

Don't forget about the age old question of econ 101 ucsc

♣ 1 in 800-1000 births

♣ may be because of the age of the mother, the older she is  

when she gets pregnant, the higher the risk.

♣ Symptoms- facial abnormalities, pore muscle tone, sleep  

apnea, intellectual disability (avg. IQ- 50-55), average life  span is 50 years, there is no treatment  

• Describe the contributions of Jean Piaget. Be sure to include  the following:

o Thought of children as active thinkers

o What is a schema, and how do the processes of  assimilation and accommodation help shape a schema? ♣ Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and  Don't forget about the age old question of born preterit

interprets life.

♣ Assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of  

existing schemas.

♣ Accommodation: adapting schemas to incorporate new  

info (more details)

o What are Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development?  When do each of the following skills emerge?

♣ Sensorimotor stage: stage one, starts at birth and goes to  Don't forget about the age old question of 12. find dg by implicit differentiation:

age two. World knowledge is based on sensory info and  motor activities

• object permanence- awareness that objects  

continue to exist when not perceived (starts at  

around 8 months. Peek-a-book no longer works)

♣ Preoperational Stage: stage two from ages two through  seven. Ability to create mental representations.

• Conservation- principle that quantity remains the  

same despite changes in shape.

• mental representations- can envision ideas based  on schemas

• theory of mind- the ability to attribute mental states  to yourself and others (allows us to infer feelings,  

perceptions, and thoughts, and take other’s point of  


♣ Concrete operational stage: stage three, lasts from ages  

seven to twelve. Ability to create concrete operations  

(manipulating mental representations of concrete objects,  emergence of logic and reversibility)  

♣ Formal operational stage: stage four, starts at age twelve  

and lasts the rest of your life. Expansion of logical  

capabilities, you can imagine abstract realities.

• What is autism? What are the 3 main categories of autism  symptoms? Describe current theories about the causes of  autism.

o Autism: a brain development disorder, usually diagnosed in  infancy and is based on behavior. (no babbling by 12 months,  no single words by 16 months)

♣ 1) Social interaction impairments: impaired theory of  

mind, difficult understanding social emotions. Little eye  contact or smiling, unlikely to approach others, little  

nonverbal communication.  

♣ 2) communication impairments: delayed onset of  We also discuss several other topics like are diatoms in toothpaste

babbling, decreased responsiveness, difficulty  

understanding pointing.  

♣ 3) repetitive behavior: useless movements, preference for  

sameness, enjoys patters and organization.  

o Causes? NOT VACCINES!!! Might not be caused by one thing.  Could possibly be genetics (strong in families), extreme male  brain, strong negative correlation between mirror neuron activity  and severity of autism symptoms.

• What is attachment? Who/what do young children usually  become attached to? Be sure to include the work of Harry  Harlow and Konrad Lorenz when answering this question.

o Attachment: emotional tie with another person or thing ♣ Attachment figure: a person that a child usually becomes  

attached to (usually a parent) seeks closeness to AF and  has distress upon separation.  

o Harry Haslow did research on monkeys and their attachment,  found that they had a strong preference to the cloth mother and  used them as a base for exploring and would cling to them  when anxious.  

o Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting (attached to the first moving  thing they saw). He studied how a group of ducks imprinted on  him. Don't forget about the age old question of suppose you are studying two different species of monkeys and one has a larger brain in relation to body weight than the other. you might reasonably believe that the species with a larger brain in relation to body weight _____.

o What are the 4 attachment styles?

♣ Secure attachment: about 65% of 1 year olds. Active  

exploration when AF present, when separated they may  be upset. Outgoing with strangers especially if AF is  


♣ Resistant attachment: about 10% of 1 year olds. Stays  

close to AF and does little exploring, when separated they  become very distressed and when reunited, they are  

happy but act betrayed

♣ Avoidant attachment: about 20% of 1 year olds. When  

separated there is little distress, and they are detached  from AF

♣ Disorganized/disoriented attachment: about 5% of 1 year  

olds. Most insecure, combination of resistant and  Don't forget about the age old question of geo 231 study guide

avoidant. Confusion about whether to approach or avoid  AF. Very common in abused children.

• What changes happen to the teenage brain?

o 1) pruning of neural connections (getting rid things you no  longer use)

o 2) myelin growth (better/faster communication)  

o Limbic system (emotion) before frontal lobe (control, judgment)

♣ Impulsiveness, risky behavior

♣ Brain doesn’t mature until age 25

• Describe Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stages of moral development. o Preconventional stage: morality of self-interest  

o Conventional stage: care for others, follow rules because they  are rules

o Postconcentional stage: broad abstract ethical principles of  right vs. wrong .  

• Define dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and what we know  about their causes.

o Dementia: decline of cognitive functioning beyond normal  aging. (disorientation in time, place and person)

o Alzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disorder. Deterioration  of memory, reasoning, language and physical functioning.  o Causes are unclear but 70% of risk is genetic, loss of brain  tissue, deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine  (memory/thinking deficits)  

• How do happiness and well-being change in old age? o Inglehart 1990; found that the 65+ year olds are the happies  people.  

o As people reach the middle of their lives (midlife crisis) they  attempt to reclaim youth.  

Chapter 13: Personality Psychology

• Describe the contributions of Sigmund Freud and the  fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis.

o What is the unconscious? Why did Freud say that the  unconscious is important? How did Freud believe that we  could access the unconscious?

♣ Unconscious: a collection of unacceptable thoughts,  

wishes, desires, feelings and memories. Powerful  

influence over thoughts and behavior.

♣ Psychoanalysis: ASSOCIATED WITH FRUED. Hydraulic  

theory that attributes thoughts and behavior to  

unconscious motives and conflicts

♣ Too much “pressure” in the conscious. Accessing  

unconscious-release pressure.

♣ Freud found a deeper meaning in almost everything! ♣ Dreams: the royal road to the unconsciousness. (manifest  

vs. latent content)  

o Describe the 3 components of the Freudian personality (id,  ego, superego). What is the role of each, and how do they  interact with each other?

♣ ID: unconscious psychic energy-sexual and aggressive  

urges. The unconscious force that really drives us.

• Pleasure principle: demands immediate  

gratification, regardless of social norms and  


♣ Superego: internalized ideals and standards for judgment.  

The conscience. Developed at age 4-5. How one should  act. Mostly unconscious, some conscious.  

♣ Ego: mostly conscious part of personality that mediates  

ID vs. Superego.  

• Reality principle: seeks to gratify ID in ways  

acceptable to superego

o What are erogenous zones, and how do they influence  psychosexual development?

♣ Erogenous zones: is a part of the body that is sensitive to  

sexual stimulation. This influences psychosexual  

development (developmental periods that children pass  though during which they encounter conflicts between the  demands of society and their own sexual urges) because  children go through different sexual phases thought their  lives.

o What are defense mechanisms? Describe each of the  following defense mechanisms: repression, projection,  reaction formation, sublimation.

♣ Defense mechanisms: ways of reducing anxiety by  

unconsciously distorting reality.  

♣ Repression: blocking unacceptable thoughts from  

conscious mind.  

♣ Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by  

attributing them to others “a thief thinks everyone else is a  thief”  

♣ Reaction formation: unconsciously switching  

unacceptable impulses into their opposites.

♣ Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from  

negative outlets, toward positive outlets.  

• How do you feel about Freud? Why do some psychologists  embrace his ideas, while others denounce them?

o Personally I think he had good ideas but I think he’s crazy  especially when it comes to the oedipal complex.  

o The bad: doesn’t predict behaviors, only explains them post  hoc. His ideas are based on his memories and interpretations,  not research evidence. Very sexist.  

o The good: intro to the unconscious, modern definition of the  unconscious, processing of which we are not aware. Defense  against anxiety. First personality and psychotherapy theories.  

• What are traits? How could we use the lexical approach and  statistical approach (i.e. factor analysis) to identify the most  “important” traits?

o Gordon Allport: founder of modern personality psychology  o Traits: characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel  and act a certain way.  

o Lexical approach: important individual differences encoded in  language over time. Invent words to discuss meaningful  differences, natural selection amongst words.  

o Statistical approach/ factor analysis: statistical procedure that  identifies clusters of items that co-vary but do not co-vary with

other clusters. This reduces a huge number of traits to more  manageable set.  

o What traits are included in the five-factor model (aka. Big  Five)? What does a high/low level of each of these traits  look like in a person?

♣ Conscientiousness: how we control, direct, and regulate  

our lives

• High- organized, neat, orderly, practical, and  


• Low- disorganized, disorderly, careless, sloppy

♣ Neuroticism: tendency to experience strong negative  


• High- moody, anxious, insecure

• Low-calm, relaxed, stable (emotionally)

♣ Agreeableness: concern with cooperation and social  


• High: sympathetic, kind, warm, avoid conflict

• Low- unsympathetic, hard, confrontational, proud

♣ Openness: willingness/eagerness to try new things

• High- creative, imaginative, intellectual, preference  

for new and exciting things.

• Low- uncreative, practical, set in their ways, routine  and habit.  

♣ Extraversion: engagement with the outside social world.

• High- talkative, assertive, forward, outspoken

• Low- shy, quiet, bashful, prefers being alone  

Chapter 9: Intelligence

• What is intelligence? Describe the differences between general  intelligence and multiple intelligences.

o Intelligence: a social construct, a concept. The ability to learn  from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt  to new situations.  

♣ General intelligence: factor that underlies specific mental  


♣ Multiple intelligences: multiple ways to be intelligent  

(linguistic, logical mathematical, naturalist, special, bodily  kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal.  

• Above is Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences.  

How smart are you vs. how are you smart?

• What is emotional intelligence, and what does it predict about  life outcomes?

o Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand,  manage, and use emotions.  

♣ High EQ-higher quality friendships, relationships, better  

job performance, etc...

• What is creativity? What are the differences between  convergent thinking and divergent thinking?

o Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. ♣ Convergent thinking: closing in on the single right answer  

• Deficits- Damage to the left parietal lobe

♣ Divergent thinking: imagining multiple possible answers

• Deficits-damage to frontal lobe

• Describe the development of the following intelligence tests: o Binet-Simon test

♣ Assumption: intellectual development is the same for all  

kids, but faster for some than others.  

♣ Measured mental age (chronological age typical of a  

given level of performance) avg. 10 year olds mental age  is 10

o Stanford-Binet test

♣ Used test as a measure of innate intelligence which is  

very bad. You’re either smart or you’re dumb.  

♣ High reliability

o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

♣ 11 subtests: 6 are verbal and 5 are performance.  

Difference between scores may indicate learning  

disabilities, brain disorders, personal strengths.  

♣ Very high reliability

• How is IQ calculated? What is an average IQ score? o 100 x (mental age/chronological age)  

o the average IQ is 100

• What does it mean to say that an IQ test is reliable? What does  it mean to say that an IQ test is valid? Why is each of these  qualities important?

o Reliable: getting consistent results. If you took the IQ test  multiple times, would your scores be close? If it is reliable, you  will have similar scores, if it isn’t reliable, your scores will  change a lot every time you take it.

o Valid: the test measures what it claims to measure. Is it actually  measuring intelligence?

• What are the criteria for intellectual disability? Why does  intellectual disability happen? What are islands of excellence? o Criteria:

♣ 1) IQ score of 70 or below

♣ 2) significant limitations in everyday life

♣ 3) present since childhood

o They happen due to many things, like an extra chromosome,  premature birth, lack of development, problems before birth  (mother had a drug/alcohol problem) etc.  

o Island of excellence: areas in which disabled people perform  remarkably well.  

• What does it mean to be gifted? What life outcomes are more  common for gifted people?

o People with an IQ of at least 130. (gifted boys- lower  testosterone levels than non gifted boys. Gifted girls- higher  testosterone levels than non gifted girls)

o These people are likely to discover things, and keep learning  and become successful.

• How do brain size and brain speed relate to intelligence? o Brain size: correlation between brain volume and IQ scores= +. 40

♣ Potential causes: genes, nutrition, environment.

♣ Postmortem studies: highly educated-17% more neural  


o Brain speed: correlation between speed and IQ is also +.4 ♣ High IQ-quicker brain waves to stimuli, simple tasks

• What evidence do we have that genetics influence intelligence?  What evidence do we have that culture/environment/experiences  influence intelligence?

o Genes: In adopted children, there are higher correlations of IQ  with biological parents rather than adoptive parents. In twins,  they have more similar IQ’s compared to just brother and sister.

o Environment: higher IQ if you have a higher socioeconomic  status. Sex differences in intelligence (average IQ equal across  gender, but variability is different)  

• What is stereotype threat? What does it suggest about group  differences that we see in IQ testing?

o Stereotype: socially shared beliefs about a group and its  members.  

♣ Teen talk Barbie, Steele and Aronson (race), Spencer and  

Quinn (gender). This shows that people perform  

differently if they are told it has something to do with their  stereotype.  

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

• What is a psychological disorder? What is the DSM-5, and what  are the pros and cons of using it?

o Psychological disorder: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional  pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

o DSM-5: book with list of symptoms and diagnostic criteria for all  disorders. This is the most common tool for diagnostic and  disorders are organized into categories.  

♣ Pros- standardized diagnosis (guides treatment), fairly  


♣ Cons- more disorders=more mental illness, nearly 30% of  

all adults qualify for at least one disorder. The labeling  

problem influences perceptions.

• Describe David Rosenhan’s famous study (“On Being Sane In  Insane Places”). What does this study say about our  understanding of psychological disorders?

o David Rosenhan’s famous study was done in order to find out if  regular people can be misdiagnosed. He send 8 psychologically  healthy people (including himself) to try and get admitted to  mental hospitals by telling only three lies. The lies included;  using a fake name, using a false career, and saying (only once  while trying to get admitted) they heard voices last week saying  words like “hollow, empty”. All 8 people were admitted into the  hospitals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. After they were  admitted, they were told to act completely normal and to not lie  about anything else and said they only heard the voices that  one time. The people spent anywhere from 7-52 days in the  hospitals and were discharged with “psychosis in remission.”  This shows that people can be miss diagnosed, and if they are  labeled as one thing, it is hard to see their actions as anything  else but the symptoms under their label.  

• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following anxiety  disorders:

o generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)- persistent state of  anxiety, continually waiting for something bad to happen.  Restless, jittery, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, increased  heart rate and muscle tension.  

o panic disorder (PD)- sudden period of intense fear. Repeated  uncued panic attacks. Short breathing, sweating, dizziness.  ♣ Cued- situationally bound, in response to a trigger

♣ Uncued- unexpected “out of the blue” not connected to a  


o Agoraphobia- fear of inescapable situations where help me not  be available. These people stay very close to home, or some  may never leave home. Fear of future panic attacks in public.

o Phobias- intense anxiety from fear of an object/ situation.  Results in complete avoidance of that thing.  

o social anxiety disorder (SAD)- anxiety in social situations.  Fear of embarrassment and humiliation. Comforted by avoiding  others.  

o obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- uncontrollable  anxiety due to obsessions and/or compulsions

♣ obsessions- unwanted, repetitive thoughts (dirt, order) ♣ compulsions- unwanted repetitive behaviors (washing  

hands, checking)  

o post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)- anxiety dues to  haunting memories resulting in nightmares, social withdrawal,  insomnia etc. Happens 4+ weeks after a traumatic event  (incubation period) can come as a result from war, natural  disasters, accidents abuse, etc.  

• Brain areas

o Anterior cingulate cortex: frontal lobe region that monitors our  actions, checks for mistakes

♣ Hyperactive in people with OCD

o Locus ceruleus: controls norepinephrine (fight-or flight) ♣ Hyperactive in people with panic disorders

♣ Hypersensitive CO2 alarm which induces panic attacks

• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following mood  disorders:

o Mood disorders run in families. Can be chemical imbalances o The can also be caused by psychological influences, like self defeating beliefs (negative assumptions about self), explanatory  style (how you describe situations), and can be caused by  negative experiences.

o major depressive disorder (MDD)- repeated depressive  episodes with 5 or more symptoms from the DSM

♣ most common depressive diagnosis  

♣ low mood, feeling of worthlessness, reduced interest in  

activities, weight loss, insomnia, thoughts of death.

♣ Dysthymia: “mild” for of depression, some of the above  

symptoms for very long periods of time.

♣ In depression, you have very low levels of the  

neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.

o seasonal affective disorder-people who get symptoms of  depression in the winder. Caused by lack of sunlight, circadian  rhythm gets messed up, your body slows down.  

♣ Common therapy is called Light therapy, where light is  

constantly shined in someone’s eyes throughout their day. o bipolar disorder-

♣ Mania: manic episodes. Euphoric mood, hyperactivity,  

high energy, racing thoughts, short attention span,  


• Manic episode: have above symptoms for most of  

the day, most days, in one week

♣ Bipolar 1: 1+ manic episodes

♣ Bipolar 2: cycling between manic and depressive  


♣ Cyclothymia: manic and depressive episodes that do not  

meet DSM criteria (like bipolar 2 but more “subtle”)  

♣ In mania, you have very high levels of norepinephrine.

• Describe the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia. Be sure  to include:

o Schizophrenia is the distortion of thoughts, perceptions, moods,  and bizarre behaviors (hallucinations, delusions)

o Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality.  ♣ Thought broadcasting: thinking their thoughts are being  

broadcasted to the world.

♣ Thought insertion: thinking that people are putting  

thoughts inside their minds.

♣ Thought withdrawal: thinking people are taking thoughts  

out of their head (they are being stolen from them)

o word salad

o clanging

o poverty of content

o neologisms

o hallucinations

• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following personality  disorders:

o antisocial personality disorder

o borderline personality disorder

• Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. Why is  this a controversial diagnosis among some psychologists? • Describe the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity  disorder (ADHD).

• Describe the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia.  Be sure to include: o Schizophrenia is the distortion of thoughts, perceptions, moods, and bizarre  behaviors (hallucinations, delusions)

o Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality.  

▪ Thought broadcasting: thinking their thoughts are being broadcasted to the  world.

▪ Thought insertion: thinking that people are putting thoughts inside their  minds.

▪ Thought withdrawal: thinking people are taking thoughts out of their head  (they are being stolen from them)

o word salad: jumping from one idea to the next, little coherence in language o clanging: pairing words with no relation other than rhyming or sounding alike o poverty of content: using many words, all grammatically correct, but conveying  very little.

o Neologisms: creating new words by combining regular words; using words in new  ways

▪ Maybe schizophrenics know what to say but can’t find the right words to  say it.  

o Hallucinations: sensory experiences without sensory input.  

▪ Any sense but auditory is the most common (70% of schizo.)

▪ Some are aware that the hallucinations aren’t real, but some are un aware ▪ In PET scans, there is activity in the Broca’s area while hearing voices  o Reactive: rapid development, recovery is likely

o Process: more gradual onset, recovery is doubtful

o Type 1 Schizophrenia: positive- presence of inappropriate behaviors  (hallucinations, word salad, usually respond well to medication)

o Type 2 Schizophrenia: negative- absence of appropriate behaviors (flat affect,  toneless voice, rigid body, doesn’t really respond well to medication)

o Causes

▪ Genetics

▪ Excess dopamine receptors- intensifies neural signals

▪ Shrinking brain- tissue loss in the cortex and thalamus

▪ Environmental factors- flu during pregnancy

• Describe the symptoms and causes of the following personality disorders: o antisocial personality disorder- psychopathy

▪ lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward close others.  

▪ More common among men

▪ Adrenaline at 13 YO negatively correlated with criminal convictions at 18- 26 YO.

▪ Reduced activity in frontal lobe and amygdala

▪ 11% less frontal lobe tissue

• Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder.  Why is this a controversial  diagnosis among some psychologists?

o Aka Multiple personalities

o 2+ distinct personalities (alters)

o alternate control of person

o evidence for: distinct body, brain states across alters, no memory transfer,  different pain tolerances, insulin responses, shifting visual acuity, eye-muscle  balance.

o Evidence against: created by therapists? 1930-60s 2 diagnoses per decade, in the  80s (first DSM listing) 20,000+ cases. Symptoms most dramatic/ common after  therapy starts.

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