study guide exam 3
study guide exam 3 Psych 333
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 333 at Clemson University taught by Allison Wallace in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/18/15
PSYC 3330 – Study Guide for Exam #3 Note: This study guide is meant to help you focus your studying efforts on important topics/questions. Chapter 9: Language I – Intro to Language & Language Comprehension Provide evidence to demonstrate how impressive & complex our language skills are o Encoding sound of speaker’s voice o encoding visual features of text o accessing meaning of words o understanding rules of word order o appreciating whether a sentence is a question or a statement, based on only the speaker’s intonation Define: o Phoneme- basic unit of spoken language a, k, th 40 in English language o morpheme- basic unit of meaning “reactivated” re-, active-, ate-, -ed/ ‘Giraffe’ giraffe o syntax- rules governing how we organize words into sentences o grammar- includes morphology & syntax o semantics- meaning of words & sentences o pragmatics- social rules underlying language use ie. How would you explain a correlation coefficient to your stats professor? To your grandparent? o Discourse- interrelated units of language that are larger than a sentence What are some ways in which languages differ from one another? o The meaning of changes in pitch o English is an outlier language (relatively simple grammar & many more irregular pronunciations than other major languages) o Use of passive voice o Whether nouns have grammatical gender o Brain processing Would Chomsky argue that language is primarily learned or innate? o We have innate understanding of the abstract principles of language but language learning involves the more superficial characteristics of a particular language o It’s both, initially said innate but then revised himself a little & said some stuff isn’t as innate as he thought What is the difference between the surface and deep structure of sentences? o Surface- represented by words that are actually spoken/written o Deep- underlying, more abstract meaning of sentence o can have very different surface but same deep ie. Sara threw ball vs. the ball was thrown by sara o can have same surface but very different deep (ambiguous sentences) ie. The shooting of the hunters was terrible o transformational rules allow us to convert what we want to convey into an actual message What do psycholinguistic theories, particularly the cognitive-functional approach theory, emphasize about language? o Psycholinguistic theories emphasize human mind & semantics rather than the grammatical aspects of language o Emphasize cog processes such as attention & memory, which are intertwined w/ our language comprehension & language production o Cognitive-functional approach- function of human language in everyday life is to communicate meaning to other individuals cog processes are intertwined w/ language comprehension & production children use flexible strategies to create increasingly complex language adults use language strategically & creatively Know how negatives, voice, syntax, and ambiguity affect comprehension o 1. Negatives statements w/ neg words (no, not..) require more processing time than affirmative statements produce more errors multiple negatives decrease performance incrementally o 2. Passive Voice active form: more basic- requires less words more common in English language easier to understand demonstrated through studies of sentence plausibility o 3. complex syntax sentences w/ it are more difficult to understand & can result in memory overload (ie. Sentences w/ nested structure) o 4. Ambiguity it takes longer to deal w/ ambiguity & we’ll make some errors trying to process ambiguous word: ppl pause longer on that word we select 1 particular meaning if 1) its more common meaning of that word & 2) if the rest of the sentence is consistent w/ that meaning trying to process an ambiguous sentence: often occurs die to lack of punctuation & will often wander down the wrong path What is does the good-enough approach to language argue? o Good-enough approach- We often process only part of a sentence & we usually don’t work hard to create the most accurate, detailed interpretation of every sentence we read or hear Read quickly & grab the gist Usually get it right, but might make errors What types of tasks do people with Broca’s aphasia & Wernicke’s aphasia struggle with? Are these two distinct types of cognitive problems? o Aphasia- communication difficulties caused by damage to speech areas of the brain o Broca’s area- damage creates difficulties w/ producing language, & some w/ comprehension (ie. Alright..uh..stroke.. and…uh…i…) o Wernicke’s area- damage creates difficulties w/ language comprehension & some w/ production o The 2 kinds are more similar than once believed Explain why this statement is an exaggeration: “Language is in the left hemisphere of the brain” o The left hemisphere does most of the work in language processing for the majority of people such as: speech perception, understanding the meaning of a statement, high- imagery sentences. The right hemisphere also performs some tasks related to language process particularly abstract language tasks. Both hemispheres work together to interpret subtle meaning, resolving ambiguity, combining meaning of several sentences. Overall, how good are we at reading? Is it easy to learn? o Requires virtually every cognitive process o Is remarkably efficient & accurate o Seems so simple to us as adults bc we forget how big of a challenge it is to learn as a child What are some ways in which comprehending spoken word is different/trickier than comprehending written text? o Reading is visual & spread out across space, whereas speech is auditory & spread across time o Readers can control rate of input vs listeners cant o Readers can re-scan the written input vs listeners rely more heavily on their working memory o Readers encounter standardized, error free input, vs. listeners need to cope w/ variability, grammatical errors, sloppy pronunciation & interfering stimuli o Readers can see discrete boundaries bw words vs listeners have unclear boundaries o Readers encounter only stimuli on page vs listeners encounter both nonverbal cues & auditory cues o Children learn spoken languages more easily but adults learn new words better in written form Explain the dual-route approach to reading, including when we would typically use direct and indirect routes o Dual-route approach- skilled readers employ both a direct-access route (recognize word directly through vision) & indirect-access route (recognize word by first sounding out the word) Direct- especially for irregularly spelled words we can’t ‘sound out’ Indirect- especially for regularly spelled words o This approach is: Flexible Argues that the characteristics of the reading material determine whether access is indirect or direct Argues that characteristics of the reader also determine whether access is indirect or direct How do most educators/researchers suggest that we should teach kids to read? o Whole-word approach (direct access) argues readers can directly connect the written word, as an entire unit, w/ the meaning that this word represents Argues children should not learn to emphasize the way a word sounds Emphasizes context w/in a sentence Problem: even skilled adults achieve only about 25% accuracy when they look at incomplete sentence & guess missing word o Phonics approach (indirect access) readers recognize words by trying to pronounce the individual letters in the word “sound it out” Argues that speech sound is a necessary intermediate step in reading Emphasizes developing children’s awareness of phonemes Phonics training does help children who have reading struggles o Most ppl support some sort of compromise bw the 2 approaches Use phonics to access how to pronounce a word & use context as backup Should recognize some words by sight alone o Whole-language approach- reading instruction should emphasize meaning & be enjoyable to increase children’s enthusiasm about learning to read Have books they can read outside of school How do skilled readers form an integrated mental representation of text? o Frequently organize & integrate info into cohesive story o Use mental models during reading (ie. Mental map of locations described in writing) o Construct internal representations (ie. Characters in a story) o Make inferences going beyond info given What factors affect how likely it is that we will make inferences as we read? o Readers usually draw inferences about causes of events & the relationships bw events o Readers actively integrate current info w/ all the relevant info from previous parts of the text, as well as w/ their own background knowledge o Encourage inferences: (ppl are more likely to draw inferences if they): Have a larger working-memory capacity Have great metacomprehension skills Have expertise about the topic Are reading text that is non-scientific Chapter 10: Language II – Language Production & Bilingualism Provide evidence to demonstrate how impressive our production of words is o Average of 3 words/second o Avg college educated American has speaking vocab of 75,000 words What are slips-of-the-tongue? What different types of this error exist? What characteristics do these errors share? o Slips-of-the-tongue- Errors in which sounds or entire words are rearranged bw 2 or more different words o Different types of errors Sounds errors Morpheme errors Word errors o Characteristics Errors typically create a real word They reveal our extensive language knowledge Typically occur across items from the same category Words we are currently pronouncing are influenced by both the words we have already spoken & the words we are planning to speak Why is gesturing such a critical part of language? o They can influence how you think o Accompany speech o Some things can be explained more clearly in gestures than words o Increase the listener’s understanding o What are the four steps of producing a sentence? Do we go through those stages in a serial fashion for each sentence we produce? o Stages: 1. Plan the gist 2. Devise general structure of sentence 3. Choose specific words & grammatical form 4. convert these intentions into speech o stages overlap in time What is the linearization problem in layman’s terms? In addition to choosing the words, what else goes into planning/producing a sentence? o Linearization problem- challenge of transforming general thought/mental image into an ordered, linear sequence of words How is conversation like a complicated dance (i.e., explain the social context of language production)? o Language as a social instrument o Speakers/listeners must: Consider their convo partners Make assumptions about those partners Design appropriate utterances Coordinate turn-taking Agree on meaning of ambiguous terms Understand each others intentions What is common ground? How do we develop it? o Common ground- when partners share similar background knowledge, schemas, & perspectives required for mutual understanding What are the 3 phases of writing? How do practicing and using multiple drafts come into play? o 3 phases: 1. Planning 2. Sentence generation 3. Revising o if you practice you get better at it How do working memory and long-term memory play a role in writing? o WM: Phonological loop IS an important factor 3 diff types of secondary tasks (each component of WM) visuospatial sketchpad IS NOT an important factor central executive IS active in EVERY phase of writing process coordinates planning phase involved in sentence generation oversees revision o LTM Semantic memory Expertise about the topic General schemas Knowledge about writing style required for the specific assignment How should we proofread/revise our writing? o Reconsider whether the writing accomplishes the goals of the assignment o They should be time consuming o Emphasize importance of organization & coherence o Use flexible revision strategies & make substantial changes o Proofread for spelling separately from content o Wait at least 1 day, after revising content, to proofread o Have someone else revise it What are some reasons a person might acquire a second language? Is this a common thing in the world? o Yes very common, more than half the ppl in the world are at least somewhat bilingual o May live in country w/ 2+ common languages (ie. Canada) o May need to learn another language for business/job/industry o May need to learn it for another school (ie. Study abroad) o Study them in school (can be requirement) o Ppl may have to bc of colonization o Immigration What factors influence how successfully we can learn another language? o Educational system (schools values) o Individual motivation o Attitude toward ppl who speak that language o Language proficiency Overall, is being bilingual advantageous? Provide some justification for your answer. o Yes, adv outweigh disadv o Bilinguals: acquire more expertise in native language more aware that the names assigned to concepts are arbitrary & outperform in other measures of metalinguistics excel at paying selective attention to relatively subtle aspects of language task bilingual children are better at following complicated instructions & performing tasks where instructions change from one trial to the next perform better on concept-formation tasks & on tests of nonverbal intelligence that require reorganization of visual patterns & score higher on prob-solving tasks that require them to ignore irrelevant info children are more sensitive to some pragmatic aspects of language adults who have dementia typically develop signs of dementia later than monolingual adults o How does age relate to our ability to acquire another language? Be specific regarding how age influences ability to master vocabulary, phonology, and grammar. o Age of acquisition- age at which 2 ndlanguage is learned o Critical period hypothesis- ability to acquire 2ndlanguage is strictly limited to a specific period of life o Vocab: Age of acquisition NOT related to vocab o Phonology: Age of acqu DOES influence mastery of phonology (sounds of speech) o Grammar Age = NOT related Chapter 11: Problem Solving & Creativity Define problem-solving, including its 3 basic components o Problem solving- used when want to reach certain goal, but solution is not immediately obvious o 3 components: initial state- situation at the beginning of problem goal state- reached when you solve the problem obstacles- restrictions making it difficult to reach goal What is problem representation? What are these & when might we use them – symbols, matrices, diagrams, visual images? o Problem representation- way you translate elements of a problem into a different format Tied to WM capacity o Symbols Translating words into symbols Effective for algebraic problems Challenges- reversing symbols, oversimplification o Matrices Grid showing all possible combos of items Most useful for complex, stable, & categorical info o Diagrams Instructions for assembling objects More accurate w/ both verbal description AND step-by-step diagram vs only verbal desc. Represent abstract info into concrete fashion (ie. Instructions manual for assembling furniture) Represent large amnt of info (ie. Hierarchical tree diagram) Reduce large amnt of complicated info into concrete form (ie. Graphs) o Visual images Escape boundaries of traditional concrete representations Help w/ probs where you have to construct figure Know the difference between the situated and embodied cognition approaches o Situated-cog approach- often use helpful info in our immediate environment to create spatial representations Importance of external situation Our ability to solve a problem is tied into specific physical & social context in which we learned to solve that problem Abstract intelligence test often fails to reveal how competent a person would be in solving problems in real-life settings How well we can solve problem is tied to context we learned to solve it o Embodied-cog approach- often use our own body & our own motor actions to express our abstract thoughts & knowledge Importance of own body as content Why is it a good thing that my mom made me calculate the change at the grocery store? o Kids should experience solving problems in their real-life context (situated cognition) o Real life provides info needed to solve complicated problems o example of situated-cognition approach o forced to use brain in real-life context where thing is actually relevant (learned it in math class but needed to apply it to real-life) What is the difference between algorithms and heuristics? o Algorisms- always produces a solution; sometimes inefficient (very time-consuming but accurate) o Heuristics- general rule that is usually correct (less time-consuming, but less accurate) Ignore some alternatives & explore only those alternatives that seem especially likely to produce a solution What is the analogy approach? What struggles do we often face when using it? o Analogy approach- using a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help solving a new problem We do this everyday o Struggles: we often fail to see analogy bw previously solved problem & new one have trouble solving a problem in new setting struggle using analogies if we have poor-problem solving & metacognitive skills o problem isomorphs- problems w/ same underlying structure/solution but different details What is the means-end heuristic? We are reluctant to move farther away from our end goal, but why is it sometimes necessary? o Means-end heuristic- 1. Divide the problem into subproblems & 2. Try to reduce the difference bw initial state & goal state for each subproblem o Sometimes correct solution requires moving backward, temporarily increasing distance to goal What is the hill-climbing heuristic? o Hill-climbing heuristic- When you reach a choice point, choose the alternative that seems to lead most directly toward your goal Encourage short-term goals vs long-term solutions The less direct alternative may have greater long-term benefits How do experts differ from novices in terms of their knowledge base, memory capacity/performance, problem-solving strategies, problem-solving speed & accuracy, and metacognitive skills? o General idea: experts are better at almost everything (more info, better memory, better prob solving strategies, faster/accurate) o Knowledge base Experts have expansive knowledge base/schemas o Memory Experts mem skills tend to be very specific o Prob-solving strategies Experts are: more likely to use means-ends heuristic effectively on a novel prob Approach probs systematically Are more likely to emphasize structural features when using analogy approach o Prob-solving speed/accuracy Experts: faster & more accurate Problem-solving operations become more automatic Use parallel processing (can consider possible solution simultaneously) o Metacognitive skills Experts: better at monitoring their own prob solving Better at judging problem difficulty, allocating time, monitoring usefulness of ideas, recovering from errors Underestimate amnt of time novices will require to solve a problem in the experts area of specialization What is a mental set, and why is it a problem? o Mental set- using the same solution from previous probs, even though the prob could be solved by a different, easier method (approach new prob same way you’ve always used) Close mind prematurely/stop thinking Automatically solve the way you did before even though could be better solution, mind just shut off thinking about it Overactive top-down processing What is functional fixedness, and why is it a problem? o Functional fixedness- tend to assign stable uses to an object Fail to think about features of the object that might be useful in helping solve a problem Overactive top-down processing What is an insight problem? How does solving them differ from solving non-insight problems? o Insight problem- initially seems impossible until sudden solution appears (light bulb/”aha”) o Usually begin w/ inappropriate assumptions that need to be discarded o Inappropriate use of top-down processing o Confidence shows sudden leap in solving insight probs Define creativity o Finding solutions that are novel & useful What is divergent vs. convergent thinking? o Divergent thinking- being able to look @ something & come up w/ many different solutions Classic approach to creativity Ie. Come up w/ as many different examples for words start w/ L & end w/ N o Convergent thinking- have a problem & have to come up w/ just ONE BEST solution Overtime realized creativity involves this too Know the 3 research-based general observations about creativity o 1. Creativity includes convergent thinking, as well as divergent thinking o 2. Creativity is associated w/ many regions w/in the left hemisphere, as well as many regions w/in right hemisphere o 3. Creativity can occur when we use focused attention as well as defocused attention How does motivation type interact with creativity? o Extrinsic motivation- desire to work on a task to earn a promised reward Ppl often produce less creative projects if they are working on these projects for external reasons Ie. Ppl rewarded by money/pay check to go to work o Intrinsic motivation- motivation to work on a task for its own sake Find it interesting, exciting, or personally challenging Ppl more likely to be creative when they are working on a task they truly enjoy Chapter 12: Deductive Reasoning and Decision Making How do deductive reasoning and decision making differ? o Deductive reasoning- given some specific premises, judge whether those premises allow you to draw a particular conclusion, based on the principles of logic provides you w/ all the info you need to draw a conclusion (logic helps come to conc) o Decision making- assessing & choosing among 2+ alternatives more ambiguous/uncertain usually don’t have all the info we need sometimes never know if you made right decision sometimes consequences may not be very clear Know the difference between type 1 and type 2 processing (Dual-process theory) o Type 1 processing- fast & automatic; requires little conscious attention Ie. Depth perception, facial recognition o Type 2 processing- slow & controlled; requires focused attention Ie. Thinking of exceptions to rules, being a new driver What are conditional reasoning tasks? Understand how we go about solving these tasks (including the meanings of antecedent, consequent, affirm, deny, and the 4 different kinds of reasoning tasks) o Conditional reasoning task- describes the relationship bw conditions “if..then..” conc is judged as valid/invalid occur freq but difficult to solve affirming conseq causes largest number of errors o propositional calculus- system for categorizing 4 kinds of reasoning used in analyzing propositions antecedent-first proposition; the “if” part consequent- second proposition; “then” part affirming: antecedent (valid) & consequent (invalid) denying: antecedent (invalid) & consequent (valid) o 4 kinds of conditional reasoning tasks: 1. Affirming the antecedent: saying “if..” part of sentence is TRUE (valid, correct conc) 2. The fallacy/error of affirming the consequent: saying “then..” part of sent is TRUE (invalid conc) 3. Fallacy of denying the antecedent: saying the “if..” part of the sent is FALSE (invalid conc) 4. Denying the consequent: saying the “then..” part of sentence is FALSE (valid/correct conc) How do linguistically negative information and abstract concepts affect our ability to solve reasoning tasks? o Linguistically neg info: Take longer to evaluate problems that contain linguistically neg info More likely to make errors on these problems (bc it strains our working memory) o Abstract concepts: More accurate when they solve reasoning probs that use concrete examples rather than abstract, theoretical examples Diagrams can be helpful Everyday knowledge may override the principles of logic What is the belief-bias effect? o When ppl make judgments based on prior beliefs & general knowledge, rather than logic rules More top-down processing Tend to make errors when the logic of a reasoning problem conflicts w/ own background knowledge What is confirmation bias? What are some real-world examples/applications of confirmation bias? o Confirmation bias- ppl tend to try to confirm/support a hypothesis, rather than try to disprove it Eager to affirm antecedent, but reluctant to deny consequent by searching for counterexamples o Examples: Medicine: seek confirming evidence when self-diagnosing disorders; med students & psychiatrists tend to select info consistent w/ original diagnosis vs investigate info that might be consistent w/ other diagnosis Political: wars What did Kahneman and Tversky argue broadly about decision making? o There’s just a couple of heuristics that we use to make decisions (representativeness, availability, anchoring & adjustment) o The same strategies that normally guide us toward the correct decision may sometimes lead us astray What is the representativeness heuristic? How do sample size, base rate, and the conjunction rule relate to this heuristic? o Representativeness Heuristic- judge that a sample is likely if it is SIMILAR to the population from which the sample was selected Believe that random-looking outcomes are more likely than orderly outcomes This heuristic is so persuasive that ppl often ignore important statistical info that they SHOULD consider o Sample size: Often fail to pay attention to SS Large sample is statistically more likely than small sample to reflect the true proportions in a population Stereotypes Small-sample fallacy- assume a small sample will be representative of the population from which it was selected o Base rate: Often fail to pay attention to base rate Ie. Ppl ignoring the base rate (how common each major is) & using representative heuristic too much (the kids personality) Base rate- how often an item occurs in the population Base rate fallacy- emphasize representativeness & underemphasize important info about base rates o Conjunction fallacy Conjunction rule- probability of the conjunction of 2 events cannot be larger than the probability of either of its constituent events Conjunction fallacy- when ppl judge the probability of the conjunction of 2 events to be GREATER than the probability of a constituent event Tend to judge using representativeness instead of statistical probability Students w/ high SAT scores are actually MORE likely than other students to demonstrate the conjunction fallacy SUMMARY OF ALL: o Representativeness heuristic is so appealing that we tend to ignore other important characteristics we should consider (like SS & base rate) What is the availability heuristic? How do recency, familiarity, and illusory correlations affect this heuristic? What is the recognition heuristic (which is a special case of the availability heuristic)? o Availability Heuristic- estimate freq/probability in terms of how easy it is to think of relevant examples only accurate when availability is correlated w/ true, objective freq can be distorted by recency & familiarity if problem requires you to remember EXAMPLES = availability heuristic (vs if problem based on a judgment about SIMILARITY = representativeness) o recency- (can contaminate availability by this factor which isn’t related to objective freq) memory is better for more recent items recent items are more available in memory ppl judge recent items to be more likely than they really are o familiarity- (can contaminate availability by this factor which isn’t related to objective freq) ppl need to use critical thinking & shift to type 2 processing o illusory correlations- (can be created by availability heuristic) illusory correlation- believe 2 variables are statistically related, even though no real evidence for this relationship often manifested via stereotypes we need to specifically try to DISCONFIRM our stereotypes o Recognition Heuristic- when comparing relative freq of 2 categories, if ppl recognize 1 category & not the other, conclude that the recognized category has the higher frequency (ie. Estimate population of city of Milan vs madanga & most will say milan’s bigger bc we’ve heard about it before = accurate judgment) usually leads to accurate decision usually helpful when we judge relative freq What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic? What various things has research demonstrated about this heuristic? o When making an estimate, begin w/ a first approximation (anchor) & then make adjustments to that number on the basis of additional info We are too dependent/rely too heavily on the anchor & our adjustments are too small (estimates will be pretty close to anchor/original estimate) top-down processing is being used too much over-influence of current hypothesis/beliefs if 1 number was large, estimates were higher than if the first number was small (ie. What we did in class 1x2x3… 8x7x6…) single-digit numbers anchored the estimates far too low (also from dem in class) effects both novice & expert decision makers (influenced too much by anchor) anchor may restrict the search for relevant info in memory What is a confidence interval? What do studies tell us about how we estimate confidence intervals? o CI- range w/in which we expect a number to fall a certain percentage of the time o studies find that: estimated CI’s tend to be too narrow anchor may be erroneous & adjustments too small What is the framing effect? According to prospect theory, how does word choice influence our risk-taking behavior? o Framing Effect- the outcome of a decision can be influenced by: 1. The background context of the choice 2. The way in which a question is worded o Prospect theory- when dealing w/ possible gains (ie. Lives saved), ppl tend to avoid risks risk averse when dealing w/ possible losses (ie. Lives lost) ppl tend to seek risks risk taking o (if perfectly rational decision makers you would say yes to both problems; ie from class; bc same problem just worded differently) o we are being distracted by surface structure of questions & exact wording can have a major effect on answers What is the hindsight bias? o Hindsight Bias- judging an event as inevitable, after the event has already happened Overconfidence that we could have predicted the outcome in advance “knew that was going to happen” hindsight- judgments about events that already happened in the past ie. Find out person youre dating cheated, look back on it & say “all the signs were there” reconstructing the past to make it make sense w/ what happened What is the difference between maximizer and satisficers? o Maximizers- tend to examine as many options as possible (maximizing decision- making style) Could lead to “choice overload” They tended to experience more regret following a choice than satisficers Tended to experience more depressive symptoms More choices don’t necessarily make a person happier o Satisficers- tend to settle for something that is satisfactory (satisficing decision- making style)
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