Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide SOCY 105A
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 105A at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Miriam Greenberg in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Classical Social Theory in Sociology at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 11/18/15
SOC 105a MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE 02150B 11/25 $50 EVERY 4TH WEDNESDAY Structure of the exam: A. Definitions 20% Be able to define key concepts and identify theorist associated with them. B. Key Quotes 20%: Be able to identify 1) who said it, 2) the piece of writing in which it appears, and 3) the key concept it illustrates. Note: So far we have read 1 reading by Adam Smith, 6 by Marx, and 4 by Durkheim. Remind yourself about the main ideas in each of these readings, and key quotes that articulate this idea. C. Short Answers 30% You will choose two out of a list of four questions. Response will be two paragraphs for each, in your bluebook. D. Essay 30% You will choose one out of a list of three questions, and respond in an essay that is at least 5 paragraphs long, in your blue book. For both short answer and essay, questions will be drawn from those listed below. Also – remember the movies! “Modern Times” and “Baraka.” At least one question for C and/or D will have to do with analyzing one of these movies through the eyes of our sociological theorists. I. INTRO SOCIAL THEORY Concepts Enlightenment The enlightenment is a period of time roughly from 16501800 where people started to break away from their traditional ways of thinking, which was largely influenced by religion. The intellectuals promoted a new way of thinking by using reason and logic that conflicted against the church's teachings. They believed the world could be understood and controlled by developing a systematic way of thinking using observations from the real world (empirical methods). Age of Revolution The age of revolution was a period of time where a number of revolutions and social movements happened, thus, causing several changes such as the change from monarchies to constitutionalist states and republics. This includes the industrial revolution (1760), American revolution (1776), French revolution (1789) and other social movements. Industrial Revolution Industrialization was also one of the revolutions during the time period and part of the great transformation, the industrialization signified the changes in production as machines became central in producing as opposed to the previous agricultural way of production. This also created the working class as people moved away from rural areas into cities for opportunities , therefore turning them from producers to consumers when they had to start working in factories, which created greater wealth for those who owned the means of production. Taylorism: created during the industrialization with the goal to manage workers more efficiently in a “scientific way” such as using stop motion photographs to study the movement of workers so they can find the most efficient way, there more making more profit. This essentially turned humans into the assembly line and brought about alienation. The enclosures The enclosures is a movement that started in the 16 century based on the belief that they would start producing more if the land were controlled. This is the case of the closing of communal lands that could be harvested/used by anyone. Land became privately owned and urbanization followed. Gemeinschaft to gesellschaft Gemeincshaft and gesellschaft were terms coined by F. Tonnies. “Gemeinschaft” translated to “community” in german, which described a society made up of small communities that shared the same values and beliefs. This community would value the overall good over the personal wants and have a close relationship between the members. On the other hand, “Gesellschaft” translated to “society associated” and is the opposite of gemeinschaft. This society values personal wants over the overall good and are made up of large cities with impersonal relationships between the members. The difference between gemeinschaft and gesellschaft are similar to the difference between your local “moms and pops” shops and large, chain companies such as Walmart. Questions 1. What are some of the main historical roots of modern social theory? M.I.C.E Modern states: a transition from monarchies to states, people started demanding the government to rule in the interest of the people. Individualism: undermining traditional authority and a shift from inherited beliefs (mainly from religion) to chosen beliefs. People started to think for themselves as opposed to blindly accepting what is taught to them. Centralized markets, capitalism and modern industry: such as economic change and division of labor. European exploration (trades, war, colonization): wealth accumulated from such went to the development of capitalism and scientific approaches to government and formal organizations. 2. What were some of main intellectual roots of modern social theory? S.O.P.E Society separated from government: development of a civil society. Ordinary life: valuing what happens in the ordinary life as opposed to only religious ideas. “People”: the opinion of the people serves as the basis of democracy Enlightenment: the rise of rational thinking and empiricism to understand the social life including using science and observations of the real world as the basis of knowledge in development of sociology. II. MARX Concepts The invisible hand of the market and liberal political economy (for Smith) The invisible hand is the unobservable force in a market. Smith believes the government doesn't need to interfere with the market as people will act in their own interest and result in social benefits. “The baker doesn't bake bread because he wants to feed the world, but because he knows people will buy it.” Dialectics (for Hegel) Hegel believes all human history progress through the existence of old idea “thesis”, the emergence of new idea “antithesis” and the contradiction of the two. He believes the contradiction of the two will create a revolution to result in a new idea “synthesis” and the idea will take the place of the old idea. This is a cycle that continues. Hegel also focuses his dialectics on spiritual thinking, unrelated to the material world. Dialectical historical materialism Marx takes Hegel's believes and changes it so it relates to the material world. He believes the same process happens to create human history, however the conflict happens with the modes of production as the old relations of production (oppression) and the new forces of production (oppressed) and the result emerges in the form of social revolution. Feudalism clashes with industrialization, urbanization and commercialism birthed capitalism. base and superstructure Base: the ruling class/relations of production. i.e. employer and employee's work condition/division of labor. People enter to produce. Serves as the foundation of society. Superstructure: stems/develops out of base in favor of the ruling class. Includes culture, values, institution, family, religion, etc. everything outside of base and doesn't have to do with production. mode of production 1. Forces of production: the physical means and techniques (raw materials, skills, land, etc.) of production that transform capital into products for sale through labor power. 2. Relations of production: the social relationship people must enter in order to survive and produce/reproduce their means of life. i.e. employer vs. employee in capitalism, peasants vs. king in feudalism. This includes the ownership of the means of production, social class and division of labor. the four aspects of alienated labor P.M.S.P. Alienation from Product: what you make doesn't belong to you. Alienation from Man to man: objectified as a worker, labor is generalized and replaceable. No human connections because they aren't there by choice. Alienation from Species being: alienated from activities that makes us humans – producing outside of immediate needs, work disconnects us from our human spirit. Alienation from Process: alienated from the process of producing (i.e. using machines, assembly lines). Bourgeoisie and proletariat Bourgeoisie: owns the means of production Proletariat: doesn't own the means of production, must sell labor to survive The wealth of bourgeoisie is dependent on the work of proletariat therefore capitalism requires an underclass for it to function – exploitation The commodity an external object that satisfies a human need directly or indirectly and is then exchanged for something else. Use Value & Exchange Value Usevalue: only has value through consumption, its value is based on its function (intrinsic value) and independent of the labor went into production. No commodification, alienation or fetishism. i.e. a hat that protects your face from the sun Exchangevalue: the proportion of one usevalue exchanges for another usevalue. The exchangevalue is relative and abstract. System of abstract value: separated from usevalue of commodities. i.e. designer hat vs. normal hat Labor Theory of Value An usevalue only has exchangevalue when it consists of human labor and measured by the amount input. A commodity's value stays the same of the amount of labor time stays the same, if the amount of labor time decreases, its value also decreases. More products/less time to produce = cheaper, less products/more time to produce = more expensive. “labor crystallizes in the product during production.” Fetishism of the commodity, in its two aspects Assigning social meanings to products and letting it have power over us, forgetting it was the people who created the power/products in the first place. Forgetting the origin/usevalue of commodities and emphasize on its material and social value. Alienation means workers no longer own the means of production or know the amount of time that went into the product therefore they can only determine the value of an item based on its paste. The value of commodities then becomes inherent rather than based on labortime. General Formula for Capital MCM: money in exchange for commodity in exchange for money MM: advance capitalism; money in exchange for money (stock market) People seek more profit; surplus value extracted from labor underlies profit (longer hours, faster pace, less pay, etc.) Surplus Value, Relative Surplus Value & Absolute Surplus Value Surplus value: the value left over from keeping/selling the products at a higher price than the cost of production (at the expense of the workers) Relative surplus value: increasing the productivity of labor by using timesaving procedures/technology i.e. machines, intensifying labor, etc. Hidden charges. Absolute surplus value: Lengthening the work day – overtime. Visible charges. Questions 1. What was Marx’s “immanent critique” of the Enlightenment? I.e., how was he both influenced by and critical of the main philosophical currents of his time? His immanent critique meant he was criticizing the enlightenment from an insider's point of view as opposed to an outsider, he argued the enlightenment should have a materialistic analysis instead and exemplified in “The German Ideology”. In particular: a. How did Marx “turn Hegel on his head?” Marx took Hegel's dialectics and applied it to the material world by replacing idealism with materialism. b. What did he take and what did he reject from Adam Smith? Adam Smith was against mercantile and believed that when people acted in their own interest, the result is unintentionally beneficial (the invisible hand), while Marx rejected this and believed that when everyone acted in their own interest, this would go against the country. He took Smith's idea of labor and developed the concept of “surplus value”. 2. Describe three different “modes of production” that have existed in history, in terms of their component parts. Feudalism: owning land, peasantry, owning serfs, ruling class of nobility. Early Capitalism: industrial society, possession of goods and services, wage labor, bourgeoisie and proletariat. Socialism: production directly satisfies human needs, working class publicly owns means of production. 3. Describe the dialectical process of history in the transition from feudalism to capitalism, and then from capitalism to socialism. (Feudalism) Communal land became privately owned, people didn't own their means of subsistence and were forced to become wage labors to work on other people's land or they moved to cities for more opportunities (industrialization) which then turned into Capitalism when they overthrow Feudalism (aristocrats vs. bourgeoisie). Capitalism would then become Socialism if the current proletariat overthrows the bourgeoisie. 4. What historic events and social conditions motivated the writing of the Communist Manifesto? Enclosures Extreme exploitation (child labor) Rapid urbanization 5. What makes the bourgeoisie “the most revolutionary class” in history? Economically: created the global market Politically: created the modern state Ideologically: lifted “the veil” on the naked “cash nexus” 6. What is the basic unit of capitalism and where does its value come from? The basic unit of Capitalism is commodity, with its value is based on labor and the amount of time that went into it. 7. What are the two dimensions of the fetishism of the commodity? False consciousness: we falsely believe certain objects have power over us, forgetting that we were the ones who assigned the power/created the object. False separation from social realm: since alienation, we no longer own the means of production or know the time that went into producing, therefore have no way to determine an item's value excepting basing it on its past value. 8. What defines capitalism and makes it different from previous economic systems, according to the “general formula for capital”? Capitalism is different from previous economic systems because we are exchanging money for more money (exchangevalue), there is no interaction with the commodity and its usevalue. 9. What are the main ways that capitalists manipulate the working day to extract surplus value, and thus profit? The main ways capitalists manipulate workers to extra surplus values by either getting new technologies/developing new procedures to speed up the labor process (relative surplus value) or giving workers longer work days (overtime, absolute surplus value). They also give workers the same amount of break time to monitor them. 10. Why is Marx considered a “conflict theorist”? Marx is considered a conflict theorist because of the conflict theory which involves class struggle and exploitation. The class struggle is between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, while exploitation is from the ruling class. III DURKHEIM Definitions Anomie Normlessness, lack of regulation, unable to connect. Social facts Ways of thinking/acting/feeling inherited from the past and external to each individuals, often not felt until one is rejected or punished. Homeostasis The equilibrium of a society; a society is made up with interrelated parts, i.e. crime must exist so police/judges/lawyers/etc. have jobs. Organicism The view that each organs work interdependently so the body can function. Based on the laws about the functioning/evolution of animal organisms, believed this also applied to the natural science of society. Social solidarity, and related to this: The unity that brings people together in a society such as values/guidelines. A society must have two major parts: social integration: collectively sentiments shared by members of the society, this includes beliefs, values, family, knowledge, etc. moral regulation: external constraint on people, the common norms people live under. This includes economics, politics, etc. organic solidarity & mechanical solidarity Mechanical solidarity: formed based on the similarities/likeness between members of a society. Dependent on common rituals and beliefs. Less common as modern society develops. Simple. Organic solidarity: formed based on their interdependence of each other, not necessarily on the similarities between members. Most commonly seen in division of labor. More common as modern society develops. Complex. repressive justice & restorative justice Repressive justice: penal code emphasizing on changing behavior, punishment includes taking over the offender's body and often displayed in public. Restorative justice: civil code emphasizing on following procedures, punishment include fines with the goals to restore the victim's wholeness and takes places in institutions such as courts, offices. collective consciousness & division of labor Collective consciousness: inherited beliefs/common sentiments shared by members of a society. Division of labor: as a society expands, each task/job becomes interrelated/interdependent, therefore the society becomes more vulnerable to disruption. sacred & profane Sacred: everything that has to be with religion Profane: everything unrelated to religion Sacred and profane represents: ◦ A thing itself (ideology) ◦ A product of the society ◦ A collective representation of society totem A scared object with assigned profound meaning serving as an emblem to a group of people, often religious. i.e. statues people pray to. Questions: 1. What was Durkheim’s project and why was this so important to him? He wanted to establish sociology as a discipline by providing firm definition of the field with a scientific foundation. The goal was to better understand why people do what they do so they can better prepare for the future. 2. Who were some of Durkheim’s main intellectual influences and why? N.C.S.R. NeoKantians: the enlightenment Compte: argues for a scientific method Spencer: link between biology and being, influenced by Darwin Rousseau: solidarity and social contract 3. What are the main features of a social fact? Social facts are the underlying components of a society, it is what make people think/act/feel the way they do. It's external and coercive to the individuals and often inherited from the past without questioning. 4. How do we study social facts? Durkheim studied the characteristics of each individual, the way people interact with each other within a community. 5. What is functionalism, and how is this different from conflict theory? Functionalism looks at society as a whole with each components being interrelated/interdependent. Every part exists so another part can function. The conflict theory is different because there is always the oppression and the oppressed, and their conflict is where social change comes from. i.e. a thief exists so policemen have jobs (functionalist), thieves exist because they are being oppressed by the rich so they have to steal (conflict theorist). 6. Compare and contrast mechanical and organic solidarity, using examples. Mechanical solidarity is social cohesion formed by the similarities and likeness of people, this can often be seen in small villages or a tribe. An organic solidarity is the opposite, this relationship is formed by the dependency they have with each other, as their tasks are interdependent. This is seen in the modern society, especially with the division of labor. Mechanical solidarity forms because they want to, organic solidarity form because they need to. 7. Explain the different types of suicide, for Durkheim. Egoistic: too little social integration; when a people lack meaningful connections to society, i.e. loners, outsiders. Altruistic: too much social integration; when a person is too connected to the society and loses selfwroth, i.e. suicide bombing Anomic: too little moral regulation; when a person feels like he doesn't have a purpose, doesn't know what/how to live. Lack of norms, i.e. divorce, unemployment Fatalistic: too much moral regulation; when a person is under tight regulation or with extreme high expectations. i.e. slavery 8. Why is it that "economic disasters" as well as "an abrupt growth of power and wealth" can have the same effect on society? Both are drastic changes within a society whether it's negative or positive. People are not used to sudden changes, so when it happens, they feel out of balance. When an established socialization suddenly changes, people will feel an overwhelming of anomie as they need constant and distinct regulation for certain aspects of their lives. 9. What is the function of “the sacred,” and of sacred ritual, for Durkheim, and how does this manifest? “The sacred” gives a common ground (“god”, “higher power”) for members of a society to relate to and provide them with identity along with a “meaningful connection” to their surroundings. Scared rituals then serves as principles and disciplines for people to follow and live by, this will reaffirm each person's role in a society while establish a social/moral bond. 10. Why does Durkheim think it is particularly important to study "primitive religions" and "primitive civilizations" to understand society? Durkeim believes primitive religions and civilizations are important to study in order to understand society because previous/older societies are formed based off of mechanical solidarity. Mechanical solidarity is formed based on their intellectual and moral conformity, which is not easily seen in the modern societies. Primitive civilization is also seen as the “foundation” of the current, more complex societies. Modern Times (Marxist) In the film of Modern Times, Charlie Chaplin's character “Tramp” plays a worker in a massive, industrialized, assemblyline factory. He is one of the newcomers who left the rural areas to come into the cities for work opportunities during the industrial era. He eventually becomes disoriented factory worker by becoming too enveloped with his work. As a worker, he is exploited by the ruling class and becomes disconnected from his work – alienation happens and he is no longer seen as a human being but as a part of capital and profit. The first shot of the film shows a huge clock where the secondhand moves rushing the top of the hour, symbolizing the underlying belief of the era – “time is money”. People of the time period lived under the tyranny of measured time and companies spend lots of money trying to “speed up the process”, therefore making more profit. We also see Char;ie's character working in an assemblyline, tightening up the bolts just like every other worker, with machinelike movements repetitive and indistinguishable in a massive crowd of laborers. When Charlie's manager orders a speedup, the workers have to redouble their effort – they become an extension of the machines and turn into robots. This is the alienation Marx talked about – the factory strips them of their humanity. The four aspects of alienation is shown clearly in the film. Charlie's character is first alienated from the production process, as he is only part of the assembly line with no control over the speed, method or other factors that went into producing. Second, he is alienated from the product itself, and it is very unclear when it comes to just exactly what Charlie is producing too. But we know he does not own the products at the end as they will become the property of the capitalists. Third, he is alienated from his speciesbeing, his job is tedious and repetitive, he becomes an extension of the machine and is not interacting with nature through creative means – which is an essence Marx emphasized on. Lastly, the workers are alienated from each other as they are assigned to do the single task in the assembly line. There is no social element to their work, and they are isolated from one another. Another part of the film to point out is the “feeding machine”, the feeding machine is used to automatic feed the workers so they can eliminate the lunch hour, and what is normally a social time for the workers is taken away. The feeding machine is also a product of taylorism, as a scientific method to monitor and regulate the laborer's work, maximizing the profits by eliminating the free lunch hour. Baraka (Durkheim) The main character is an old Japanese man who feels disconnected from society after WWII ended. His life becomes overwhelmingly filled with anomie, as he no longer knows how to interact with others, or what the social norm is. He loses a sense of regulation and his “daily life” disappears (anomic). In addition to that, he also loses connection with his family members. With the previous special connection gone, he is now disconnected from his previous life and his former relationship with his loved ones; he is now isolated and a loner (egoistic). Going further, after he loses his sense of connection with the society and family, he sacrifices himself for the need of his family member, as he no longer sees purpose of his own life or possess selfworth. He willingly gave himself up for his disconnected family (semialtruistic). The film is comprised of footage of people, places, and things from all around the world, demonstrating chaotic cities and even the wilderness. Viewers are taken around the globe to see natural and technological aspects of society, also showing a dark side of humanity. Overall, it shows the interconnection of the world by tragedy and vibrancy of life. (film synopsis from Google) Baraka relates to Durkheim in that he studied phenomena attributed to society at large, which is what this film demonstrates. Throughout Durkheim’s work, he emphasizes the focus on social integration, and the film shows social integration by showing different parts of the world, yet showing their connection/interdependence despite all the differences. Touches on his idea of social solidarity, showing social cohesion across the globe. More specifically, it relates to organic solidarity in that there are differences amongst individuals that is shown from their day to day lives in differing regions but there still exists this interdependence between everyone in society and humanity.
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