Exam 4 Study guide
Exam 4 Study guide PSY 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Cognition Family Resemblance members of a category share certain core features Not all members have to have every feature How similar to other members Defining features must have certain characteristics to fit into category Problem Solving Problem goal and uncertainty about how to reach it Set of given info description Set of operations permissible axns Goal description of what constitutes a solution Problem Types Well Defined goal and starting point are clear Illdefined uncertainty unclear No one answer Constant change Coping w illdefiner break down into subproblems Incubation time away from problem provides new insights quotFunctional Fixedness fail to solve problem because typical use of object Fractionation elementary characteristics of object shape color weight etc used to avoid functional fixedness MKNOWAK 0 Avoid mental set problem solving set inappropriate application of past problem solutions to new problem Aha Moment Insight process by which solution magically pops into mind Wolfgang Kohler Decision Making Heuristics Algorithms Emotional quickcategorizing Kahneman amp Tversky decisions determined via not logic irrational stereotypes 0 rule of thumb illdefined problems no guarantee of success satisficing Common Heuristics sets of operations applied systematically to generate a solution 0 welldefined problems systematic equation 0 logical MeansEnd Analysis find axns to reduce gap to goal at each step Working Backwards Searching for Analogies Availability judge based off how easily examples come to mind Ex terrorists attacks seem more common than colon cancer Representativeness ignoring base rate how common conjunction error likelihood of being both MKNOWAK economic models prescriptive what ought to do descriptive models psychological Framing how alternatives are presented gain emphasized over loss more likely to take risk Decision Making Biases In uence first impressions Confirmation Biases seeking info to confirm and avoid info that may contradict Belief Persistence clinging to initial beliefs even in the face of disconfirming evidence Anchoring and Adjustment initial number anchor determines estimate Learning Orienting Response inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events Habituation diminish response bcz repeated exposure Sensitization increase response with repeated exposure more likely over habituation when stim is intense or punishing Classical Conditioning autonomic re ex I learn about signaling properties of events relationship btwn conditioned and unconditioned MKNOWAK I Pavlov Operant Conditioning instrumental learn about consequences thru own actions Unconditioned Stim US automatically leads to observable response Unconditioned Response UR observable response produced automatically Conditioned Stim CS paired w unconditioned stim to signal response Conditioned Response CR acquired response signaled by conditioned stim CS before US in conditioning Conditions Taste Aversions counterconditioning to prevent nausea Second Order Conditioning established CS presented immediately after new event After several pairings gt new event signals CR Stimulus Generalization new stim produces similar CR produced by CS Stimulus Discrimination response to new stimulus is different from CR to original CS Extinction CR diminishes after CS presented repeatedly wo US Spontaneous Recovery CR after period of no US Learned Helplessness can t prevent so CR different from UR Thorndike s Law of Effect if response to particular situation is followed by satisfying consequence it will strengthen if followed by unsatisfying consequence it will weaken BF Skinner s model of Operant Conditioning Behaviorism MKNOWAK DS gt R gt RS Discriminative Stim que response will be followed by reward or punishment Reinforcement increase likelihood of responding Positive something added given Negative something removed or taken away Punishment decrease likelihood of responding Postivie givenadded Negative stopped or removed Primary Reinforcer has intrinsic value or utility ex Hersheys chocolate bar Conditioned Reinforcers secondary stimuli wo intrinsic value ex money Secondary conditioned w primary Corporal Punishment Ex spanking dog on couch Limitations decrease effectiveness over time doesn t teach desired behavior Observational Learning reinforced vicariously see someone else rewardedpunished to learn how to act MKNOWAK
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