theories of cognitive development chart
theories of cognitive development chart PSY 0310
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Perry on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Theory Main Question View of Children s Nature Central Development Issues Concepts Piagetian Nature vs Nurture C0nstructivist Children actively construct Continuity See table disContinuity knowledge for themselves in response to 0 Assimilation The active their CXpCI39lCIlCC 0 Accommodation DomainGeneral reasoning learning Equilibriation same for all domains Discontinuity 0 Qualitative change 0 Broad applicability 0 Brief Transitions 0 Invariant Sequence InformationProcessing Nature vs Nurture Children s growth occurs continuously in Emphasis on how change occurs gt Working memory How change occurs Focus on structure of cognitive system small increments that occur at different times on different tasks Child as a computer Active learners and problem solvers who continuously devise means for overcoming processing limits Limited capacity processing system Problem solver Planning continuous Gradual maturation and continuous learning from experience Memoryleaming Executive functioning Problem Solving Content knowledge through experience Long term memory Task analysis Problem solving Basic processes Encoding Rehearsal Selective attention Overlapping wave theory Sociocultural Nature vs Nurture In uence of the sociocultural context How change occurs Cognitive Development takes place through direct interactions between children and other people who want to help them acquire the skills and knowledge valued by their culture Children are products of their culture Children are social learners Children are products of their culture Continuous Development Guided participation Vygotsky s theory Cultural tools Private speech Intersubjectivity Joint attention Social scaffolding Autobiographical memoric Dynamicsystems Nature vs Nurture The active child How change occurs Children are everchanging well integrated organisms that combine perception action attention memory language and social in uences to produce actions that satisfy goals Motivated Child as a complex system Self Organization There is no period in which change is NOT occurring Attaining goals requires at thought Just as variation and select produce biological evoluti01 also produce cognitive deve Theories of Cognitive Development Piaget s Stages Stage Age New Ways of Knowing Notable Trends Concepts Sensorimotor Birth 2 years Infants know the world through their At rst activities center on their Object permanence 48 mo senses and actions own bodies then include the 0 arrives 812 mo Infant is a blank state world around them Anot B error 812 mo Know only what is immediately Early goals concrete o Disappearance at 1218 mg percievable Later goals more abstract Deferred imitation 1824 mo Increasingly able to form pietend play 1824 m0 mental representations Preoperational 2 7 years Children aquire the ability to Children become able to Symbolic representation 35 yrs internally represent the world through represent their experiences in Egocentrism language and mental imagery language mental imagery and Centrationabsence of conservation Symbolic activity language pretend symbolic thought Conservation concepttask play representational drawing simple maps Concrete 7 12 years Children become able to think Children become able to reason Logical reasoning about concrete Operational logically not just intuitively logically about concrete objects features They can now classify objects into and events Operationstransformations defined categories and understand that Still limited to observable and a Conservation events are in uenced by multiple specific situations factors Do not approach problems systematically Formal 12 beyond Adolescents can think systematically People become able to think Abstract reasoning Operational and reason about what might be as well about abstractions and Taking all variables into account as what is This allows for understanding politics ethics etc and engage in scientific reasoning hypothetical situations Systematic approach to problem solving Topic Empiricist Nativist De nition All knowledge arises from expenence Certain aspects of knowledge are innate or hardwired Perceptual Constancy Our perception of the constant size and shape of objects develops as a function of spatially experiencing our environment Perceptual regularity stems from inherent properties of the nervous system
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