Sensation, Perception, Motor and Language development
Sensation, Perception, Motor and Language development 1130
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Perry on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1130 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Beery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Basic applied statistics in Statistics at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Perception: Sensation: the processing of basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors in the sense organs and brain Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information I. Vision A. The preferential-looking technique is a method for studying visual attention in infants that involves showing infants two patterns/objects at a time to see if the infants have a preference over the other B. Visual Acuity 1. Visual acuity is the sharpness of visual discrimination a. Helps researchers to determine how clearly infants can see b. Gratings -> the closer together the lines you can see, the better your discrimination 2. Young infants have poor contrast sensitivity, the ability to detect differences in light and dark areas in a visual pattern a. This is because their cones are immature. b. Newborns’ cones catch only 2% of light striking the fovea, compared to 65% for adults 3. Newborns have 20/120 vision, but by 8 months, it is nearly 20/20. 4. By 2 – 3 months, infants’ color vision is similar to that of adults. C. Visual Scanning 1. Not until 2 – 3 months can infants track moving objects smoothly 2. By 2 months, infants can scan more broadly, enabling them to pay attention to overall shape and inner details D. Pattern Perception 1. The other race effect (ORE) is where individuals find it easier to distinguish between faces of individuals from their own racial group than between faces of other racial groups. a. Newborns show no preference -> until 3 months. E. Object Perception 1. Perceptual constancy is the perception of objects as being of constant size, shape, color, etic., In spite of physical differences in the retinal image of the object 2. Object segregation is the identification of separate objects in a visual array a. Cues: i. Physical separation ii. Motion (common motion/ and independent motion) iii. “Top down” knowledge b. Infants use physical separation by 2 months c. Also use motion by 2 months F. Depth Perception 1. Optical expansion is a depth cue in which an object occludes increasingly more of the background, indicating that the object is approaching a. Infants as young as 1 month blink defensively at an image that appears to be an object heading toward them. b. By 3 – 4 weeks 2. Binocular disparity is the difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain a. The greater the binocular disparity, the closer the object b. Stereopsis is the process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals cause by binocular disparity, resulting in the perception of depth i. Emerges 3 - 4 months, critical period ends 6-8 months 3. At 6 -7 months, infants become sensitive to monocular depth cues, the perceptual cues of depth that can be perceived by one eye alone. Also known as pictorial cues because they can be used to portray depth in pictures. a. Occlusion (3 – 4 months) b. Perspective (6 – 7 months) c. Texture (6 – 7 months) II. Auditory Perception A. Auditory localization is the perception of the location in space of a sound source 1. When infants hear a sound, the tend to look toward it 2. To localize a sound, listeners rely on differences in the sounds that arrive at both of their ears. A sound played to their right will arrive at their right ear before reaching the left ear, signaling the direction the sound is coming from. B. Music Perception 1. Infants are sensitive to music. Infant-directed signing appears to trump infant-directed speech. 2. They have preference for consonant intervals over dissonant intervals 3. Infants can make perceptual discriminations that adults cant a. In a way, infants are more “sensitive” to aspects of musical rhythm that adults III. Taste and Smell A. Newborns prefer sweet flavors. IV. Touch A. Infants learn about the environment through active touch B. From 4 months, manual exploration increases and takes precedence over oral exploration V. Intermodal Perception A. Intermodal perception is the combining of information from two or more sensory systems B. By 4 months, an infant can visually recognize an object she touched C. Between 5 – 7 months, infants notice the connection between emotional expressions in faces and voices Motor Development: Does not occur in isolation. There are multiple interacting factors Drives perceptual, cognitive, and social development I. Reflexes A. Reflexes are innate, fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular stimulation 1. Functions as a sign of healthy development. 2. Newborn reflexes: a. Rooting (disappears ~ 3 weeks) b. Palmar grasp/grasping (disappears 3 – 4 months) c. Stepping (disappears around 2 months) (reappears at 12 months) d. Moro/Startle (disappears around 6 months) II. Motor Milestones A. The achievement of each of the major motor milestones of infancy constitute a major advance, and provides new ways for infants to interact with the world B. Milestones to know: a. Lifts head (by 4 weeks) b. Arms for support (2 – 4 months) c. Reaching/grasping (3 – 4 months) d. Sits without support (5 – 7 months) e. Crawls (5 – 11 months -> 7 is average) f. Walks alone (11 – 14 months) III. Current Views of Motor Development A. Current theorists emphasize that early motor development results from a confluence of numerous factors including developing neural mechanisms, increases in infants’ strength, posture control, balance, perceptual skills, changes in body proportions, and motivation B. Infants derive pleasure from pushing their motor skills IV. The Expanding World of the Infant A. Reaching 1. Reaching involves a complex interaction of multiple, independent components, including muscle development, postural control, development of various perceptual and motor skills, etc. 2. Infants start with prereaching movements, clumsy swiping movements toward the general vicinity of objects they see 3. At around 3 to 4 months, they begin successfully reaching for objects 4. “Sticky mittens” experiment 5. At around 7 months, their reaching becomes stable 6. 10 months old infants’ approach to an object is affected by what they intend to do with it B. Self-Locomotion 1. At around 8 months, infants become capable of self- locomotion, moving by themselves. 2. This begins with crawling 3. They begin walking independently at around 11 to 12 months a. They keep their feet relatively wide apart, flex slightly at the hip and knee, and keep their hands in the air to facilitate balance. b. Practice is vital 4. Infants adjust their mode of locomotion according to their perception of the properties of the surface they want to traverse. 5. Scale error is the attempt by a young child to perform an action on a miniature object that is impossible due to the discrepancy in the relative sizes of the child and the object Language Development: The capacity that most sets humans apart from other species: the creative and flexible use of symbols, which we use to 1. Represent our feelings, thoughts, knowledge and 2. To communicate these to other people I. The Components of Language A. Generativity is the idea that through the use of the finite set of words and morphemes in humans’ vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas 1. Young learners must deal with this complexity B. Phonemes are the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce language 1. Thus, the first step in children’s language learning is phonological development, the mastery of the sound system of their language. a. The smallest units of meanings are morphemes 2. The second component in language acquisition is semantic development, learning the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning. 3. The third component is syntactic development, learning how words and morphemes combine a. Syntax refers to the permissible combinations of words from different categories. In English, the order in which words appear is crucial. 4. Acquiring an understanding of how language is typically used is pragmatic development 5. Adults have considerable metalinguistic knowledge, knowledge about language and its properties C. Learning language involves phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic development, as well as metalinguistic knowledge. II. What Is Required for Language? A. A Human Brain 1. Language is a species-specific behavior: only humans acquire language in the normal course of development 2. It is also species-universal: language learning is achieved by typically developing infants across the globe. 3. Brain-Language Relations a. Language processing involves a substantial degree of functional localization b. For the 90% of people who are right handed, language is primarily represented and controlled by the left hemisphere. i. Newborns and 3 month olds show greater activity in the left hemisphere when exposed to normal speech than when exposed to reversed speech or silence ii. Infants exhibit greater left-hemisphere activity when listening to speech but greater right- hemisphere activity when listening to non- speech sounds c. The detection of speech tends to involve the right hemisphere whereas the left hemisphere predominantly processes speech. 4. Critical Period for Language Development a. Those who learn a foreign language in adolescence find the task to be much more challenging than do those who learn the foreign language early in childhood b. The early years constitute a critical period during which language develops readily. i. After this period (5-puberty), language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful ii. The neural circuitry supporting language learning operates differently (and better) during the early years B. A Human Environment 1. When given the choice, newborns prefer listening to speech rather than to artificial sounds a. Infants’ auditory preferences are fine-tuned through experience with human language during their earliest months 2. Infant-Directed Speech a. Infant-directed speech is the distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies b. Characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech i. It is speech suffused with affection ii. Slower speech, higher pitched, exaggeration iii. IDS seems to aid infants’ language development because it draws infants’ attention to speech itself iv. Infants learn and recognize words better when the words are presented in IDS than when they are presented in adult-directed speech. III. The Process of Language Acquisition A. Speech Perception 1. Prosody is the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonational patterns, and so forth with which a language is spoken a. Differences in prosody are in large part responsible for why languages sound so different from each other. 2. Speech perception also involves distinguishing among the speech sounds that make a difference in a given language 3. Categorical Perception of Speech Sounds a. Categorical perception is the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories i. /b/ vs. /p/ ii. VOT shorter for /b/ than /p/ b. Voice onset time (VOT) is the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating. c. Young infants can show a sharp distinction between the sounds /b/ and /p/ although adults cannot. i. Tested using habituation technique ii. The harder they sucked, the more often they’d hear repetitions of the speech sound d. Infants show categorical perception of numerous speech sounds and actually make more distinctions than adults e. Infants can distinguish between phonemic contrasts made in all languages. (innate ability) 4. Developmental Changes in Speech Perception a. By 12 months, infants have lost the ability to perceive the speech sounds that are not part of their native language b. After the age of 8 months, infants begin to specialize their discrimination of speech sounds, retaining their sensitivity to sounds in the native language they hear everyday. B. Word Segmentation 1. There are no spaces between words in speech, so infants need to learn word segmentation, the process of discovering where words begin and end in fluent speech a. Infants appear to be remarkably good at picking up regularities in their native language that help them to find word boundaries b. By 8 months, infants expect stressed syllables to begin words and can use this information to pull words out of fluent speech 2. C. Preparation for Production IV.
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