Theories of Social Development Chart
Theories of Social Development Chart 1130
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Perry on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1130 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Beery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Basic applied statistics in Statistics at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Theories of Social Development Type View of Children’s Nature Central Dev. Issues Theories Current Perspect. Psychoanaly Individual buffeted about by Stresses the -Freud’s Both theories’ tic internal, external, and continuity of Theory of major claims uncontrollable forces. individual Psychosexual are stated too Freud: behavior is motivated by differences, Development vaguely to be the need to satisfy basic (mostly emphasizing that -Erikson’s testable and unconscious) drives. children’s early Theory of many Erikson: development is driven by experiences have a Psychosocial elements are a series of developmental crises major impact on Development highly related to age and biological their subsequent questionable maturation development Learning Emphasized importance of Development is -Watson’s Lack of external and cognitive factors. continuous and there Behaviorism attention to View of child as passive. are no stages of -Skinner’s biological Watson: development is development. Operant influences and, determined by social environment Focuses on the role Conditioning except for and learning through conditioning of specific -Bandura’s Bandura, the Skinner: behavior is under mechanisms of Social role of environmental control change Learning cognition in Bandura: human learning is social (reinforcement). Theory behavior in nature and based on Individual observation and imitation differences are determined by experience Social Emphasis on process of self Stress continuity in -Dodge’s info- Very little to Cognition socialization, children are active the processes processing say about processors of social information involved in social theory biological Dodge: as children assess a reasoning. Children -Dweck’s factors in situation and solve social are active and there attributional social problems, they use their are individual account development knowledge and cognitive abilities differences in Dweck: in responding to failure, development children show either fixed or growth mindset patterns. Ecological Children are inheritors of Emphasis on -Ethological Evolutionary: genetically based abilities and interaction of nature Theory claims are predispositions and nurture. -Evolutionary impossible to Ecological: emphasize the Importance of Theory test influence of the evolutionary sociocultural context - Bioecological: history of the human species on and continuity of Bronfenbrenn lack of development of children development. Active er emphasis on Bioecological model: role of children Bioecological biological conceptualizes environment in model factors which children develop as a set of nested systems, or contexts. Psychosexual Development Process: Stage Age Idea Terms Oral Stage 1 year Primary source of Id: earliest personality (instinctual drives infant is born gratification and with), ruled by the pleasure principle. pleasure is oral Ego: emerges later in 1 year out of need to resolve activity, such as conflicts between id’s demands for instant gratification sucking and eating and the restraints imposed by environment. Stands for “reason and good sense.” Operates under reality principle. Anal Stage 2ndyear-3 Child’s erotic interests focus on the pleasurable relief of tension derived from defecation Phallic Stage Ages 3-6 The focus of sexual Superego: conscience; enables child to control pleasure migrates to behavior on basis of beliefs about right/wrong. Guides genitalia. Children child to avoid actions resulting in guilt. begin to identify with Internalization: adoption of attributes, beliefs, and their same sex standards of another person. parent. Stage begins Oedipus complex*: psychosexual conflict in which a with children realizing boy experiences a form of sexual desire for his mother they have or lack a and wants an exclusive relationship with her; path to penis superego development is through resolving this. Electra complex: erotic feelings towards the father, results in girls developing a weaker conscience than boys do. Latency Ages 6-12 A time of relative calm. Sexual desires are hidden safely away in the Period unconscious. Psychic energy gets channeled into constructive, socially acceptable activities Genital Begins The sexual energy is directed toward other-sex peers. The individual has Stage with developed a strong ego that facilitates coping with reality and a superego that puberty is neither too weak nor too strong. *Oedipus complex: Son’s desire for his mother and his hostility toward his father are highly threatening - The boy’s ego protects him through repression, banishing his dangerous feelings to the unconscious, the mental storehouse where anxiety-producing thoughts and impulses are held hidden from conscious awareness - A consequence is infantile amnesia, the lack of memories from our first few years - The boy increases his identification with his father: through striving to be like him, the boy internalizes his father’s values, beliefs, and attitudes, leading to the development of a strong conscience. Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Stage stes Challenge Success Failure Trust vs. 1 year To develop a Baby feels good and Person will have Mistrust sense of trust reassured by being difficulty forming close to people intimate relationships Autonomy vs. Ages 1-3.5 To achieve a Children gain sense of Children may come to Shame and strong sense of autonomy doubt their abilities or Doubt autonomy while to feel a general sense adjusting to social of shame demands Initiative vs. Ages 4-6 To achieve a Children can develop Opposite Guilt balance between high standards and the initiative and guiltinitiative to meet them To develop a without being crushed conscience by worry about not measuring up Industry vs. Ages 6-puberty To master Gives child sense of Can lead to excessive Inferiority cognitive and competence feelings of inadequacy social skills that or inferiority are important in their culture Identity vs. Role Adolescence to To achieve a core Identity achievement Identity confusion Confusion* early adulthood sense of identity *Identity foreclosure: premature commitment to an identity without adequate consideration of other options Negative identity: Identity that stands in opposition to what is valued by people around the adolescent Identity Status Categories: Identity-diffusion status: the individual does not have firm commitments and is not making progress towards them Foreclosure status: the individual is not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others Moratorium status: the individual is in the phase of experimentation with regard to occupational and ideological choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them Identity-achievement status: after a period of exploration, the individual has achieved a coherent and consolidated identity based on personal decisions regarding occupation, ideology, etc. Ainsworth’s attachment categories: Category Description When When caregiver Caregiver caregiver returns: leaves: Secure Infants have a high- May be upset Happy, recovering Secure base for quality, unambivalent quickly from any exploration; relationship with their distress sensitive attachment figure parenting Insecure Infants have a less positive attachment Insecure/resistant Infants are clingy and stay Tend to get Re-established Inconsistent in close to caregiver instead very upset, contact with early caregiving; of exploring environment often crying caregiver, only to seem highly intensely then rebuff their anxious from efforts at offering demands of comfort caregiving Insecure/avoidant Infants seem indifferent Tend to avoid Fail to greet Emotionally toward their caregiver and caregiver; are caregiver unavailable and may even avioid them indifferent indifferent when they leave Disorganized/disorien Infants have no consistent Behavior is Or even Exhibit abusive, ted way of coping with stress confused contradictory frightening, or of Strange Situation disoriented behavior. May be dealing with unresolved trauma Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Phase Age Description Preattachment Birth-6 weeks Infant produces innate signals, crying, that summon caregivers, and the infant is comforted by the interaction Attachment-in-the- 6 weeks-6 to 8 Infant begins to respond to familiar people (smile, laugh, making months babble) and most frequently in their caregiver’s presence. Infants also form expectations about how their caregivers will respond to their needs and do/don’t develop a sense of trust in them Clear-cut attachment 6 to 8 months- Infants actively seek contact with their caregivers and may 1.5 years exhibit separation anxiety or distress when they disappear Reciprocal relationships 1.5-2 years Toddlers’ increasing cognitive/language abilities enable them to understand parents’ feelings, goals, and motives and use this understanding to organize their efforts to be near them. Active role. Parenting Styles: Style Relations Description Outcomes Authoritati High in Set clear standards/limits for child; Children tend to be competent, ve demandingness and firm enforcers, but allow child self-assured, and popular. As supportiveness autonomy within limits; attentive adolescents, they tend to be and responsive to child’s needs high in social and academic competence Authoritari High in Tend to be cold and unresponsive to Children tend to be low in social an demandingness low child’s needs; “no because I said and academic competence, in responsiveness so.” Tend to enforce demands unhappy and unfriendly, and through parental power low in confidence Permissive High in Responsive to children’s needs and Children tend to be impulsive, responsiveness low are lenient with them. They do not lacking in self-control, prone to in demandingness require their children to regulate externalizing problems, and low themselves or act in appropriate in school achievement ways Rejecting/ Low in Do not set limits for children or limitHave disturbed attachment Neglecting demandingness and their behavior and are not relation when infants/toddlers supportiveness supportive of them; disengaged; and problems with peer sometimes neglectful relationships as children Sociometric Categories Category Designation Behavior Relationships Popular Predominately Tend to be cooperative, friendly, Tend to be skilled at liked sociable, helpful, and sensitive to initiating interaction with others, and they are perceived that peers and at maintaining way positive relationships with others Aggressive- Liked by few Prone to hostile and threatening Engage in relational rejected peers, disliked behavior, physical aggression, aggression by many disruptive behavior Withdrawn- Socially withdrawn, wary, and often Frequently victimized by rejected timid or socially anxious peers; feel isolated and lonely Neglected Neither liked nor Less sociable and disruptive; Receive less support from disliked; simply peers but are not unnoticed particularly anxious about their social interactions Controversial Liked by many Tend to have characteristics of both Very socially active and tend and disliked by popular and rejected children; to be group leaders; at the many aggressive, disruptive, prone to same time, tend to be view anger; but also cooperative, sociable, as arrogant and snobbish good at sports, humorous Piaget’s Stages of Moral Development Stage Age Description Views Morality of <7 years Children regard rules as What determines right from Constraint unchangeable. Justice is whatever wrong is the consequences, authorities say is right, and not the motives/intentions authorities’ punishments are always justified Transitional Period 7/8 to 10 Children have more interaction with Learn to take other’s years peers and the interactions are more perspectives and to egalitarian, with more give-and-take cooperate; start to value fairness and equality Autonomous >11/12 years Children no longer accept blind Punishments should fit the Morality obedience to authority. See rules as crime; consider the product of social agreement that motives/intentions when can be changed by majority evaluating behavior Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages of Moral Reasoning Level Stage In other words Description Preconvention Punishment and Blind obedience Obedience to authority is seen as right; al Obedience to authority conscience is fear of punishment and moral Orientation action is motivated by avoiding punishment Instrumental and Self-interest What is right is what is in one’s own best Exchange interest or involves equal exchange between Orientation people Conventional Mutual Being “good” to Good behavior is doing what is expected by Interpersonal earn approval or people who are close to the person or what Expectations, maintain people generally expect of someone in a given Relationships, & relationships role. Interpersonal Conformity Orientation Social System and Fulfilling duties Right behavior involves fulfilling one’s duties, Conscience and upholding upholding laws, and contributing to society or Orientation laws to maintain one’s group. social order Postconventio Social Contract or Upholding the Right behavior involves upholding rules that are nal Individual Rights best interests of in best interest of the group, are impartial, or Orientation the group while were agreed upon by the group. recognizing own values Universal Ethical Right behavior is commitment to self-chosen Principles ethical principles that reflect universal principles of justice. Levels of Prosocial Behavior 1. Hedonistic, self focused orientation: own needs are central 2. Needs based orientation: concerned with other people’s welfare 3. Approval and/or stereotyped orientation: express concern about social approval/acting in a way considered good by others 4a. Self-reflective empathic orientation: Judgments begin to be based on explicit perspective taking 4b. Transitional level: judgments of a minority of older adolescents reflect internalized values and affect 5. Strongly internalized values: judgments of a minority of older adolescents reflect internalized values and affect Kholberg’s Cognitive Development Theory: 30 months – gender identity: they categorize themselves as either a girl or boy 3-4 years – gender stability: children realize that gender remains the same over time 6 years – gender constancy: understanding that gender is invariant across situations Temperament 1 mo – can smile 3-8 weeks – begin to smile at external stimuli 3 mo – social smiles 2 mo – show happiness in social and nonsocial context in which they have control 7 mo – smile at familiar people 3-4 mo – infants laugh 2 years – children enjoy making people laugh 2 mo – anger and sadness can be differentiated (on child) 4 mo – infants are wary of unfamiliar people 6-7 mo – initial signs of fear 6-7 mo-2 years – fear of strangers 8 mo – separation anxiety 4-8 mo – anger is a distinct emotion 1 year – anger is directed at other people 15-24 mo – children show embarrassment at being center of attention 3 years – pride is tied to performance 6 mo – infants show early signs of self-regulation 6 mo – self-soothing 1-2 years – distract themselves as a strategy 9-12 mo – awareness of adults demands and regulate themselves accordingly 3 mo – can distinguish facial expressions of happiness, surprise, anger (in others) 7 mo – fear, sadness, interest 5.5 mo – can relate facial expressions; social referencing 2 years – can label happiness with skill 3years – can identify situations that make people happy 4 years – can identify situations that make people sad 5 years – can identify situations that make people angry, scared, surprised 3 years – attempt to mask negative emotions when disappointed 5 years – understand they may be misled by facial expressions Peer relationships <2 years – children can have friends 12-18 mo – prefer some children over others 3-4 years – children can maintain friendships 3-7 years – children have best friends Moral Dev 2 years – toddlers have appreciation for rules 22-45 mo – desire to follow rules 8-14 mo – can understand others’ perspectives Gender Dev 6-9 mo – know difference between male and female 24 mo – surprised by gender inconsistency 2.5 years – begin to label people’s genders 3 years – use “boy” and “girl” 3 years – attribute toys to gender 7 years- attain gender constancy 9-10 years – understand it’s a social category
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