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SOC 311 Study Guide for Test #2

by: Emily Wagner

SOC 311 Study Guide for Test #2 Soc 311

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > Sociology > Soc 311 > SOC 311 Study Guide for Test 2
Emily Wagner

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This study guide includes all notes from the book, lecture slides, and lecture notes. All of this material is from Professor Connolly's study guide for Test 2.
Drugs and society
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Wagner on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 311 at University at Buffalo taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Drugs and society in Sociology at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 11/19/15
Test 2 Material Began: 10/16/15 Alcohol Is alcohol a stimulant or a depressant?  Alcohol is a depressant; it slows the functions of the Central Nervous System What is the correlation between drinking alcohol and illicit drug use?  Alcohol alters the brain, leading alcohol users to possibly use other drugs  Can be seen as a gateway drug  Data collected by the National Survey on Drugs Use and Health suggests that many of the same people who drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes also take illicit drugs Correlation between alcohol consumption and risky behavior  Alcohol slows down your CNS, and alters your behavior and mindset  Things you may do intoxicated do not match up with things you may do while completely sober Which form of alcohol is most highly concentrated (beer, spirits, fortified wine, etc.)?  Spirits The relationship between alcohol consumption and being a victim  The children of alcoholics (COAs) carry an increased risk of becoming alcoholic as a result of vulnerability toward alcoholism that is genetically or environmentally based, or both Which three drugs are commonly found at crime scenes?  Heroin, marijuana, and cocaine The relationship between alcohol sales and assaults in a given area  The more alcohol sales, the higher rate of assaults Tobacco What is the relationship between cigarette use and illicit drug use?  The National Survey on Drugs Use and Health suggests that many of the same people who drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes also take illicit drugs Since 1963, has consumption of cigarettes increased or decreased?  There has been increased use of filtered, low-tar, and low- nicotine cigarettes Which area is the native land of the tobacco plant?  Western hemisphere Which substance (drug) has the highest death toll?  Cigarettes Prescription Drugs and Narcotics What are the “narcotic” drugs? What makes a drug designated as a “narcotic”?  Narcotics act to depress or restrain a particular function  Most efficient and effective of all pain killers What are some effects of “narcotic” drugs?  Euphoria followed by nausea, vomiting, and/or drowsiness What is the ED/LD ration for narcotics in comparison to other drugs?  Very narrow (can be dangerous) Where are prescription drugs (like Oxycontin) very prevalent in the US?  Small, isolated communities, usually between mountainous ranges o People are usually poor, don’t have access to the typical street drugs, so they use what they can – prescription drugs How are these drugs reaching illegal users?  “Doctor Shopping” – looking for doctors who will fill an illegal prescription  “Script Mill Doctors” – doctors who will fill an illegal prescription What is “diversion”?  Involves the unlawful channeling of prescription drugs from legal sources to the illegal marketplace The OTC painkillers are not always safe- why?  People can overdose What types of prescription drugs are psychoactive?  Analgesics, anti-anxiety medications, Adderall What types of prescription drugs are NOT psychoactive?  Most pharmaceuticals are not psychoactive Which prescription drugs are NOT habit forming and therefore have a low likelihood of abuse?  Anti-psychotics What is a “mind drug”, what is a “body drug”?  Mind drug: used for mental illnesses (anxiety, depression)  Body drug: used for blood pressure, cholesterol, common colds What are barbiturates and why are they no longer commonly prescribed?  Very similar to alcohol  Due to harmful recreational use, use has steeply declined What are Quaaludes? Are they still prescribed?  Prescribed sedative, causes mental cloudiness  Not as prevalently used as they used to be What drug types are prescribed for mood disorders? What about for psychiatric disorders?  Antipsychotics  Antidepressants or antipsychotics Heroin What is heroin? Where does it come from (plant name, substance from the plant)?  Synthesized from morphine  Heroin is an opioid  Comes from opium  It gives the user a euphoric state, and is extremely addictive In relation to other drugs, do more or less people use heroin?  Less Is heroin use increasing or decreasing among those born after 1950?  Decreasing How do high school seniors view heroin use?  Unacceptable and bad Marijuana What is marijuana? What is the active ingredient in marijuana?  Part of a cannabis plant used for medical or recreational use  THC How do people typically “do” marijuana?  Smoking Which characteristic is most predictive of ones marijuana use?  Enhances pleasurable experiences In which era was marijuana first “discovered” and used?  2737 BC  1545 – Spanish brought marijuana to the New World What seems to be the “drug of choice” for young people and arrestees today?  Marijuana Hallucinogens (like LSD, Ecstasy, Ketamine) What is LSD, Ecstasy and Ketamine?  Hallucinogenic drugs How is each taken?  LSD – ingested orally  Ecstasy – pressed pill or powder, snorted or orally ingested  Ketamine – IV or orally ingested Are they stimulants or depressants?  Not easily classified into either category What type of damage does each cause (according to research?)  LSD – sensory dislocation, psychotic episodes  Ecstasy – hypothermia, depression, dehydration  Ketamine – numbness, amnesia, potentially fatal respiratory problems Cocaine What is cocaine?  One of the most popular psychoactive stimulants  Cocaine blocks the reuptake of receptors sensitive to dopamine and norepinephrine in the CNS What is the difference between free-base, cocaine and crack?  Freebase means that a substance is freed from adulterants  Cocaine is freebase  Crack is not freebase How does the high from cocaine compare to the high from crack?  Since the route of administration is different, the strength is also different How are these usually taken?  Cocaine is taken nasally (snorted)  Crack is smoked Is cocaine a stimulant or depressant?  Stimulant What well-known people are thought to have used cocaine?  Elton John, Angelina Jolie, Lindsey Lohan During what time was cocaine most popular?  1980s Where are most of the coca plants grown?  Mountainous regions of South America What schedule drug is cocaine?  Schedule II Is cocaine use increasing or decreasing among those born after 1970?  Decreasing Amphetamines/Methamphetamines What are amphetamines/methamphetamine?  Amphetamines were used to treat many different illnesses o Recreational use: euphoria  Methamphetamines are a much more potent version of amphetamines What are the ingredients of meth?  Acetone, engine starter fluid, matches, drain cleaners, battery acid Where is it concentrated geographically? Why?  Hawaii, West Coast, Mid West  Close to Mexico, where it was produced Is it a stimulant or depressant?  Stimulant What are some problems associated with the use and manufacture of meth?  Very strong and noticeable odor How many pounds of toxic waste are produced from the manufacture of 1 pound of meth?  6 pounds of toxic waste are produced What is punding?  Extremely impulsive behavior (counting every cheerio in a box of cereal) How is meth taken?  Tablet or capsule form What is a street term for “meth”?  Speed, Ups Are amphetamines still prescribed as much as in the 1970’s?  No What is the condition that is most often treated with amphetamines?  Attention deficit disorders General What are the natural era, the transformative era and the synthetic era?  Natural era: before the 20 century, most of drug use in human history (Coca leaves, marijuana, peyote, mushrooms)  Transformative era: chemically alteration of natural era drugs (cocaine, heroin, morphine)  Synthetic era: drugs made completely of chemicals (LSD, meth, bath salts) What are stimulants and how do they work?  Stimulants are drugs that speed up the functions of the CNS What are depressants and how do they work?  Depressants are drugs that slow down the functions of the CNS


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