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Test 5

by: Aleece Betts
Aleece Betts
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

This covers the study guide questions for chapters 9 and 10, hope it helps! :)
Dr. Gregory Weigel
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aleece Betts on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PCB 3233 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Gregory Weigel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Immunology in Biomedical Sciences at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 11/19/15
Exam 5 Study Guide 1. Cells that can become plasma cells: a. Centrocytes that have gone through both somatic hypermutation and isotype  switching b. Active B cells c. Memory B cells 2. B cell co­receptor: a. Complement receptor 2 b. CD 81, aka TAPA­1 c. CD 19 3. CR 1 produces C3d, which then binds to CR 2 4. TI means “thymus­independent”, whereas TD means “thymus dependent”.  TI antigens  are capable of being controlled by the B­cells of a person lacking a thymus. 5. A B­cell’s CD40 marker pairs with a T­cell’s CD40 ligand, which alerts TF NFκB to  produce ICAM­1.  The T­cell then reorganizes its structure to send out IL­4 cytokines  onto the B cell. 6.   a. FDCs cause B cells colonies to differentiate and increase in the dark zone; the final product is a centrocyte, which moves to the light zone to find an antigen on the  FDCs. b. Dark zone: B cells, T FHells, FDCs, centroblasts.  Light zone: centrocytes, FH  Cells, FDCs c. Centroblasts become mature centrocytes in the dark zone, and centrocytes then  either pair with an antigen or suffer apoptosis in the light zone 7. Antibodies do not destroy the antigen directly. 8.    a. The B cell and antigen form a pair along the membrane surface. b. Cognate interactions occur between B and T cells that match with the same  antigen. c. The primary focus is in the medullary cords; IgM is the main isotype. d. Medullary cords are the region right outside the T cell zone. e. IL­4 induces isotype switching f. These cause B lymphoblasts to become plasma cells g. A germinal center is basically an enlarged primary follicle where B and T cells  mature. Exam 5 Study Guide 9. IL­10 creates plasma cells, IL­4 creates memory cells 10. Hyper IgM syndrome occurs when patients do not have a CD 40 ligand.  This usually  occurs in men, and is a result of being incapable of switching isotypes. 11. Fc regions alert phagocytic cells of antigens.  There are no receptors on phagocytes for  IgM Fc regions, but this region is able to initiate the complement system. 12. Brambell receptors transport antibodies across tissues.  It looks like MHC class 1, and two receptors are used in transportation. 13. Poly­Ig receptors create an enhanced binding interaction with antigen.  They look like a  pentamer and are used by IgM. 14. Transcytosis is when vesicles carry molecules across tissue walls. 15. IgG is transported across the placenta by Brambell receptors. 16. Dimeric IgA is in the breast milk and protects the baby’s intestines. 17. Anti­venom is a passive transfer of immunity. 18. Passive immunity occurs when a patient is given antibodies to a pathogen, instead of a  neutralized antigen.  Examples include: cases of snake bites and tetanus. 19. Immune complexes consist of antigen and antibody.  Phagocytic cells, such as  macrophages, destroy the complex. 20. Dimeric IgA is produced in the lamina propia and protects mucosal surfaces. 21. Fc receptors carry antibodies where blood and lymph can’t go.  They also act as an in­ between for the immune complexes and phagocytic cells. 22. ADCC stands for “antibody­dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity. 23.  C3 starts the alternative pathway and C1 starts the classical pathway. 24. C1 is activated after binding to receptors on IgG and IgM.  C1 is used in both the  alternative pathway and the classical pathway. 25. The alternative pathway helps the classical pathway by producing huge amounts of C3a/b. 26. CR1 binds to C3b, and CR2 binds to C3d. 27. Antibody levels would be higher with stronger affinity. 28. Primary immune response is the first interaction with a new pathogen, while secondary  immune response is a repeated encounter. Primary immune response consists of B cells  and effector T cells, while the secondary immune response also includes memory cells. 29. Mucosal tissue has the highest concentration of lymphocytes.  IgA has the highest  concentration and is found in mucosal surfaces. Exam 5 Study Guide 30. M cells use transcytosis to bring pathogens into the peyer’s patch.  They do not secrete  anything.  They take pathogen from the lumen area to the basolateral surface.  31. Peyer’s patches are somewhat circular and lie just under the intestinal epithelium.  32. Phagocytic leukocytes in the gut cannot secrete cytokines 33. Lymphocytes activated in the gut can recirculate where MAdCAM­1 is present. 34. Basophils, neutrophils, and eusinophils are granular leukocytes, whereas lymphocytes and  monocytes are agranular leukocytes. 35. The site of infection is where memory T cells are activated.   36. Peyer’s patches include B&T cells, dendritic cells, and M cells.  37. Mesenteric lymph nodes, peyer’s patches, adenoids/lingual tonsils and palantine tonsils  make up the secondary lymphoid tissues of the gastrointestinal tract.


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