HIST 150 Quiz 3 Study Guide
HIST 150 Quiz 3 Study Guide HIST 150
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Aztecs and Spain I The two kingdoms of Aragon and Castile were united through the marriage of Ferdinand Aragon and Isabella Castile a Isabella wanted to go out and explore to nd new trading routes by sea to Asia since Ferdinand already was in the Mediterranean and Portugal was in Africa b Christopher Columbus was her best deal so she funded his journey to try to nd Asia by another route 1 He thought that the earth was smaller than it actually was and lucked out by landing in America 2 The settlers were meant to only be Castilian but they brought their slaves from all over Europe as long as they were Roman Catholic c Granada the last Muslim kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula but Spain Aragon and Castile 1 They weren39t supposed to force the Muslims to convert but Castile did anyway 2 The Inquisition was meant to root out Muslims and Jews so that they couldn39t spread and quotinfectquot the country d The Conquistadores thought that they were on a mission from God to conquer land in the Americas for Spain and that they would be rewarded with gold fame and glory e In Hispa ola the natives told Columbus and his men about a great empire that was just across the bay whom they thought were China but it turned out to be the Aztecs 1 Before they sailed to see the great empire they built a city and worked and tortured the natives with encomienda forced labor 2 Bartoleme de las Casas was the defender too the Indians who reported the bad stories to the Spanish crown 3 There were new rules after that to protect the natives since they would be the primary workers in the society later f The Aztecs had many city states much like Ancient Greece had with the most powerful being Tenoctitlan where they were of the Nahvas and spoke Nahvatl l Tenoctitlan made an alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan 2 other city states with the their Azcatpozalco men who sold their strength to be warriors 2 Peasants macehualtin raised Maine beans squash and paid tribute to their leaders the pipiltin nobles and commanders 3 The gods needed human blood to have enough energy to keep the universe stable so peasants on the battlefield could take people alive as sacrifices and could become nobles 4 The king of each city state was called a tlatoani Moctezuma I was called the first of equals and was the ruler of Tenoctitlan he used violence to keep order like how in Spain burning at the stake was allowed to keep order Moctezuma II was the emperor of Tenoctitlan when Cortes and his men came to Mexico Ixtlilxochitl was a noble who said that Texcoco used to be the bigger and main city state not Tenoctitlan which caused unrest and rebellion 11 Spanish in Mexico a The rst thing that Cortes did when he got to Mexico was to build a town with a church town hall and jail which they called the town of the true cross de la Cruz 1 Cortez paid 20 to the Spanish crown the Spanish 5th in exchange for protection and support 2 Cortez became the mayor of de la Cruz property owning men could vote 3 He received a slave named Marina Malintzin who became his translator after being sold to the Maya by her own people to pay off a debt and also gave him a son who was called Martin Marina told Corte s to dress like the Mexican gods until they found out that Corte s and his men would not eat tortillas soaked in human blood and they could die on the battle eld b The Spanish then had to force their way into Mexico after they formed an alliance with the citystate Tlaxcalan to defeat the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan c It is possible that Moctezuma also wanted to form an alliance with the Spanish but he was too late so the Spanish had to ght their way out of Tenochtitlan before regrouping and retaking the city 1 Ixttilxochitl was able to get Texcoco to side completely with the Spanish to defeat Moctezuma 2 They all siege Tenochtitlan which allows the smallpox virus to run rampant killing Moctezuma and Cuitlahac leaving Cuavhtemoc to be tortured for information about his wealth but didn t break 3 The Spanish renamed Tenochtitlan Mexico City 111 Women in New Spain were meant to be forgiving accepting without complaining and be like the Virgin Mary a Once a girl was 25 years old and unmarried she was considered an adult and could demand a prenup l Widows received their dowry back from their husband s family as a type of social security she also received half of her husband s property the other half got split between the kids 2 A wife could seek separation if her husband was abusing her to point of mortally harmful b lne s Suarez went to New Spain to find her husband who had died so she b became a conqueror of Chile s mistress 1 She was able to gain his favor by fighting on the battle eld like a man 2 She did receive pay like a Native American soldier s pay c Sor Juana said that women could reason and discuss theology just as well as men 1 When she was young her grandfather allowed her to go into his library and read any of his books she learned Latin along with many other languages starting at age 3 2 Academics were her passion but women were not allowed to attend university so her family arranged for her to become a lady in waiting of the wife of the Marques de Mancera because she was so smart so he wanted her in his court 3 She eventually became a nun because she wanted autonomy too much to be able to be married she was on many occasions the bookkeeper for her convent because she was so good a math 4 The Bishop of Pueblo Manuel Femandes de Santa Cruz published a work by her that was discussing very hot theology debate topics which made the Archbishop of Mexico Francisco Aguiar y Seij as angry because he didn t even want women to kiss his ring because they were so unworthy 5 Sor Juana refuted the Bishop s dispute which was probably her boldest move she also had clerical support from other Church members 6 Before she died she signed all her property and lots of her money over to the Archbishop of Mexico which some view as a sign that he won but others see as the typical sign of a nun giving her property to the Church after 25 years of being in that convent The Enlightenment 1 Religious People a Thomas Aquinas was a big promoter of the way of thinking that God gave us grace and we earned more grace by having faith and doing good works 1 He was a supporter of the body politic where society was like a body and the king as the head the peasants as feet and the Churchthe Pope as the soul which guided the head 2 During the time of Aquinas peasant farmers were still into good and bad witches because it was what they had always known but caused uproar in some places in the Church b Martin Luther was born in Germany in Saxony to Hans Luther who found silver under his eld so he sent Martin to the University of Wittenburg to become a lawyer I Saxony is where one of the 7 electors lives who voted on who became the next Holy Roman Emperor the ruler of the Germanys his name was Fredrick the Wise and he was very religious 2 While Martin was at U of W he nearly died and he made a promise to St Ann that he would become a priest if she helped him survive she did so he does 3 He is very upset by the sinfulness of humanity even so that he pretty much tortures himself 4 He saw good works as a sign of faith but people can only be saved through faith because grace can only be earned through faith not good works 5 He posted 95 Theses on the church door of the Wittenburg Cathedral for students there to consider and debate such as indulgences where people bought their way out of purgatory and the money was used for the papal army churches and the poor It was originally posted in Latin but someone took it translated it to German and it sold like crazy The day after the 95 Theses was posted an indulgence salesman was supposed to come Fredrick the Wise agreed with Luther and protected him Pope Leo X sends a Cardinal to excommunicate Luther once he found out that he was a heretic c Erasmus was a priest who made a living from his writings 1 He criticized relics saying that there were way too many relics to be real way too much wood of the true cross 2 When he is asked to be a Cardinal he declines d John Calvin was a French man who went to Genevia Switzerland 1 He thought that nothing could help you earn salvation and that God had already picked out who would go to heaven and the rest would go to hell predestination 2 The Calvinists in Scotland were called Presbyterians brought there by John Knox 11 Charles I was the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabelle on one side and a Hapsburg on the other he was elected Holy Roman Emperor at age 19 and inherited Castile Aragon and the Germanys a He spent a ton of money on making sure Protestantism didn t spread and defeat the Ottomans saving souls from within and from without the country respectively which left his son Philip 11 super bankrupt but inherited Spain and the Netherlands including Belgium and Luxembourg 1 Antwerp was a huge trading hub in Belgium where there were more and more Lutherans Calvinists and Anabaptists 2 The Spanish sent the army to Antwerp to root out the Protestants the Inquisition which started the 80 Years War Protestants v Spaniards which was bad for business 3 The bourse kind of like a stock market that bought and sold trips to Asia to turn pro ts moved to Amsterdam which became the new trading city b Amsterdam was a wealthy Dutch Calvinist city where they learned to make porcelain grow spices and make textiles so that they did not have to trade from Asia 1 The Dutch took port cities from the Portuguese in S Africa and traded beaver pelts with the Natives in America which result in the traders becoming richer and more powerful especially members of the Dutch East India Trading Company 2 The Estates General and Stadtholder were the two main lawmakers and any landowning man who was responsible had the privilege to vote 3 The Dutch Collegians revised the original Calvinist interpretations of religion which caused an uproar and began the 30 Years War where Cardinal Richelleu allowed the French Calvinists to do their own thing as long as they didn t take up arms against France c The 80 Years War and the 30 Years War ended around the same time 1 The Treaty of Westphalia ended the 30 Years War which stated that a country couldn t attack another when a princeking declared the religion of their nation 2 The Treaty of Munster ended the 80 Years War ended with Spain being forced to declare that the Netherlands was an independent country 111 Other important things a Baruch Benedict Spinoza wanted to be a rabbi but was thrown out 1 He thought about God and nature and decided that God IS the very existence of nature 2 He also debated about reason and faith and tried to come up with a reasonable explanation of things he said that it was reasonable to be a Christian b The Glorious Revolution was by Mary and William of Orange king and queen of England 1 It ended in them signing a bill or rights that limited the monarch s power and allowed everyone a trial c By the time the Dutch made it to Japan there had already been Portuguese there trading and converting people to Catholicism l The Dutch didn t bring any missionaries with them so there were very few converts to Calvinism 2 The Tokugawa family the shoguns was a warlord family who protected the emperor who wanted to kill all the Christians and kick out all the foreigners but the Dutch IX The Enlightenment was a period of time in Europe where people thought a lot about human experience and reasoning people were encouraged to have different opinions on things such as religion and politics a John Locke was a man who was a Christian thought of society as a contract instead of the body politic and thought the three main things of men were life liberty and property and was okay with slavery b Sir Isaac Newton went to Cambridge University and figured out the formulas for gravitational pull F Gml X m2 d X dand force F ma X Religion was one of the biggest topics of discussion during the Enlightenment a Theism was the belief that God was personal whom we prayed to and sometimes intervened in the world sometimes in miraculous ways 1 John Locke and John Adams were both theists 2 A Spanish priest named Feij do was a fan of Sor Juana and pushed that the Earth revolved around the sun was also atheist b Deism was the most common belief among the Enlightenment thinkers they believed that because there was order in the world that there had to be an orderer and that God was not personal and miracles did not happen 1 Voltaire and Thomas Jefferson who wrote his own version of the Bible that excluded all the miracles and the Resurrection were both Deists c Pantheism is the belief that God is nature and nature is God 1 Spinoza described God as the force in nature like in Star Wars d Agnosticism believes that we can t prove or disprove God so we don t know 1 David Hume was a Scottish man who explained that A causes B and we know this because we see that A created B but have we ever seen a god create a universe e Atheism believes that there is no God 1 There were not many people who were atheists La Mettrie was an atheist who said there was evidence against the existence of God XI Other famous people a Adam Smith was against slavery and believed that people need each other and that the bet government governs least wrote The Wealth of Nations b Jean Jacques Rousseau was also against slavery and didn t like that land was owned by a few which gave them power over others 1 Even though owning private property was the quickest way to corruption every person should have an equal opportunity to own land 2 He thought that wealth should be spread out within a large middle class with not much high or low class C Mary Wollstonecraft died from an infection while giving birth to Mary Shelley the author of Frankenstein 1 She said that women were just as rational as men but higher class women didn t have a chance to show it since they were so well taken care of and not pressed to use their rationality 2 In A Vindication 0f the Rights of Woman she writes how many things that women are meant to care about men also care just as much about looking good in their wigs and silk stockings knowing all the right dance moves taking orders when they re in the army for men but in the home for women 3 She also thought that education should be free and mandatory to everyone not just to menboys d Immanuel Kant was a professor at a university in Prussia 1 He wrote an essay called What is Enlightenment that said that people should use their own knowledge to make their own choices 2 He said that there was an order in all of humanity called the categorical imperative this means that there is universal morality such as the golden rule if you steal something someone would ask what it would be like if someone stole from you
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