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What are globulins?

What are globulins?


School: Grand Valley State University
Department: Biomedical Science
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Lanier
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Unit 4 Study Guide
Description: This is a bundle of the notes from 11/12 up until 11/19. It is everything Professor Lanier has gone over since exam 3, which would be everything we need to know about blood, the heart, and the lymphatic system (chapters 21, 22, and 23). I went through and reorganized, clarified with the book, and added some graphics in where I felt it was necessary.
Uploaded: 11/20/2015
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Blood 11/20/15 12:26 AM

What are globulins?

Unit 4 Exam Dec 1

FINAL ON MONDAY DEC 14 12-1:50  

Blood is Connective Tissue has extracellular matrix and cells • Plasma 55% of whole blood Extracellular matrix  

o Plasma Proteins

▪ Albumins – smallest of the proteins, responsible for  

creating osmotic pressure to blood

▪ Globulins – gamma globulins = antibodies used for  


▪ Fibrinogen – activated by injury to the blood vessel,  

converted to fibrin when blood clots  

o Plasma is richer than Serum because serum is plasma without  clotting factors  

What is fibrinogen?

We also discuss several other topics like What is used to test a theory?

o In order for blood to circulate the solids help draw the fluid  back into circulation (work of the Albumins)  

• Buffy coat: leukocytes and platelets, 1%  

• Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells): 44% of whole blood  

o Not true cells, they are anucleated (don’t have a nucleus)

o They used to have nucleus when they are developing and  

when ejected from red bone marrow they give up the nucleus  to be able to bend and fold and flex = biconcave disc shape

o We rely on healthy bone marrow to produce these

o Life span of a red blood cell is 4 months  

o ~5,000,000 cells per microliter

What is hematopoiesis?

o Red blood cell filled with protein called Hemoglobin

▪ Part that contains inorganic iron (HEME) If you want to learn more check out Define cladogenesis (aka branching evolution).

▪ Organic part is GLOBIN  

▪ Deoxyhemoglobin bonds with oxygen to form  

oxyhemoglobin so the dark red color turns to a bright  


o Hematopoesis – production of all types of blood cells in bone  marrow  

o Hemocytoblast is a stem cell that can become any blood cells  while the progenitor cells are the first cell in specific line of a  


o Erythropoeisis – formation of erythrocytes  

o The Normoblast is the last form of the erythrocyte that  contains the nucleus, this form ejects nucleus to become the  Reticulocyte (the last form within the bone marrow) and once  the cell is ejected from bone marrow = Erythrocyte the  circulating form of the red blood cell.  

o Stages of Red Blood Cell Production (pg 147) – takes about a  week for the proerythroblast to turn into mature red blood  cell)  We also discuss several other topics like What were the highlights of the history of the women's movement?

o When oxygen level is lower than normal the production of  erythrocytes is stimulated by Erythropoietin – EPO a hormone  released by kidney , p. 141 (vitamin B12, B6, folic acid,  erythropoietin)  If you want to learn more check out What are endosymbiotic events examples of?

▪ This hormone travels to red bone marrow (found in flat  bones)  

▪ When you train up in the mountains you form high  levels of erythropoietin so the blood can deliver more  blood throughout the body. Armstrong did this and  Don't forget about the age old question of When did rutherford b. hayes become president?

saved his hormone of erythropoietin for the race to  

have extra erythrocytes

• Anemia – decrease in oxygen carrying capacity, deficiency of red  blood cells and or hemoglobin  

• Leukocytes (white blood cells) – main function is immunity, active  only when some pathogens are present, they are your fighting force  ~5000 per microliter (healthy body don’t need many of them, if we  had too many the blood becomes too dense and can form blood  clots)  We also discuss several other topics like What is rational behavior?

o Granulocytes  

▪ Neutrophil  

???? Most active when Bacterial infections are present,  

they target bacteria When you have abcess, zit,  

or strep throat

???? Because of the various shapes of their nuclei,  

neutrophils also may be called polymorphonuclear  

(PMN) leukocytes.

▪ Eosinophils – especially active during parasitic infections  (tapeworms)

▪ Basophils – affinity to basic pigments, these contain  histamine in their granules, substances that are present  during allergic reactions

o Agranulocytes

▪ Monocytes – attack & ingest bacteria, viruses,  

pathogen, ingest our own abnormal cells (anything that  doesn’t belong)  

???? Enter infected tissues and become macrophages

▪ Lymphocytes – these are the ones that remember  

diseases and illnesses and build your immunity  

(vaccines), protection

???? T Lymphocytes  

• Stimulated by thymic hormones  

• Responsible for “cell-mediated” immunity  

• Hand and hand combat

???? B Lymphocytes  

• Responsible for “humoral” (antibody  

mediated) immunity

• Mature in the bone marrow

• Antibody production - our ammunition (B  

Lymphocytes protect by making  


???? Relative abundance of Leukocytes in blood

• Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas (most to  


• Leukocytosis – increase in # of circulating WBC (infection) • Leukopenia – When bone marrow is sluggish, less than normal  number of WBC’s  

• Leukemia – increase in total # and # of immature WBC (cancer of  the white blood cells)  

• Platelets / Thrombocytes – Hemocytoblast -> progenitor -> somes  cells ->Megakaryocyte -> This blows up and these fragments are  Thrombocytes (they don’t contain nucleus’ and they cant divide) o Main function is preventing blood loss

▪ Hemostasis – prevention of blood loss

o Derived from Megakaryocytes  

o Normal counts in blood is hundreds of thousands 120,000- 350,000

o Thrombopoietin – hormone that stimulates the production of  thrombocytes  

o Thrombocytopenia – Less than normal number of platelets;  causes a bleeding disorder

Heart 11/20/15 12:26 AM

Heart is located in the pericardial cavity, between the 2nd rib and 5th intercostal space, slighty shifted to the left and forward, inverted pyramid  (most superior part is the Base, the more inferior is the Apex)

• Surrounded by Connective Tissue

o Fibrous Pericardium – very thick fibrous layer, outer layer  

o Visceral Pericardium / Epicardium - The lining of the  

pericardial cavity, the internal layer  

o Pericardial Fluid found in the Pericardial Cavity, between  

parietal & visceral layers of serous pericardium (fig 22.3)

▪ Pericarditis – inflammation of the pericardium  

• Cardiac Tissue – muscle generates its own rhythm  

o Contractile Cells  

▪ Comprises ~99%  

o Intercalated discs allows for quick transition of ion throughout  the entire muscles  

• The Heart Wall  

o Epicardium - visceral layer of pericardium

o Myocardium - Cardiac Muscle Tissue

o Endocardium - thin 1 cell layer of squamous epithelium, lining  of the chambers of the heart  

• The Heart Anatomy  

o Superior Vena Cava – bringing blood from head and upper  


o Inferior Vena Cava – bringing blood from lower body  

o Descending Aorta - largest

o Aortic Arch  

o Pulmonary Trunk – gives rise to two vessels, takes blood to  the lungs and away from the heart through the Left  

Pulmonary Artery

▪ Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries  

o 2 Superior Chambers of the Heart  

▪ Right Atrium  

▪ Left Atrium

o 2 Inferior Chambers of the Heart  

▪ Right Ventricle  

▪ Left Ventricle

o Ascending Aorta  

The Workings of the Heart  

• Blood will never flow from right to left sides of the heart  • Blood arrives through superior vena cava and inferior vena cava  bring all blood to right atrium due to gravity the blood flows to the  right ventricle

• From right ventricle blood is ejected to pulmonary trunk -> takes  blood to the lungs

o 2 branches of pulmonary trunk are pulmonary arteries

• Pulmonary veins return the blood to the left atrium, from the left  atrium due to gravity the blood flows to the left ventricle, this blood  is then ejected into the main artery of our body and this is the  ascending aorta

Fig. 22.6 From Chapter 22 of Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition (I added  on the arrows and description of blood flow)  

• Valves are one-way doors that prevent backflow of blood

o Atrioventricular Valve (AV valve)- blood can flow from atrium to the ventricle but it can’t flow back  

▪ Left Atrioventricular Valve – two cusps – bicuspid  

▪ Right Atrioventricular Valve – three cusps – tricuspid  

o Semilunar Valves –

▪ Pulmonary Semilunar Valve - One way doors from right  

ventricle to pulmonary trunk

▪ Aortic Semilunar Valve – One way door from left  

ventricle to aorta

• Ventricular Systole (contraction) – during contraction the AV valves  will always be closed because we don’t want the blood to flow back  from the atria, both sets of semilunar valves will be open because it  allows flow of blood to next step  

• During Relaxation ventricle relaxes the semilunar valves will close  and AV valves will open for flow from atria to ventricles  

Functional Cell types of the Heart - No nerves that produce stimulation  for the heart, it generates its own rhythm or beating  

• Non-contractile Cells (autorhythmic)  

o Forms “nodal tissue”  

o Comprises ~1% of entire cardiac tissue

o Generates and conducts electrical impulses

o Maintains resting heart rate at 72 bpm

• Contractile Cells  

o Comprises ~99%  

• Sinoatrial Node (SA) – “pacemaker”

o Muscle impulse is generated at the sinoatrial node. It spreads  throughout the atria and to the atrioventricular node.  

• Atrioventricular Node (AV) – in the wall of the right atrium, inferior  portion, roof of right ventricle – fibers delay the muscle impulse as  it passes to the atrioventricular bundle  

• Atrioventricular Bundle – bundle of connective cells, conducts  muscle impulse into the interventricular septum before dividing into  left and right bundles

o Left and Right Branch  

o Purkinje Fibers – terminal branches of the conducting system  of the heart, the muscle impulse is delivered to these fibers in  each ventricle and distributed throughout the ventricular  


• Fig. 23.9

Vessels & Circulation 11/20/15 12:26 AM

CH 23 Vessels & Circulation – Pathways through which the Blood  Moves  

Veins – all the vessels that bring it back to the heart  

Right pulmonary veins and … end up in left atrium  

Arteries – take the blood away  

Arteries – blood travels fast due to pressure

• Above the Diaphragm - Aorta ascends from the left ventricle, 1st branch off to the brachiocephalic trunk (brachiocephalic artery) this  branches further in the r. common carotid & r. subclavian, 2nd 

branch supplies all blood to head is the left common coratid artery,  3rd branch is left subclavian artery, on the right side  

Figure 23.12 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition  

• Under the diaphragm 3 main vessels in the abdominal cavity  o Celiac Trunk

o Superior Mesenteric Artery

o Next to this is the Left and Right Renal Artery  

o Inferior Mesenteric Artery  

o R. & L. Common Iliac Artery – terminal branches of the  

descending aorta  

▪ Branches off to supply pelvic – Internal Iliac (R & L)

▪ Continues past the pelvic region – External Iliac (R & L)

in the hip, emerges into the leg it is renamed Femoral

Artery (in the thigh region), when it goes behind the  

knee the same artery becomes the Popliteal Artery

???? Branches behind the tibia = Posterior Tibial Artery

& in front of the tibia = Anterior Tibial Artery  

▪ Branches of the femoral artery  

???? Femoral Circumflex Artery – surrounding the shaft  

of the femor  

???? Deep Femoral Artery - Parallel to the shaft of  


▪ Branches of the Posterior Tibial  

???? Fibular Artery  

???? Dorsalis Pedis Artery  

Figure 23.12 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition

Figure 23.20 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition  

• Arm Arteries

o R. Subclavian

o R. Axillary

o R. Anterior Humeral Circumflex  

o R. Brachial  

o R. Common Interosseous

o R. Radial  

o R. Ulnar  

o R. Superficial Palmar Arch

o R. Digital Artery

Figure 23.19 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition  

• Head Arteries Fig 23.10  

o R. Common Corotid Artery takes blood to all superficial  

structures of the head, delivers blood to the brain itself  

o R. External Carotid – external structures

o R. Internal Carotid – into the brain, forms connection with  anterior cerebral arteries, connect with middle cerebral, which  connects to the posterior cerebral

▪ Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle of Willis) - they all back  each other up they don’t die off right away because of  the other pathways

o Vertebral Artery – leads to the brain  

▪ Right and Left vertebral artery

Figure 23.10 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition

Veins – vessels that bring the blood from the periphery back to the  heart, start as tiny vessels/pools of blood in periphery then form  larger vessels, blood travels very slow

• In upper and lower extremeties  

o Deep Veins – return blood from deep structures, follows  arterial system (digital veins as we have digital arteries,  

radial vein like we had radial artery, etc.)  

o Superficial Veins – returns blood from superficial structures ▪ Two additional Vessels  

???? Cephalic Vein – starts by the radial wrist and  

continues to the head, delivers to Subclavian vein

???? Basilic Vein - Delivers blood to the Axillary Vein

▪ Median Cubital Vein is the junction of these two veins  

(joins these two together)

• Veins in the Head fig 23.10  

o Blood comes from External Jugular vein ->delivers to  

Subclavian vein

o All internal contents of the skull (brain and superior sagittal  sinus, all parts ,etc.) blood delivered through Internal Jugular  to the Subclavian Vein, where these two join it becomes the  Right Brachiocephalic Vein

o Both left and Right Brachiocephalic join to become the  Superior Vena Cava

• Veins of the Thoracic Cavity Fig. 23.13  

o Axillary vein -> Subclavian -> Brachiocephalic -> Superior  Vena Cava

Figure 23.13 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition  

• Veins of the Leg  

o Follows Arterial when deep  

▪ Anterior and Posterior tibial vein -> popliteal -> femoral

-> external iliac vein

▪ Great Saphenous – delivers blood to the Femoral Vein,  longest vein in our body

Figure 23.20 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition  

• Veins of the Abdominal Cavity Fig. 23.20

o Femoral -> external iliac veins joins the internal iliac vein to  form the common iliac vein -> the two common iliac veins  join together to form the inferior vena cava (receives the  

blood from two major organs – the Kidneys, the renal veins  deliver blood from these to the inferior vena cava)


All arteries bring blood away, branch

All vein bring blood back, merge  

General Appearances of Arteries and Veins

• Arteries – very round and thick walls to withstand pressure,  (garden hoses)

• Veins – have to have lots of space for pooling of the blood because  blood is trickling under very low pressure, irregular shape with thin  walls, (soakers hoses)

• Both have three layers of tissues – referred to as coats in latin =  Tunica – the type of tissue that makes that coat

o Tunica Interna  

▪ Arteries  

???? Internal Elastic Membrane is present  

???? No Valves

???? Endothelium: rippled  

▪ Veins

???? Internal Elastic Membrane is absent

???? Has valves to pull blood back to heart, once blood  

goes through these valves it cant go back so it  

continues to move higher and higher up through  

the valves until it reaches the heart,  

???? Endothelium: Smooth  

o Tunica Media  

▪ Arteries  

???? Smooth muscle layer: thick w/elastic fibers,  

respond quick

???? External membrane is present  

▪ Veins  

???? Smooth muscle layer: thin with collagen fibers  

external elastic membrane absent

o Tunica Adventitia

▪ Arteries  

???? Collagen & elastic Fibers

▪ Veins  

???? Collagen, elastic and smooth muscle fibers  

Fig. 21-2 Circulatory System  

• Arteries take blood away and branch

o Elastic Artery -> Muscular Artery -> Arteriole -> Capillaries  ▪ Continuous Capillaries – (so thin they have one layer of  cells endothelium) tight control, tight arrangement,  

blood brain barrier in the brain  

▪ Fenestrated Capillaries – Leaky capillaries in the kidney  • Veins take blood back and merge  

o Capillaries become veins: Fenestrated capillary or Continuous Capillary -> Venule -> Medium-sized vein -> Large vein

Figure 23.3 Human Anatomy, McKinley 4th Edition

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