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UW / Chemistry / CHEM 104 / What is the difference between lewis acid and lewis base?

What is the difference between lewis acid and lewis base?

What is the difference between lewis acid and lewis base?

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Madison
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: Linda zelewski
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Here is an organized, color-coded study guide for Chemistry 104 exam 3 based off the objectives provided by the professor! It summarizes the important information that's need-to-know for the exam! Topics covered: Acids and Bases, Additional Aqueous Equilibria, and Thermodynamics.
Uploaded: 11/20/2015
11 Pages 134 Views 4 Unlocks
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Acids and BasesWe also discuss several other topics like How is lifespan development defined?


Relationship of Ka and Kb

  • Ka acid ionization constant
  • Kb base ionization constant
  • Ka>>1: (strong) product-favored        ⎱ Kw=KaKb inversely related (if have high constant
  • Ka < 1: (weak) reactant-favored        ⎰of acid = lower kb, vice versa)
  • Larger the Ka, the stronger the acid
  • If Ka>Kb, the acid is stronger than its conjugate base

If Ka<Kb, the conjugate base is stronger than its conjugate acid

  •         Gen 1 Formula:

                                           Acid           Base        If you want to learn more check out When did rome being founded by romulus and remus?

Acid ionization constant                        weak acid                        salt                conjugate base

Expression(products over reactants)                 If you want to learn more check out What are the indirect ways to intervene?

(are solids, liquids, solvents not included)Don't forget about the age old question of It is a temple/sanctuary of zeus, what is it?

Ex) pH of 0.010 M HA is 3.38, what is ka?Don't forget about the age old question of How can we process or go through all nodes in a tree?

                

I        0.01M             -        0M             0M                        If you want to learn more check out What is markovinkov's rule?

C        - x             -        x               x                        

E        0.01 - x     -        x               x        

Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Acid: proton (H+) donor

Base: proton (H+) acceptor

  • Strong acids = completely ionize in water (weak do not)
  • Strong acids:

  • Weak acids: carboxylic acids, amines

Ex: carboxylic: -COOH group

Amine: carbon compound related to ammonia () like:

  • Strong bases = completely ionize in water (weak do not)
  • Strong bases:

  • Weak bases:

Autoionization of Water

                        

           ↑

        1 water = H+ acceptor (base)        ⎱

        1 water = H+ donor (acid)        ⎰ Amphiprotic

pH

  •                 pH = 7 neutral            

↑                                pH > basic                                   ⎬        

(take the negative log)        pH < acidic                                   ⎭  

  • Calculating pH (weak acids/ weak bases): ICE table,

Find Ka or Kb (acid/base)

Find pH

Finding % Ionization

% ionization =

Polyprotic Acids

  • Monoprotic (single H+ per molecules donated): HF, HCl
  • Polyprotic (more than 1 H+ per molecule donated):

               ⤷ Donates-stepwise manner:

        1)         Ka values decrease with each step

        acid        base           acid                   base        

        2)         more difficult-remove H+ from negatively

       acid                base           acid                   base                charged

Acid Strength

  • Stronger acids:
  • Weaker bonds (to break and ionize easily)
  • Polar bonds

        

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