Bio 120 Exam 3 Study Guide
Bio 120 Exam 3 Study Guide BIO 120
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Friday November 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Bio 120 Study Guide Nov 19th Bio 120 Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 10 Photosynthesis the use of carbon dioxide water and light energy to produce glucose as a source of food for an organism Autotrophs plants and other organisms who sustain themselves by undergoing photosynthesis Heterotrophs consume other organisms to sustain themselves The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and breaks apart water and uses hydrogen electrons to make sugar The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma and forms sugar from C02 With the use of ATP The Chloroplast is made up of 0uter Membrane Intermembrane Space Inner membrane Stroma Granum Thylakoid Thylakoid Space C02 enters the leaf through the Stomata pores in the leaf tissue through the process of cytoplasmic streammg Photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 Light Energy 9 C6H1205 602 Respiration 602 C6H1206 9 6H20 6C02 ATP Energy Under What circumstances would a plant give off more C02 than it takes up Light Reactions 0ccurs in the Thylakoid Membrane and takes in water light energy photons ADP and NADP and gives off ATP NADPH and 02 The Calvin Cycle occurs in the Stomata and takes in C02 ATP and NADPH and gives off sugar Chlorophyll a is the main photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment Which gives up the energy it captures to chlorophyll a The Calvin Cycle occurs in 3 stages 1 Carbon xation RuBP is attached to each C02 molecule This step is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco Produces 2 molecules of 3phosphoglycerate for each C02 fixed 2 Reduction 3phosphoglycerate molecules are phosphorylated p group added and are then reduced by NADPH forming six molecules of glyceraldehyde 3phosphate one of Which leaves the cycle 3 Regeneration of the C02 receptor RuBP the remaining 5 glyceraldehyde 3phosphate are reorganized to for RuBP and the cycle begins again Bio 120 Study Guide Nov 19th Chapter 12 Genome the collection of an organism s genetic material Somatic Cells all cells other than reproductive cells contain 46 chromosomes Gamete sex cells egg and sperm contain 23 chromosomes Chromosome DNA packages Made up of sister chromatids joined copies of the original chromosome and a centromere part of DNA where the chromatid is most closely attached to the sister chromatid Phases of the Cell Cycle Interphase G1 Growth and duplication of cell organelles G2 Nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus to centrosomes form inside the cell chromosomes have duplicated but are not yet visible Prophase Chromosomes condense and are visible mitotic spindle begins to form and the centrosomes begin to move apart from one another Prometaphase The nuclear envelope fragments Microtubules begin to invade the nuclear area Chromosome are now even more condensed each chromatid now has a kinetochore at the centromere and microtubules attach to the kinetochores and begin to move the chromosomes Metaphase Centrosomes are now positioned at the opposite sides of the cell The kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to microtubules coming from the opposite sides of the cell Anaphase Sister Chromatids separate each chromatid becomes a chromosome The two separated chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell as the kinectochore microtubules shorten as the nonkinectochore microtubules lengthen the cell elongates Telophase Two nuclei form and nuclear envelopes form from the original fragmented nuclear envelope nucleoli develop Spindle microtubules begin to degrade Cytokinesis The separation of the cytoplasm begins the cleavage furrow forms and pinches the cell into two daughter cells Cleavage Furrow forms from the interactions between microfilaments and the protein myosin In plant cells no cleavage furrow forms Instead vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move to the middle of the cell where they create a cell plate Cancer the overgrowth of cells creating invasive tumors Benign cancerous tumor that is localized and does not spread throughout the body Malignant cancerous tumor that is able to metastasize and spread to other areas in the body Oncogenes a gene with the capability to turn cells into cancer Tumor suppressor genes gene that regulates cell division and prevents tumors from forming Bio 120 Study Guide Nov 19th Taxanes Taxol are used to treat cancer because they disable microtubule depolymerization so that dividing cancer cells never advance from metaphase Chapter 13 Houttuynia Cordata Bishops weed reproduces asexually and root piece left behind grows into a new plant Asexual reproduction is much faster than sexual reproduction and produces two identical daughter cells Karyotype the arrangement of all pairs of 23 different chromosomes in a human Chromosome record Homologous chromosomes chromosomes of the same length centromere position and staining methods Meiosis cell division in haploid cells sex cells Interphase chromosomes duplicate Within the cell Meiosis I homologous chromosomes separate Meiosis 11 Sister Chromosomes separate creating 4 haploid cells Crossing over during prophase I duplicated homologs pair up and the ends cross Independent assortment the random orientation of homologous pairs in the cell Random fertilization the chance of a particular sperm fertilizing an egg Independent assortment random fertilization and crossing over create genetic variety in a species Chapter 16 DNA collection of genetic information in the form of nucleotides supported by a sugarphosphate backbone Two stranded helix is held together via hydrogen bonds Nucleotides molecule consisting of a pentose and nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups DNA replication begins With replication Which occurs in the nucleus of the cell for eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm for prokaryotes Proteins attach to the DNA strands and begin to separate the two opening up a replication bubble at the end of which is a replication fork Helicase untwist the double helix After the double helix separates singlestrand binding proteins attach to the now single strands of DNA preventing them from zipping back up The DNA now becomes a template to make complementary DNA strands Complementary DNA strand made up of corresponding nucleotide matches to the original DNA strand DNA polymerase moves down the DNA adding nucleotides to each strand in the 3 end The nucleotides pair with the complementary bases DNA Ligase seals the fragments into a continuous strand The new copies Wind up Antiparallel each side of the DNA strand runs in opposite directions Leading strand DNA strand made from the template strand Lagging strand strand synthesized by moving away from the replication fork the elongated strand of DNA Okazaki fragments disconnected segments of the lagging strand Primase enzyme that synthesizes the original RNA strand during replication Nuclease enzyme responsible for cutting out segments of mismatched DNA Histones proteins responsible for the rst step of DNA packing in chromatin Bio 120 Study Guide Nov 19th Chapter 17 Be able to discuss how chlorophyll production or lack thereof can be passed as a trait from parent to offspring even though chlorophyll is not a proteinenzymepolypeptide Although chlorophyll itself is no a protein a protein is responsible for the synthesis of it If that protein isn t coded for and not produced the organism with lack chlorophyll Transcription the process of making RNA from information in DNA Occurs inside the nuclear envelope Translation process of making a polypeptide from the information in RNA Occur in the ribosomes Ribosomes are responsible for linking amino acids into polypeptide chains This is where translation occurs How do transcription and translation differ among prokaryotes and eukaryotes In eukaryotes the process of transcription and translation are separated by the nuclear envelope In prokaryotes the process of transcription and translation occur almost simultaneously since both processes occur outside any kind of envelope DNA vs RNA Double stranded Single Strand Base Pairs AT CG Base Pairs AU CG Selfreplicating Made from DNA sequences Codons mRNA triplets that code for a specific amino acid Proteinogenic Amino Acid protein producing amino acids that can be condensed into a polypeptide Enzymes involved in Transcription RNA polymerase separates the double stranded DNA and elongates the RNA polynucleotides Transcription Factors bind RNA polymerase and begins transcription Ribozymes RNA molecules that act like enzymes Responsible for splicing AminoacyltRNA synthetases matches up tRNA with the appropriate amino acid Transcription proceeds in the 3 9 5 direction Promotor DNA sequence were RNA polymerase binds and begins transcription Transcription factors assist the attachment of RNA polymerase and the beginning of transcription Before the export of RNA from the nucleus it is modified by Splicing a spliceosome made of proteins and small RNAs binds to several short nucleotide sequences on an intron The intron is cut out and the two exons joined together Intron noncoding sections of premRNA genes that are not expressed and are not translated Exon expressed sections of premRNA that become translated How might a single gene code for multiple polypeptides think alternative splicing Which intron is cut from the sequence can change the product For example you have section 1 2 3 4 and 5 If intron 3 is cut you are left with 1 2 4 and 5 But if Intron 1 is cut you have 2 3 4 and 5 a totally different product tRNA involved in translation transports amino acids from the cytoplasm to the growing polypeptide chain in the ribosome Ends with a speci c amino acid has a 3D structure that includes the anticodon specific triplet that binds to the codon Transcribed from DNA Bio 120 Study Guide Nov 19th mRNA involved in transcription Carries genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosomes Transcribed from DNA rRNA subunits of ribosomes These are produced in the nucleolus and are the most abundant type of RNA Catalyzes peptide bond formation How are polypeptides sent to specific locations Within the cell or prepared for export Polypeptides destined for export are marked by a signal peptide A signal recognition particle This particle carries the ribosome to a receptor in the ER membrane Substitution is replacement of one base pair for another changing the amino acid coded for the group Insertion an extra base pair is inserted into the sequence Deletion a base pair is deleted from the sequence Both Insertion and Deletion are Frameshift mutations Which affects all the triplets after the mutation in the sequence These are the most damaging
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