Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide 10120
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10120 at Kent State University taught by Professor Grampa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biological Foundations Honors in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
© Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Biological Foundations, Honors—Exam 3 Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 Chapter 11 1. In what kind of cells does mitosis occur in? what kind of cells does meiosis occur in? 2. Explain the difference between meiosis and mitosis: Mitosis Meiosis How many rounds of cell division? Is the original cell haploid/diploid? What are the resulting cells? Are the resulting cells haploid of diploid? How many S phases? 3. During Meiosis I (the first round of meiosis) how do homologous pairs behave? Are sister chromatids separated? Is there an interphase? 4. Describe what is happening in each step of Meiosis I: Step Key events Definitions Prophase 1 define synaptonemal complex define synapsis define crossing over/recombination define chiasma Metaphase 1 © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 Anaphase 1 define independent assortment Telophase 1 5. Describe what is happening in Meiosis II: Step Key events Prophase 1 Metaphase 1 Anaphase 1 Telophase 1 © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 6. Define nondisjunction Chapter 12 1. Define the following: Term Definition Monohybrid cross Dominant trait Recessive trait 2. Perform a monohybrid Punnett square when GG and Gg are mixed 3. Define the following: Term Definition Alleles Homozygous Heterozygous Mendel’s Principle of Segregation 4. List Mendel’s 5 Elements 5. Define the following: Term Definition Genotype Homozygous dominant (give example) Homozygous recessive (give example) Phenotype Dihybrid cross Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 4 6. Perform a dihybrid Punnett square when RrEE and rrEe are crossed. What is the expected ratio? 7. Define and describe a testcross 8. Define the following: Term Definition Pedigree Genetic Hereditary Carrier 9. State what each represent in a pedigree a. Circle = b. Square = c. Blank shapes = d. Filledin shapes = 10. In a recessive pedigree, what do blank shapes represent? What do filled in shapes represent? 11. Define polygenic inheritances a. What shape does it typically follow? b. How are phenotypes observed? c. What does it mean if a phenotype is further away from the average? 12. Define incomplete dominance © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 5 Chapter 13 1. Define the following Term Definition Sexlinked traits Dosage compensation Barr body Mosaics (give example) Epistasis 2. Define mitochondrial genes and explain why. a. Give an example b. Which parent passes on mitochondrial diseases? c. Which offspring will receive the mitochondrial disease? 3. Define the following Term Definition Nondisjunction Monosomy Trisomy Trisomy 21 X chromosome nondisjunction XXX = XXY = XO = YO = Y chromosome nondisjunction XYY = Chapter 14 1. Give the general formula for the DNA structure © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 6 2. Which 2 bases form the doublering purine? How many hydrogen bonds are between the two? 3. Which 2 bases form the singlering pyrimidine? How many hydrogen bonds are between the two? 4. How is the backbone of DNA formed? How is it linked 5. Where does the phosphate group always join? 6. Describe each DNA molecule with respect to the 5’ and 3’ structure 7. In DNA, list which bases pair with the other a. A(denine) b. T(hymine) c. G(uanine) d. C(ytosine) 8. How are the 2 strands configured in a DNA molecule? 9. Complete the following a. Given DNA strand: TACTGGACAGTC i. Write the complement coding template: 1. Write the strand that has been transcribed to RNA: a. Give the amino acid sequence: 10. What kind of method does DNA replication use? Describe it. What is the result? 11. List the 3 main requirements for DNA replication 12. Describe each phase of DNA replication: Phase Main events Initiation Elongation Termination © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 7 13. Describe each enzyme used in DNA replication: Enzyme Function Other DNA polymerase In what direction does addition occur? Helicase DNA gyrase DNA polymerase how many strands used as a template? what does it generate? what does it require? define primer Primase DNA ligase 14. Where are nucleotide subunits added during DNA replication? What kind of bonds hold them together? What does it form? 15. What is the subunit addition based upon? © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 8 16. In what direction does elongation occur? 17. Define the following: Term Definition Replication fork Leading strand Lagging strand Okasaki fragments 18. Describe the process of DNA replication Step Main events 1 (helicase) 2 (binding proteins) 3 (primase) 4 (addition) 5 (proofread) 6 (continuous) 7 (discontinuous) 8 (enzymes) © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 9 19. Define the following: Term Definition Mutagen (give examples) Photorepair (where is the enzyme present and where does it get energy from?) Excision repair Chapter 15 1. Define clearance (prokaryotic transcription) 2. Describe prokaryotic transcription 3. Define transcription factors (eukaryotic transcription) 4. List and describe the 3 types of modifications of mRNA 5. Define polyA polymerase 6. Define the following: Term Definition spliceosome introns Extrons Alternative splicing 7. Define and describe the following: © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 10 Term Definition tRNA AminoacyltRNA synthetase 8. What is aminoacyltRNA synthetase dependent on when adding to the appropriate amino acid? 9. List and describe the 3 binding sites of ribosomes 10. Describe the process of tRNA entering the binding sites 11. How does the ribosome shift? 12. Define peptidyl transferase 13. Define the following: Term Definition Codons Start codon Stop codon Frameshift mutations 14. How many nucleotides per codon? 15. Are there spaces between codons? 16. What happens if a nucleotide is removed? 17. Describe the process of translation Step Main event © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. Define the following: Term Definition Point mutations Base substitution mutation Nonsense mutation Frameshift mutation Chromosomal mutations Deletion Duplication Inversion Translocation
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