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by: Tia Spears

UrinarySystemStudyGuide.pdf Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > UrinarySystemStudyGuide pdf
Tia Spears
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This is a study guide that covers the Urinary System
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Urinary System Study Guide 1. What are the functions of the urinary system?  Maintains homeostasis o Regulates the composition of the blood and extracellular fluid o Controls osmolarity, or concentration, of dissolved substances in cells  Excretion o Production of urine 2. Describe the macroscopic (i.e. gross anatomy of a kidney).  Kidney is retroperitoneal in the superior lumbar region on the body.  Layers: o Renal cortex – solid outer layer o Renal medulla – inner layer o Renal pelvis – branched chamber that collects urine and funnels it into the ureter 3. What is a nephron? What are the parts of a nephron?  Nephron – structural and functional unites that form urine o 1 million per kidney  Parts of a Nephron: o Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule) o Glomerulus o Renal tubule  Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)  Loop of the nephron ( Loop of Henle)  Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 4. Describe the structure of the renal corpuscle. Distinguish between the parietal and visceral layers. What are podocytes and what function do they serve?  Renal corpuscle is composed of both the Glomerular capsule and the Glomerulus.  2 Layers: o Parietal layer – simple squamous epithelium o Visceral layer – branching epithelial podocytes  Extensions terminate in foot processes that cling to basement membrane  Filtration slits allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space 5. What is the structure of the glomerular filtration membrane (hint: there are three parts). What kind of molecules cannot get through the filtration membrane and why?  Structure o Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries o Visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule (podocytes with foot processes and filtration slits) o Gel-like basement membrane (fused basal laminae of the two other layers)  Molecules that cannot get by: o Fenestrations prevent filtration of blood cells o Negatively charged basement membrane repels large anions such as plasma proteins o Slit diaphragms also help to repel macromolecules 6. What are the two different cell types found in the collecting ducts? What are their functions?  Cell types in collecting ducts: o Intercalated cells – maintains the acid-base balance of the body o Principal cells – help maintain the body’s water and salt balance 7. Distinguish structurally and functionally between cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons.  Cortical nephron (85% of nephrons) o Has short loop of Henle and glomerulus o Further from the corticomedullary junction o Efferent arteriole supplies peritubular o Capillaries  Juxtamedullary nephron o Has long loop of Henle and glomerulus o Closer to the corticomedullary junction o Efferent arteriole supplies vasa recta o Production of concentrated urine 8. How does blood flow through the kidneys? Start at the renal artery. Which blood vessels are associated with the nephron?  Renal artery  Segmental artery  Interlobar artery  Arcuate artery  Interlobular artery  Afferent arteriole  Glomerulus  Efferent arteriole  Peritubular capillaries  Vasa recta  Interlobular vein  Arcuate vein  Interlobar vein  Renal vein  Nephron: o Afferent arteriole, Glomerulus, Efferent arteriole, Peritubular capillaries, and Vasa recta 9. What are the three distinct phases of urine formation? Briefly describe each of them and where they occur.  Glomerular filtration o In glomerular capsule o Water and most small dissolved molecules are filtered out of the blood o Blood pressure causes small molecules to move from the glomerulus to the inside of the glomerular capsule o The composition of the glomerular filtrate the same as the composition of plasma, except the filtrate is protein-free  Tubular reabsorption o At the convoluted tubules o The process by which water and necessary nutrients are restored to the blood. Returns all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salt, and other components to the blood o Active transport of Na+ ions o Cl- ions and water follow passively o Nutrients are selectively reabsorbed  Tubular secretion o At the convoluted tubules o wastes and excess ions that still remain in the blood are secreted into the urine 10. What are the main nitrogenous wastes products that must be eliminated from the body? Where do these nitrogenous wastes come from?  Urea o Molecule produced from protein breakdown o Both reabsorbed and secreted  Uric acid o Produced from nucleic acid breakdown in liver o Both reabsorbed and secreted  Creatinine o Produced from creatinine metabolism in muscle o Only secreted 11. Very briefly discuss urea formation and excretion.  Urea is a waste product of protein digestion o Nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) wastes that are formed when cells break down amino acids o Nitrogenous wastes from cells enter the blood as ammonia (NH3), which is toxic o The livers of humans convert ammonia into urea, which is less toxic o Urea is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and then excreted in the urine 12. Describe glomerular filtration. What goes in? What comes out? What is net filtration pressure?  Glomerular filtration: o Passive mechanical process driven by hydrostatic pressure o The glomerulus is a very efficient filter because its filtration membrane is very permeable and it has a large surface area o Glomerular blood pressure is higher (55 mm Hg) than other capillaries o Molecules >5 nm are not filtered (e.g., plasma proteins) and function to maintain colloid osmotic pressure of the blood  Net filtration pressure o The pressure responsible for filtrate formation (10 mm Hg) o NFP = HPg – (OPg + HPc) 13. What molecules and/or ions are secreted or reabsorbed at each of following? Also indicate whether the molecules and/or ions are secreted or absorbed via active or passive transport.  PCT o 65% of filtrate volume reabsorbed o Na+, glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients actively transported; H2O and many ions follow passively o H+ and NH4+ secretion and HCO3– reabsorption to maintain blood pH o Some drugs are secreted  Descending loop of Henle (passive transport) o Freely permeable to H2O o Not permeable to NaCl o Filtrate becomes increasingly concentrated as H2O leaves by osmosis  Ascending loop of Henle o Impermeable to H2O o Permeable to NaCl o Filtrate becomes increasingly dilute as salt is reabsorbed  DCT (active transport) o Na+ reabsorption regulated by aldosterone o Ca2+ reabsortion regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) o Cl– cotransported with Na+  Collecting duct o H2O reabsorption through aquaporins regulated by ADH o Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion regulated by aldosterone o H+ and HCO3– reabsorption or secretion to maintain blood pH o Urea reabsorption increased by ADH 14. What is osmolality? Describe the osmotic gradient of the kidneys from cortex to medulla. How is this gradient maintained? What does this gradient allow for (in relation to urine production)?  Osmolality o Number of solute particles in 1 kg of H2O o Reflects ability to cause osmosis  Role of countercurrent mechanisms: o Establish and maintain an osmotic gradient (300 mOsm to 1200 mOsm) from renal cortex through the medulla o Allow the kidneys to vary urine concentration 15. Discuss the affects of the following hormones on reabsorption, secretion, and urine volume.  ADH o increases the permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct, allowing more water to be reabsorbed into the blood o the production of a small volume of concentrated urine or of large volume of dilute urine  Aldosterone o stimulates protein synthesis of Na+ channels and Na+/K+ pumps o becomes embedded in plasma membranes of principal cells o increase in Na+ reabsorption o water following by osmosis o decrease urine volume  ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) o inhibits reabsorption of Na+ in PCT and collecting tubules o inhibits release of aldosterone o more Na+ and water excreted in urine o increases GFR o Increases volume of urine produced  PTH o regulates excretion of Ca2+ and PO43- o inhibits PO43- reabsorption in PCT o stimulates Ca2+ reabsorption in DCT o less phosphate available to form calcium phosphate o calcium deposition in bone decreased o Ca 2+ blood levels increased 16. What is renal clearance? Why is it important?  Renal Clearance o Volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance in a given time o Renal clearance tests are used to o Determine GFR o Detect glomerular damage 17. Describe the gross anatomy of the urinary bladder.  Bladder – hollow sac which stores urine o 3 Layers:  Inner mucosa – transitional epithelium which expands the bladder  Detrusor – thick muscular layer  Outer membrane – fibrous, protective layer o Empty bladder: collapses into triangular shape  Rugae – the folds when the bladder is collapsed o Full bladder: expands into a pear shape o Comfortable hold 500 ml of pee but maximum is 1 L. 18. What is the micturition reflex? How does it work?  Micturition reflex o Urination or voiding o Three simultaneous events:  Contraction of detrusor muscle by ANS  Opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS  Opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system 19. What are renal calculi? What causes them?  Renal calculi o Kidney stones form in renal pelvis  Crystallized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid salts o Larger stones block ureter, cause pressure and pain in kidneys o May be due to chronic bacterial infection, urine retention, increase Ca2+ in blood, increase pH of urine 20. What are diuretics? What are some examples of diuretics? Why might a person take them?  Diuretics o Chemicals that enhance the urinary output o Osmotic diuretics: substances not reabsorbed, (e.g., high glucose in a diabetic patient) o ADH inhibitors such as alcohol o Substances that inhibit Na+ reabsorption and obligatory H2O reabsorption such as caffeine and many drugs 21. What happens to kidney function (and the efficiency of the urinary system) as we age?  Gradual decrease in size of kidneys, but only one-third of one kidney necessary for homeostasis  Amount of blood flowing through gradually decreases  Number of glomeruli decrease and ability to secrete and reabsorb decreases  Ability to concentrate urine declines and kidney becomes less responsive to ADH and aldosterone  Reduced ability to participate in vitamin D synthesis contributing to Ca2+ deficiency, osteoporosis, and bone fractures


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