Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide 1010-07
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Friday November 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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1 Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide 1. The view that development is a cumulative process, gradually adding to the same type of skills is known as ________. a. nature b. nurture c. continuous development d. discontinuous development 2. Developmental psychologists study human growth and development across three domains. Which of the following is not one of these domains? a. cognitive b. psychological c. physical d. psychosocial 3. How is lifespan development defined? a. The study of how we grow and change from conception to death. b. The study of how we grow and change in infancy and childhood. c. The study of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth in children. d. The study of emotions, personality, and social relationships. 4. The idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists is called ________. a. egocentrism b. object permanence c. conservation d. reversibility 5. Which theorist proposed that moral thinking proceeds through a series of stages? a. Sigmund Freud b. Erik Erikson c. John Watson d. Lawrence Kohlberg 6. According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, what is the main task of the adolescent? a. developing autonomy b. feeling competent c. forming an identity d. forming intimate relationships 7. Which of the following is the correct order of prenatal development? a. zygote, fetus, embryo b. fetus, embryo zygote c. fetus, zygote, embryo d. zygote, embryo, fetus 8. The time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop is known as ________. a. critical period 2 b. mitosis c. conception d. pregnancy 9. What begins as a singlecell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge at conception? a. embryo b. fetus c. zygote d. infant 10. Using scissors to cut out paper shapes is an example of ________. a. gross motor skills b. fine motor skills c. large motor skills d. small motor skills 11. The child uses the parent as a base from which to explore her world in which attachment style? a. secure b. insecure avoidant c. insecure ambivalentresistant d. disorganized 12. The frontal lobes become fully developed ________. a. at birth b. at the beginning of adolescence c. at the end of adolescence d. by 25 years old 13. Who created the very first modern hospice? a. Elizabeth KüblerRoss b. Cicely Saunders c. Florence Wald d. Florence Nightingale 14. Which of the following is the order of stages in KüblerRoss’s fivestage model of grief? a. denial, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance b. anger, depression, bargaining, acceptance, denial c. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance d. anger, acceptance, denial, depression, bargaining 15. Personality is thought to be ________. a. short term and easily changed b. a pattern of shortterm characteristics c. unstable and short term d. long term, stable and not easily changed 16. The longstanding traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways are known as ________. a. psychodynamic 3 b. temperament c. humors d. personality 17. ________ is credited with the first comprehensive theory of personality. a. Hippocrates b. Gall c. Wundt d. Freud 18. An early science that tried to correlate personality with measurements of parts of a person’s skull is known as ________. a. phrenology b. psychology c. physiology d. personality psychology 19. The id operates on the ________ principle. a. Reality b. pleasure c. instant gratification d. guilt 20. The ego defense mechanism in which a person who is confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral stage is called ________. a. repression b. regression c. reaction formation d. rationalization 21. The Oedipus complex occurs in the ________ stage of psychosexual development. a. oral b. anal c. phallic d. latency 22. The universal bank of ideas, images, and concepts that have been passed down through the generations from our ancestors refers to ________. a. archetypes b. intuition c. collective unconscious d. personality types 23. Selfregulation is also known as ________. a. selfefficacy b. will power c. internal locus of control d. external locus of control 24. Your level of confidence in your own abilities is known as ________. a. selfefficacy 4 b. selfconcept c. selfcontrol d. selfesteem 25. Jane believes that she got a bad grade on her psychology paper because her professor doesn’t like her. Jane most likely has an _______ locus of control. a. internal b. external c. intrinsic d. extrinsic 26. Selfconcept refers to ________. a. our level of confidence in our own abilities b. all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves c. the belief that we control our own outcomes d. the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control 27. The idea that people’s ideas about themselves should match their actions is called ________. a. confluence b. conscious c. conscientiousness d. congruence 28. The way a person reacts to the world, starting when they are very young, including the person’s activity level is known as ________. a. traits b. temperament c. heritability d. personality 29. Brianna is 18 months old. She cries frequently, is hard to soothe, and wakes frequently during the night. According to Thomas and Chess, she would be considered ________. a. an easy baby b. a difficult baby c. a slow to warm up baby d. a colicky baby 30. According to the findings of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, identical twins, whether raised together or apart have ________ personalities. a. slightly different b. very different c. slightly similar d. very similar 31. Temperament refers to ________. a. inborn, genetically based personality differences b. characteristic ways of behaving c. conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion 5 d. degree of introversionextroversion 32. According to the Eysencks’ theory, people who score high on neuroticism tend to be ________. a. calm b. stable c. outgoing d. anxious 33. The United States is considered a ________ culture. a. collectivistic b. individualist c. traditional d. nontraditional 34. The concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs is known as ________. a. selective migration b. personal oriented personality c. socially oriented personality d. individualism 35. Which of the following is NOT a projective test? a. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) b. Rorschach Inkblot Test c. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) d. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) 36. A personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing unconscious feelings, impulses, and desires ________. a. selfreport inventory b. projective test c. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) d. MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 37. Which personality assessment employs a series of true/false questions? a. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) c. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) d. MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 38. As a field, social psychology focuses on ________ in predicting human behavior. a. personality traits b. genetic predispositions c. biological forces d. situational factors 39. Making internal attributions for your successes and making external attributions for your failures is an example of ________. a. actorobserver bias 6 b. fundamental attribution error c. selfserving bias d. justworld hypothesis 40. Collectivistic cultures are to ________ as individualistic cultures are to ________. a. dispositional; situational b. situational; dispositional c. autonomy; group harmony d. justworld hypothesis; selfserving bias 41. According to the actorobserver bias, we have more information about ________. a. situational influences on behavior b. influences on our own behavior c. influences on others’ behavior d. dispositional influences on behavior 42. A(n) ________ is a set of group expectations for appropriate thoughts and behaviors of its members. a. social role b. social norm c. script d. attribution 43. On his first day of soccer practice, Jose suits up in a tshirt, shorts, and cleats and runs out to the field to join his teammates. Jose’s behavior is reflective of ________. a. a script b. social influence c. good athletic behavior d. normative behavior 44. When it comes to buying clothes, teenagers often follow social norms; this is likely motivated by ________. a. following parents’ rules b. saving money c. fitting in d. looking good 45. In the Stanford prison experiment, even the lead researcher succumbed to his role as a prison supervisor. This is an example of the power of ________ influencing behavior. a. scripts b. social norms c. conformity d. social roles 46. Attitudes describe our ________ of people, objects, and ideas. a. treatment b. evaluations c. cognitions d. knowledge 7 47. Cognitive dissonance causes discomfort because it disrupts our sense of ________. a. dependency b. unpredictability c. consistency d. power 48. In order for the central route to persuasion to be effective, the audience must be ________ and ________. a. analytical; motivated b. attentive; happy c. intelligent; unemotional d. gullible; distracted 49. Examples of cues used in peripheral route persuasion include all of the following except ________. a. celebrity endorsement b. positive emotions c. attractive models d. factual information 50. In the Asch experiment, participants conformed due to ________ social influence. a. informational b. normative c. inspirational d. persuasive 51. Under what conditions will informational social influence be more likely? a. when individuals want to fit in b. when the answer is unclear c. when the group has expertise d. both b and c 52. Social loafing occurs when ________. a. individual performance cannot be evaluated b. the task is easy c. both a and b d. none of the above 53. If group members modify their opinions to align with a perceived group consensus, then ________ has occurred. a. group cohesion b. social facilitation c. groupthink d. social loafing 54. Prejudice is to ________ as discrimination is to ________. a. feelings; behavior b. thoughts; feelings c. feelings; thoughts d. behavior; feelings 8 55. Which of the following is not a type of prejudice? a. homophobia b. racism c. sexism d. individualism 56. ________ occurs when the outgroup is blamed for the ingroup’s frustration. a. stereotyping b. ingroup bias c. scapegoating d. ageism 57. When we seek out information that supports our stereotypes we are engaged in ________. a. scapegoating b. confirmation bias c. selffulfilling prophecy d. ingroup bias 58. Typically, bullying from boys is to ________ as bullying from girls is to ________. a. emotional harm; physical harm b. physical harm; emotional harm c. psychological harm; physical harm d. social exclusion; verbal taunting 59. Which of the following adolescents is least likely to be targeted for bullying? a. a child with a physical disability b. a transgender adolescent c. an emotionally sensitive boy d. the captain of the football team 60. The bystander effect likely occurs due to ________. a. desensitization to violence b. people not noticing the emergency c. diffusion of responsibility d. emotional insensitivity 61. Altruism is a form of prosocial behavior that is motivated by ________. a. feeling good about oneself b. selfless helping of others c. earning a reward d. showing bravery to bystanders 62. After moving to a new apartment building, research suggests that Sam will be most likely to become friends with ________. a. his next door neighbor b. someone who lives three floors up in the apartment building c. someone from across the street d. his new postal delivery person 63. What trait do both men and women tend to look for in a romantic partner? 9 a. sense of humor b. social skills c. leadership potential d. physical attractiveness 64. According to the triangular theory of love, what type of love is defined by passion and intimacy but no commitment? a. consummate love b. empty love c. romantic love d. liking 65. According to social exchange theory, humans want to maximize the ________ and minimize the ________ in relationships. a. intimacy; commitment b. benefits; costs c. costs; benefits d. passion; intimacy 66. In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________. a. the inability of an psychological mechanism to perform its function b. the breakdown of social order in one’s community c. communication problems in one’s immediate family d. all the above 67. Patterns of inner experience and behavior are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________. a. are highly atypical b. lead to significant distress and impairment in one’s life c. embarrass one’s friends and/or family d. violate the norms of one’s culture 68. The letters in the abbreviation DSM5 stand for ________. a. Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine b. Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders c. Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 69. A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________. a. major depressive disorder b. social anxiety disorder c. obsessivecompulsive disorder d. specific phobia 70. The diathesisstress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________. a. vulnerability and adverse experiences b. biochemical factors 10 c. chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain d. adverse childhood experiences 71. Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an oversecretion of cortisol. His view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective. a. Psychological b. supernatural c. biological d. diathesisstress 72. In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension? a. panic disorder b. generalized anxiety disorder c. agoraphobia d. social anxiety disorder 73. Which of the following would constitute a safety behavior? a. encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people b. avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present c. avoiding eye contact d. worrying as a distraction from painful memories 74. Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion? a. mentally counting backward from 1,000 b. persistent fear of germs c. thoughts of harming a neighbor d. falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating 75. Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________. a. are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder b. are triggered by low levels of stress hormones c. are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex d. are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms 76. Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except________. a. intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event b. avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event c. jumpiness d. physical complaints that cannot be explained medically 77. Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD? a. severity of the trauma b. frequency of the trauma c. high levels of intelligence d. social support 11 78. Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________. a. periods of extreme elation and euphoria b. difficulty concentrating and making decisions c. loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities d. psychomotor agitation and retardation 79. Suicide rates are ________ among men than among women, and they are ________ during the winter holiday season than during the spring months. a. higher; higher b. lower; lower c. higher; lower d. lower; higher 80. Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor his every movement. Clifford’s belief is an example of ________. a. a delusion b. a hallucination c. tangentiality d. a negative symptom 81. A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________. a. if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia b. if they abused drugs during adolescence c. if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment d. regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment 12 Answer Key: 32. D 65. B 33. B 66. A 1. C 34. A 67. B 2. B 3. A 35. A 68. D 36. B 69. A 4. B 37. A 70. A 5. D 38. D 71. C 6. C 39. C 72. B 7. D 8. A 40. B 73. C 41. B 74. A 9. C 42. B 75. C 10. B 43. A 76. D 11. A 44. C 77. A 12. D 13. B 45. D 78. A 46. B 79. C 14. C 47. C 80. A 15. D 48. A 81. C 16. D 49. D 17. D 18. A 50. B 51. D 19. B 52. C 20. B 53. C 21. C 54. A 22. C 23. B 55. D 56. C 24. A 57. B 25. B 58. B 26. B 59. D 27. D 28. B 60. C 61. B 29. B 62. A 30. D 63. D 31. A 64. C Vocabulary: 13 Accommodation: adjustment of a schema by changing a scheme to accommodate new information different from what was already known Adolescence: period of development that begins at puberty and ends at early adulthood Adrenarche: maturing of the adrenal glands Assimilation: adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known Attachment: longstanding connection or bond with others Authoritarian parenting style: parents place a high value on conformity and obedience, are often rigid, and express little warmth to the child Authoritative parenting style: parents give children reasonable demands and consistent limits, express warmth and affection, and listen to the child’s point of view Avoidant attachment: characterized by child’s unresponsiveness to parent, does not use the parent as a secure base, and does not care if parent leaves Cognitive development: domain of lifespan development that examines learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity Cognitive empathy: ability to take the perspective of others and to feel concern for others Conception: when a sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote Concrete operational stage: third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from about 7 to 11 years old, children can think logically about real (concrete) events Conservation: idea that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size, volume, or number as long as nothing is added or removed Continuous development: view that development is a cumulative process: gradually improving on existing skills Critical (sensitive) period: time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop Developmental milestone: approximate ages at which children reach specific normative events Discontinuous development: view that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages Disorganized attachment: characterized by the child’s odd behavior when faced with the parent; type of attachment seen most often with kids that are abused 14 Egocentrism: preoperational child’s difficulty in taking the perspective of others Embryo: multicellular organism in its early stages of development Emerging adulthood: newly defined period of lifespan development from 18 years old to the mid20s; young people are taking longer to complete college, get a job, get married, and start a family Fine motor skills: use of muscles in fingers, toes, and eyes to coordinate small actions Formal Operational Stage: final stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from age 11 and up, children are able to deal with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations Gonadarche: maturing of the sex glands Gross Motor Skills: use of large muscle groups to control arms and legs for large body movements Hospice: service that provides a death with dignity; pain management in a humane and comfortable environment; usually outside of a hospital setting Menarche: beginning of menstrual period; around 12–13 years old Mitosis: process of cell division Motor Skills: ability to move our body and manipulate objects Nature: genes and biology Newborn Reflexes: inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with Normative Approach: study of development using norms, or average ages, when most children reach specific developmental milestones Nurture: environment and culture Object Permanence: idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists Permissive Parenting Style: parents make few demands and rarely use punishment Physical Development: domain of lifespan development that examines growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness Placenta: structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen to the developing baby 15 Prenatal Care: medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus Preoperational Stage: second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from ages 2 to 7, children learn to use symbols and language but do not understand mental operations and often think illogically Primary Sexual Characteristics: organs specifically needed for reproduction process proposed by Freud in which pleasureseeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of life Psychosexual Development: domain of lifespan development that examines emotions, personality, and social relationships Psychosocial Development: process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood Resistant Attachment: characterized by the child’s tendency to show clingy behavior and rejection of the parent when she attempts to interact with the child Reversibility: principle that objects can be changed, but then returned back to their original form or condition Schema: (plural = schemata) concept (mental model) that is used to help us categorize and interpret information Secondary Sexual Characteristics: physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs Secure Attachment: characterized by the child using the parent as a secure base from which to explore Secure Base: parental presence that gives the infant/toddler a sense of safety as he explores his surroundings Sensorimotor Stage: first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from birth through age 2, a child learns about the world through senses and motor behavior Socioemotional Selectivity Theory: social support/friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years Spermarche: first male ejaculation 16 Stage of Moral Reasoning: process proposed by Kohlberg; humans move through three stages of moral development Temperament: innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment Teratogen: biological, chemical, or physical environmental agent that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus Uninvolved Parenting Style: parents are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes referred to as neglectful; they don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands Zygote: structure created when a sperm and egg merge at conception; begins as a single cell and rapidly divides to form the embryo and placenta Anal stage: psychosexual stage in which children experience pleasure in their bowel and bladder movements Analytical psychology: Jung’s theory focusing on the balance of opposing forces within one’s personality and the significance of the collective unconscious Archetype: pattern that exists in our collective unconscious across cultures and societies Collective unconscious: common psychological tendencies that have been passed down from one generation to the next Congruence: state of being in which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar Conscious: mental activity (thoughts, feelings, and memories) that we can access at any time ContemporizedThemes Concerning Blacks Test (CTCB): projective test designed to be culturally relevant to African Americans, using images that relate to AfricanAmerican culture Culture: all of the beliefs, customs, art, and traditions of a particular society Defense mechanism: unconscious protective behaviors designed to reduce ego anxiety Displacement: ego defense mechanism in which a person transfers inappropriate urges or behaviors toward a more acceptable or less threatening target Ego: aspect of personality that represents the self, or the part of one’s personality that is visible to others 17 Five Factor Model: theory that personality is composed of five factors or traits, including openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism Genital stage: psychosexual stage in which the focus is on mature sexual interests Heritability: proportion of difference among people that is attributed to genetic Id: aspect of personality that consists of our most primitive drives or urges, including impulses for hunger, thirst, and sex Ideal self: person we would like to be Incongruence: state of being in which there is a great discrepancy between our real and ideal selves Individual psychology: school of psychology proposed by Adler that focuses on our drive to compensate for feelings of inferiority Inferiority complex: refers to a person’s feelings that they lack worth and don’t measure up to others’ or to society’s standards Latency period: psychosexual stage in which sexual feelings are dormant Locus of control: beliefs about the power we have over our lives; an external locus of control is the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control; an internal locus of control is the belief that we control our own outcomes Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): personality test composed of a series of true/ false questions in order to establish a clinical profile of an individual Neurosis: tendency to experience negative emotions Oral Stage: psychosexual stage in which an infant’s pleasure is focused on the mouth Personality: longstanding traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways Phallic Stage: psychosexual stage in which the focus is on the genitals Projection: ego defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety disguises their unacceptable urges or behaviors by attributing them to other people Projective Test: personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing hidden feelings, impulses, and desires 18 Psychosexual Stages of Development: stages of child development in which a child’s pleasure seeking urges are focused on specific areas of the body called erogenous zones Rationalism: ego defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety makes excuses to justify behavior Reaction Formation: ego defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety swaps unacceptable urges or behaviors for their opposites Real Self: person who we actually are Reciprocal Determinism: belief that one’s environment can determine behavior, but at the same time, people can influence the environment with both their thoughts and behaviors Regression: ego defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral state Repression: ego defense mechanism in which anxietyrelated thoughts and memories are kept in the unconscious Rorschach Inkblot Test: projective test that employs a series of symmetrical inkblot cards that are presented to a client by a psychologist in an effort to reveal the person’s unconscious desires, fears, and struggles Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB): projective test that is similar to a word association test in which a person completes sentences in order to reveal their unconscious desires, fears, and struggles Selective Migration: concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs SelfConcept: our thoughts and feelings about ourselves Selfefficacy: someone’s level of confidence in their own abilities SocialCognitive Theory: Bandura’s theory of personality that emphasizes both cognition and learning as sources of individual differences in personality Sublimation: ego defense mechanism in which unacceptable urges are channeled into more appropriate activities Superego: aspect of the personality that serves as one’s moral compass, or conscience 19 TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test: projective test designed to be culturally relevant to minority groups, especially Hispanic youths, using images and storytelling that relate to minority culture Temperament: how a person reacts to the world, including their activity level, starting when they are very young Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test in which people are presented with ambiguous images, and they then make up stories to go with the images in an effort to uncover their unconscious desires, fears, and struggles Traits: characteristic ways of behaving Unconscious: mental activity of which we are unaware and unable to access Actorobserver Bias: phenomenon of explaining other people’s behaviors are due to internal factors and our own behaviors are due to situational forces Ageism: prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their age Aggression: seeking to cause harm or pain to another person Altruism: humans’ desire to help others even if the costs outweigh the benefits of helping Asch Effect: group majority influences an individual’s judgment, even when that judgment is inaccurate Attitude: evaluations of or feelings toward a person, idea, or object that are typically positive or negative Attribution: explanation for the behavior of other people Bullying: a person, often an adolescent, being treated negatively repeatedly and over time Bystander Effect: situation in which a witness or bystander does not volunteer to help a victim or person in distress Central Route Persuasion: logicdriven arguments using data and facts to convince people of an argument’s worthiness Cognitive Dissonance: psychological discomfort that arises from a conflict in a person’s behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs that runs counter to one’s positive selfperception Collectivist Culture: culture that focuses on communal relationships with others such as family, friends, and community Companionate Love: type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment, but not passion; associated with close friendships and family relationships Confederate: person who works for a researcher and is aware of the experiment, but who acts as a participant; used to manipulate social situations as part of the research design Confirmation Bias: seeking out information that supports our stereotypes while ignoring information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes Conformity: when individuals change their behavior to go along with the group even if they do not agree with the group Consummate Love: type of love occurring when intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present Cyberbullying: repeated behavior that is intended to cause psychological or emotional harm to another person and that takes place online Diffusion of Responsibility: tendency for no one in a group to help because the responsibility to help is spread throughout the group Discrimination: negative actions toward individuals as a result of their membership in a particular group Dispositionism: describes a perspective common to personality psychologists, which asserts that our behavior is determined by internal factors, such as personality traits and temperament Empathy: capacity to understand another person’s perspective—to feel what he or she feels FootintheDoor Technique: persuasion of one person by another person, encouraging a person to agree to a small favor, or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item Fundamental Attribution Error: tendency to overemphasize internal factors as attributions for behavior and underestimate the power of the situation Group Polarization: strengthening of the original group attitude after discussing views within the group Groupthink: group members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus Homophily: tendency for people to form social networks, including friendships, marriage, business relationships, and many other types of relationships, with others who are similar Homophobia: prejudice and discrimination against individuals based solely on their sexual orientation Hostile Aggression: aggression motivated by feelings of anger with intent to cause pain InGroup: group that we identify with or see ourselves as belonging to InGroup Bias: preference for our own group over other groups Individualistic Culture: culture that focuses on individual achievement and autonomy Informational Social Influence: conformity to a group norm prompted by the belief that the group is competent and has the correct information Instrumental Aggression: aggression motivated by achieving a goal and does not necessarily involve intent to cause pain Internal Factor: internal attribute of a person, such as personality traits or temperament JustWord Hypothesis: ideology common in the United States that people get the outcomes they deserve Normative Social Influence: conformity to a group norm to fit in, feel good, and be accepted by the group Obedience: change of behavior to please an authority figure or to avoid aversive consequences OutGroup: group that we don’t belong to—one that we view as fundamentally different from us Peripheral Route Persuasion: one person persuades another person; an indirect route that relies on association of peripheral cues (such as positive emotions and celebrity endorsement) to associate positivity with a message Persuasion: process of changing our attitude toward something based on some form of communication Prejudice: negative attitudes and feelings toward individuals based solely on their membership in a particular group Prosocial Behavior: voluntary behavior with the intent to help other people Racism: prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their race Reciprocity: give and take in relationships Romantic Love: type of love consisting of intimacy and passion, but no commitment Scapegoating: act of blaming an outgroup when the ingroup experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal Script: person’s knowledge about the sequence of events in a specific setting SelfDisclosure: sharing personal information in relationships SelfFulfilling Prophecy: treating stereotyped group members according to our biased expectations only to have this treatment influence the individual to act according to our stereotypic expectations, thus confirming our stereotypic beliefs SelfServing Bias: tendency for individuals to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for positive outcomes and situational or external attributions for negative outcomes Sexism: prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based on their sex Situationism: describes a perspective that behavior and actions are determined by the immediate environment and surroundings; a view promoted by social psychologists Social Exchange Theory: humans act as naïve economists in keeping a tally of the ratio of costs and benefits of forming and maintain a relationship, with the goal to maximize benefits and minimize costs Social Facilitation: improved performance when an audience is watching versus when the individual performs the behavior alone Social Loafing: exertion of less effort by a person working in a group because individual performance cannot be evaluated separately from the group, thus causing performance decline on easy tasks Social Norm: group’s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for the thoughts and behavior of its members Social Psychology: field of psychology that examines how people impact or affect each other, with particular focus on the power of the situation Social Role: socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or group Stanford Prison Experiment: Stanford University conducted an experiment in a mock prison that demonstrated the power of social roles, social norms, and scripts Stereotype: negative beliefs about individuals based solely on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual characteristics Triangular Theory of Love: model of love based on three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment; several types of love exist, depending on the presence or absence of each of these components Psychological disorder: condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Psychopathology: study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, causes, and treatment; manifestation of a psychological disorder Etiology: cause or causes of a psychological disorder Harmful Dysfunction: model of psychological disorders resulting from the inability of an internal mechanism to perform its natural function Diagnosis: determination of which disorder a set of symptoms represents Comorbidity: cooccurrence of two disorders in the same individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM5): authoritative index of mental disorders and the criteria for their diagnosis; published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) International Classification of Diseases (ICD): authoritative index of mental and physical diseases, including infectious diseases, and the criteria for their diagnosis; published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Supernatural: describes a force beyond scientific understanding Diathesisstress model: suggests that people with a predisposition for a disorder (a diathesis) are more likely to develop the disorder when faced with stress; model of psychopathology Anxiety disorders: characterized by excessive and persistent fear and anxiety, and by related disturbances in behavior Specific phobia: anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, distressing, and persistent fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation Agoraphobia: anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear, anxiety, and avoidance of situations in which it might be difficult to escape if one experiences symptoms of a panic attack Social anxiety disorder: characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which one could potentially be evaluated negatively by others Safety behaviors: mental and behavior acts designed to reduce anxiety in social situations by reducing the chance of negative social outcomes; common in social anxiety disorder Panic disorder: anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks, along with at least one month of worry about panic attacks or selfdefeating behavior related to the attacks Panic attack: period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops abruptly; symptoms of panic attacks are both physiological and psychological Generalized anxiety disorder: characterized by a continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry and apprehension Obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD): characterized by the tendency to experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts and urges (obsession) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) in response to the unwanted thoughts and urges Body dysmorphic disorder: involves excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in physical appearance Hoarding disorder: characterized by persistent difficulty in parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value or usefulness Orbitofrontal cortex: area of the frontal lobe involved in learning and decisionmaking Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): experiencing a profoundly traumatic event leads to a constellation of symptoms that include intrusive and distressing memories of the event, avoidance of stimuli connected to the event, negative emotional states, feelings of detachment from others, irritability, proneness toward outbursts, hypervigilance, and a tendency to startle easily; these symptoms must occur for at least one month Flashbacks: psychological state lasting from a few seconds to several days, during which one relives a traumatic event and behaves as though the event were occurring at that moment Mood disorders: one of a group of disorders characterized by severe disturbances in mood and emotions; the categories of mood disorders listed in the DSM5 are bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders Depressive disorders: one of a group of mood disorders in which depression is the defining feature Mania: state of extreme elation and agitation Major depressive disorder: commonly referred to as “depression” or “major depression,” characterized by sadness or loss of pleasure in usual activities, as well other symptoms Bipolar Disorder: mood disorder characterized by mood states that vacillate between depression and mania Suicidal ideation: thoughts of death by suicide, thinking about or planning suicide, or making a suicide attempt Seasonal pattern: subtype of depression in which a person experiences the symptoms of major depressive disorder only during a particular time of year Peripartum onset: subtype of depression that applies to women who experience an episode of major depression either during pregnancy or in the four weeks following childbirth Manic episode: period in which an individual experiences mania, characterized by extremely cheerful and euphoric mood, excessive talkativeness, irritability, increased activity levels, and other symptoms Flight of ideas: symptom of mania that involves an abruptly switching in conversation from one topic to another Hopelessness theory: cognitive theory of depression proposing that a style of thinking that perceives negative life events as having stable and global causes leads to a sense of hopelessness and then to depression Rumination: in depression, tendency to repetitively and passively dwell on one’s depressed symptoms, their meanings, and their consequences Schizophrenia: severe disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior with symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior, and negative symptoms
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