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Exam 3 Study materials

by: Aimee Castillon

Exam 3 Study materials PSYC379

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC379 > Exam 3 Study materials
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev

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Attached is the answer sheet to the practice quizzes as well as my best answers for the study guide questions.
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev
Study Guide
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Friday November 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC379 at George Mason University taught by Eric B Shiraev in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 304 views. For similar materials see Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
Chapter 7 Types of human motivation the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation engages people in various activities for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself extrinsic motivation engages people in various activities for a particular reward Confucian work dynamism What is it A cultural syndrome manifested in persistence at achieving economic goals social stability encouragement of prudence and savings and promoting loyalty and trust by emphasizing shame Studies of procrastination p 170 Results indicated no significant sex or nationality differences within or between nations almost 30 of respondents reported about their tendency to procrastinate half of them procrastinate for arousal reasons there s better results when working under pressure other half are avoidant procrastinators they don t perform well under pressure of deadHnes Achievement motivation cultural and agerelated factors p175 Learned in childhood and is developed by the needs of society A case of behavioral economics of poverty Ester Duflo see the posted slides and the video They maintain that both economic aid and private entrepreneurship may work if only we understand better how the poor make their financial economic and other important life decision Help should be delivered but the donors should know when and how it should be distributed and in which cases local initiatives and choices should be supported An important key to success here is in education and access to information Stalking behavior Motivation culture and awareness class culturally different Stalking is a persistent and unwanted pursuit of another person It is typically based on the stalker s excessive attention toward the target who becomes a victim Maslow s theory and its crosscultural applications there are some needs that are emphasized more than others which could potentially change the order of the hierarchy Methodology How could a high refusal rate affect the accuracy of a survey about sexual behavior It is interesting that the respondents of such surveys tend to me more openminded toward sexuality just by agreeing answering these questions What is a major social trend in developed East Asian countries related to marriage and the family Getting married later or not getting married at all Chapter 8 What is the nativist view of human development Everything is inborn Recency and persistence models of development persistence model suggests that adults acquire attitudes and behaviors early in life and tend not to change them later openness modelRecency model suggests that adults change their attitudes and behaviors to adjust to changing life situations Fluid intelligence is the ability to form concepts think abstractly and apply knowledge to new situations Studies of bilingualism and multilingualism class early research suggested that learning two languages in childhood was detrimental to a child s cognitive abilities also suggested that the vocabulary of bilinguals was not as great as onelanguage speakers Bilinguals tended to display lower linguistic skills social factors belief that the child should learn one language as a matter of ethnic identity refusal to teach the second language for political reasons later studies showed more efficient informationprocessing among multilinguals multilinguals show better linguistic skills such as understanding and using grammar they tend to have better communication skills and better social and professional opportunities The changing marriage patterns A case of East Asia lectures education highly educated women are more likely to be unmarried than other women economics women are getting more economically independent The custom of marrying up is no longer working for many men changing cultural values in men the growth of the Mama s Boy type multitasking unlike Western women Asian women are more likely to choose a job over a husband or to put off marriage while they pursue a career the last year in the US that more men than women graduated from college was 1981 since then college gender gap has been getting wider every year less educated men are actually facing as challenging a dating and marriage market as the educated women So for example among noncollege educated men in in the US age 22 to 29 there are 94 million single men vs 71 million single women So the lessereducated men face an extremely challenging dating market Adolescents and puberty cultural foundations of adolescence gender differences related to puberty p 206208 girls mature as much as two years earlier than boys reason improved health care nutrition and living conditions of the developed regions in the world teenage rebelliousness and defiance gt desire for independence overall social and political conditions in a particular country may affect attitudes and motivation of the young Japanese infants typically have difficulty noticing the difference between which two sounds L and R Erikson s theory and its crosscultural applications p 1967 crosscultural application is mostly Western and it doesn t apply to non Western countries because Erickson is stating what he believes a healthy person should be and not what he actually is A study that examined Kohlberg s theory of moral development in 27 countries concluded that some stages appear universal Which ones Stages 14 The suppressionfacilitation and the adult distress threshold hypotheses suppressionfacilitation hypothesis behaviors that are discouraged in a culture will be seen infrequently in mental health facilities also assumes that behaviors that are rewarded will be seen excessively adult distress threshold hypothesis behaviors that were discouraged in childhood will be seen in clinics more often than acceptable behaviors Chapter 9 People s education and their views of mental illness Less educated people tend to use more quotfolkquot nonscientific sources Old traditional and disappearing labels to describe abnormal psychological symptoms madness schizophrenia bipolar disorder panic disorder substance addiction dementia etc hysteria range of somatoform symptoms neurasthenia range of mild to moderate anxiety and depressive symptoms neurosis range of moderate to severe anxiety and depressive symptoms feeling like a king or a queen passiveaggressive personality disorder no longer in use masturbation no longer in use homosexuality no longer in use Universalist and relativist perspectives of mental illness universalist perspective despite cultural differences psychological disorders share a great number of similar features including attitudes values and behavioral responses relativist perspective humans develop ideas establish behavioral norms and learn emotional responses according to a set of cultural prescriptions Central and peripheral symptoms of psychological disorders central symptoms are observable in practically all cultures peripheral symptoms are culture specific Tolerance thresholds measure tolerances or intolerances toward specific personality traits in a specific cultural environment Culturebound syndromes know them p 222224 Amok Known in Malaysia similar patterns may occur elsewhere Amok is a sudden rage in which an othenvise normal person goes berserk sometimes hurting those in his path Brooding is followed by a violent outburst it is often precipitated by a slight or NOTE insult The symptoms seem to be prevalent among men It was well known to the British colonial rulers of Malaysia and has therefore passed into the English language running amok To this day cases of amok are reported in Malaysian newspapers Osborne 2001 Latah Occurs in Malaysia Indonesia Thailand and Japan Symptoms include hypersensitivity to sudden fright often with nonsense mimicking of others and trancelike behavior Over time the person with these symptoms becomes so sensitive that trances can be triggered by a falling coconut Latahs people who display the symptoms of latah tend to blurt out offensive phrases much like sufferers of Tourette s syndrome Indeed Georges Gilles de la Tourette the French discoverer of the syndrome in the 1880s explicitly compared it to Iatah Latahs also often mimic the actions of people around them or obey commands including requests to take off their clothes AftenNard people often claim to have no memory of what they said or did Zar Known in Ethiopia Somalia Egypt Sudan Iran and elsewhere in North Africa and the Middle East This is the belief in possession by a spirit causing shouting laughing head banging singing or weeping Individuals may show apathy and withdrawal refusing to eat or carry out daily tasks or may develop a longterm relationship with the possessing spirit Such behavior is not necessarily considered pathological in local settings These are examples from the slides Please refer to the textbook pages above for more examples DSMIV and DSM V and its importance in clinical practice in the USA They give you a set criteria to diagnose a mental illness Culture match in therapy what is it p 2423 mutual cultural understanding to prevent misdiagnosis ie African Americans with depressive symptoms tend to be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia if they re evaluated by nonblack professionals Psychodiagnostic bias what is it p238 product of cultural mismatch in which the mental health professional misdiagnoses the patient due to cultural misunderstandings Symptoms of major psychological disorders anxiety and depressive disorders schizo 2323 phrenia personality disorders eating disorders in particular p 225230 Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by the presence of delusions hallucinations disorganized speech and disorganized or catatonic behavior These symptoms included either gross excessiveness or ovenNhelming deficiency of certain features in an individual s behavior and experiences However no matter where the person lives each anxiety disorder can manifest itself as a set of central symptoms that can be observed in practically every culture as well as a set of peripheral symptoms that are culture specific For example symptoms of an anxiety disorder can be universally reported as a persistent worry fear or a constant What i state of apprehensive anticipation the conditions are maladaptive and cause significant distress in the individual Several crosscultural studies of mood disorders showed that people tend to report a broad range of common symptoms including dysphoria anxiety tension lack of energy and ideas of insufficiency An earlier World Health Organization study 1983 found that more than threequarters of individuals diagnosed with depression reported similar symptoms such as sadness tension lack of energy loss of interest ideas of insufficiency and an inability to concentrate Personality disorders are viewed as enduring patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual s culture It is not just a single act It is a persistent behavioral pattern that leads to the individual s distress and impairment in one or several important areas of functioning anorexia nervosa Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height less than 85 of that expected Disturbance in the way in which the person s body weight or shape is experienced excessive influence of body weight or shape on selfevaluation or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight The absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles in female patients Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even though the person is undenNeight bulimia Recurrent episodes of binge eating An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following Eating in a discrete period of time eg within any 2hour period an amount of food that is de nitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode e g a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain such as selfinduced vomiting misuse of laxatives or other medications fasting or excessive exercising s the repressiveadaptive style of coping with illness Individual s desire to hide the symptoms and prove that helshe is fine and healthy The prevalence of alcohol use and abuse in different cultures and gender groups p 2368 there is no universal criterion that would distinguish normal from abnormal drinking there are national standards 21 is the legal age in the US while 18 is the legal age for most of Europe Muslims Hindus and Mormons prohibit alcohol consumption Top consumers Portugal and France lowest consumer Israel in most Asian countries except Korea the overall prevalence of alcoholrelated disorders is relatively low and the malefemale ratio is very high When Asian youths immigrate to the US they tend drink more than their peers who live in their home countries alcoholrelated disorders are associated with lower education levels lower socioeconomic status and higher rates of unemployment Which ethnic group in the United States tends to use mental health services the least MexicanAmericans Suicide and culture rates among different gender and cultural groups p 2302 higher suicide rates reported for males highest suicide rates Lithuania and South Korea suicide rates tend to be higher in those nations that rank high on subjective wellbeing suicide rates are lower in less developed countries particularly African Asian and Latin American countries and Islamic nations In Japan suicide is regarded as an honorable death rather than an act of shame and cowardice suicide remains the third leading cause of death among African Americans 1519 years old Research on spirituality and health main findings lecture Assumption Evidence People attending religious services tend to Strong Hvelonger Deeply religious people have higher life No evidence expectancy Spirituality protects against cardiovascular Some evidence diseases Spirituality protects against cancer mortality Some evidence Spirituality slows cancer progression No evidence Spirituality protects against disability Some evidence Spirituality improves recovery from acute No evidence iHness Being prayed for improves recovery from Some evidence acute illness Physiological protective mechanism against alcohol abuse individuals who lack aldehyde dehydrogenase chemical in the blood can have a flushed face and palpitation when they drink alcohol basically they get drunk more easily Pathologization of psychological symptoms p 236 assigning pathological characteristics to ordinary nonpathological psychological phenomena ie criteria for antisocial and paranoid personality disorders were assigned mostly to African Americans criteria for schizoid personality disorders were mostly applied to Asian Americans criteria for schizotypal personality disorders were mostly applied to Native Americans How do aging high life expectancy and decreased birth rates affect treatment of Alzheimer s dementia Class case related to South Korea There s not enough people that can care for Alzheimer s patients which could significantly affect the country s economy The addiction problem see the slides Addiction is the continued repetition of a behavior despite adverse consequences These consequences include serious physical harms and psychological suffering of an individual The individual is not capable of stopping this behavior Haw substanee eeldietitians are teamed A person talles a suibsta see that precluees excitement Toleranee Mere pleasure railiaxatiienl substanee is needed te estatemar paint V K 39 preduee the desirable Hawaiian W 39 39 m 39E Desae and frequency there ass s witheut the substance 39 Addicti t The purp se the persen suffers tram paths anxiety of daily e stenee shifts teward the substance All areas the individuals Maiar terse Eulitural Barriers in Battling Substance abuse The lssei Sagawa case Japanese cannibal who ate a French woman but never went to prison The Autism case discussed in class impairments in social interaction poor eye contact understanding of relationships desire to share experience emotional reciprocity impairments in communication speech delay poverty of speech poor pretend play restricted pattern of behavior adherence to rituals focus on details restrictive interests motor mannerisms prevalence of autism in other countries is significantly lower factors access to health care lack of specialists perceived costs lifetime treatment 12 million high tolerance thresholds for symptoms folk beliefs about symptoms ie autism is caused by vaccinations payback for sins stigma underreporting concerns for child s future collective and individual shame Practice Questions 1 Is it believed that deeply religious people have higher life expectancy Does research support this belief a yes there is very strong research based supportive evidence b yes there is evidence but only in Latin American countries c no research does not support such belief d in fact ironically religious people have lower life expectancy Culturally specific and clinically significant syndromes occurring in people of specific groups or regions are called syndromes a relativist c timetable d developmental e nicherelated What is a major social trend in developed East Asian countries related to marriage and the family a couples have significantly more children than they did 15 years ago b divorce rates have been skyrocketing c four or five couple move in and live together in small communes d The number of single fathers has quadrupled in ten years The poor according to research by Esther Duflo tend to believe that a good medicine is the one that a is free c is expensive and packaged in colorful boxes d is brought from Europe or North America e domestically produced A study that examined Kohlberg s theory of moral development in 27 countries concluded that some stages are universal Which stages Stages 14 Which period stage of individual development has appeared in many countries only about 150 years ago by the end of the traditional phase of modern society Late adulthood Chapter 7 1 Researching for his theory of selfactualization Maslow collected a sample consisted primarily of a Chinese and Japanese b AfricanAmerican and EuropeanAmerican c Asian Hispanic d e Russian French and Hungarian 2 What do psychologists call the type of achievement motivation that directs a person to connect with others as his or her contribution is seen as beneficial to the members of a particular group or society in general a Collectivist instinct b Antiselfishness c Drive d Intrinsic motivation 3 Most psychologists believe that in general achievement motivation is a an inborn trait c learned during adulthood d an instinct e an emotion not motivation 4 The environmental approach to human sexuality asserts that social and cultural factors contribute to the development of homosexuality more than any other factors However the approach asserts that homosexuality is primarily a function of biology a learning b choice theory c medical d therapeutic 5 The evolutionary approach to human motivation generally fails to explain the diversity of human motivation and overlooks the influence of a biological factors c agerelated factors d genderrelated factors e natural selection 6 When people are continuously given highly salted foods they develop a liking for excessive smtlF 7 Social needs are universal and direct human beings toward selfpreservation Biological needs direct people toward establishing and maintaining relationships T ll 8 Today in Western cultures body thinness is a major aspect of the definition of attractiveness which increases perceived femininity I F 9 In a large study almost 30 percent of the respondents reported about their tendency to procrastinate Half of them procrastinate for arousal reasons They believe that they achieve better results when working under pressure The other half is avoidant procrastinators they do not perform well under the pressure of deadlines 10 Psychoanalysis was developed primarily within the cultural environment of which culture Western Chapter 8 1 The term refers to the rituals that recognize an individual s movement from one status to another a means of access b check points c d pledges e written tests 2 Critics of Piaget s theory maintain that he provoked a temptation to interpret some developmental stages as more valuable than others Which stage might appear as most valuable a Sensorimotor stage b Preconventional stage d Conventional stage e Selfactualization 3 Erikson s theory of development has been criticized by psychologists for mixing objective descriptions with a statistical formulas b complicated stories about extraordinary cases d journalist reports e poetry 4 Societal expectations affect the way people interpret intelligence For example in Western cultures fluid intelligence is particularly valued Which of the following most accurately characterizes fluid intelligence a Wisdom knowledge and experience accumulated by the individual b Ability to count money and perform other financial operations c Intuition ability to predict or knowing without the use of rational processes e Capacity to memorize large chunks of information 5 More than 3300 adolescents from 12 countries responded to the question about how many children they would love to have in the future In most countries on average adolescents preferred a to have one child b to have between three and four children c to have between one and two children e not to have children at all 6 The term narrow socialization refers to practices emphasizing independence and free selfexpression T ll 7 In a crosscultural context Jean Piaget s theory accurately explains how children deal with conservation of volume weight and amount I F 8 A major criticism of Kohlberg s studies of moral development is based on the fact that the stories used in the experiments primarily related to American subjects I F 9 Christian Arabs living in Israel are commonly viewed as a double minority Why They are Arabs and the majority of Arabs are Muslims plus they live in a predominantly Jewish country 10 The suppressionfacilitation hypothesis of human development suggests a general linkage between discouraged behavior and clinical symptoms What is the linkage Suppressed behavior will not be frequent in clinical settings Chapter 9 1 Symptoms of psychological disorders that are observable in practically all cultures are called a peripheral b culturebound c medical d e professional 2 What is the repressive adaptive style in coping with illness a An individual s desire to seek immediate help b An individual s desire to look for spiritual healers c A tendency of medical professionals to reject medication in therapy e A tendency of medical professionals not to diagnose mental illness 3 Dhat is a culturebound syndrome that occurs primarily in India However similar conditions also occur in which two countries a Russia and Poland c Canada and Australia d Libya and Chad e Peru and Ecuador 4 There is a statistical difference between people of Western cultures and nonWestern in terms of how they experience depressive symptoms Which symptoms are more common in Western cultures than in nonWestern cultures a Muscle pain c Abdominal pain d Euphoria unlimited optimism e Schizophrenia 5 Globally what are the chances that an individual will be with Schizophrenia b Three in a hundred c One in a thousand d Three in a thousand e Three in ten thousand 6 Michael Phillip s 2004 research revealed that Schizophrenia was more prevalent in Chinese females than males I F 7 Studies show that suicide rates tend to be higher in those nations that rank high on subjective wellbeing I F 8 Collectivist norms allow some very limited deviance from what is considered appropriate behavior As a result there should be more tolerance of and more social sanctions against any exhibition of histrionic or antisocial traits T ll 9 In terms of personality disorders studied across cultures what does the term pathologization mean Assigning pathological characteristics to ordinary non pathological psychological phenomena 10 The textbook refers to hikikomori a complex form of withdrawal behavior observed in Japan Such behavior resembles the symptoms of what DSMIV disorder Schizoid personality disorder


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