Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 200
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Fansher on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 200 at Purdue University taught by Gregory S Francis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
PSY 200 STUDY GUIDE Exam 3 Lecture 17 Encoding Specificity 1 Understand the procedure and typical results of a part set cuing experiment Be able to explain why it is important The subject is given part of a set that has previously been learned which inhibits the ability of the subject to recall the remaining items in the set 50 states example People who were not given part of the list perform better What causes this The context within which you learn and recall can have a profound impact on your memory lnference of recall subject must have to keep checking if an item you recall is on the list lt brings ups the questions of what does it mean to say you remember something What does it mean to say you have forgotten something lt suggests that to measure memory you must consider the conditions at test Memory is more about discrimination of memory traces and not about the strength of memory traces You have several memories in mind and you have to sort through themsimilar to visual search experiments You may be able to recall information in one setting and not another 2 Be able to explain how discrimination makes memory in some ways similar to visual search ln the visual search experiment our goal is to discriminate our target from the rest of the distractors whereas in memory we attempt to recall the right memories from the rest that are stored 3 Know what the encoding specificity principle is Be able to describe in detail at least two experiments general procedures and general results demonstrating this principle Know the basic properties and findings of all of the encoding specificity type of experiments The principle is that in order to maximize recallability the effort and conditions at the time of learning must be consistent with the properties and conditions of the test Representative Study Subjects in two groups see the same words but have different tasks One group uses semantic judgement does the word make sense in the sentence Another uses rhyme judgement does the word rhyme with another word When learning about the words differently the memories are being encoded differently Different things are emphasized about the words Each group is split into two groups 1 Normal recognition task did you see this word or no 2 Shown a word and asked if any of the target words rhymed with this word People in general do better with the standard recognition test the semantic group does better with this task and worse with the rhyming task Tulving and Osler 1968 Split subjects into two groups First group is shown a lower case word associated with a vocab word which is in caps The second group is given just the capitalized vocab word Each group split into two one group is given a cue task where you give the word with the associated word the other group is given a piece of paper and asked to write all of the capitalized words With no cue the study with no cue performed better With a cue if you studied with a cue you performed better The cue does not always help Godden and Baddeley Deep sea divers learn words had them study either on land or underwater dry or wet Split into two groups one you test for recall on land and one for recall underwater lf you study on land you perform better on land if you study underwater you perform better underwater Divers learn decompression tables on land when they need to know the information under water Goodwin et al 1969 Subjects drink vodka mixed with soda Some are given more than others Give them a list of words Sober Drunk at study or Sober Drunk at the time of test Best memory performance is sober at time of study and at time of test if you are intoxicated at time of study you do best if intoxicated at time of test 4 Be able to explain why the encoding specificity principle makes it very difficult to determine if something is forgotten The encoding of information and recall of information needs to match in order to determine if something has actually been forgotten This means it is very difficult to test for absolute do you really remember something or not memory Changing context may allow subject to recall information they seemingly have forgotten 5 Be able to explain why the encoding specificity experiments imply that forgetting is often a retrieval problem Why must forgetting or memory be defined relative to a particular task lt s not like the information has faded away or dropped out of the phonological loop its is still there you cannot remember it because of a retrieval problem you are unable to access the information Forgetting must be defined operationally You must specify the task and the context of retrieval then you can make an assumption if the subject remembered the information or not 6 Be able to describe the effect of classrooms on memory Smith et al Experiment Varied the classroom and dress of experimenter Subjects studied in two different rooms on two different days Subjects were tested in one of the rooms that they studied Recall was best for words that were studied in the test context Lecture 18 Memory discrimination 1 Be able to describe the CogLab False memory experiment the expected results and the conclusions Be able to explain how the effect is related to memory discrimination and source monitoring The subject is given a list of words the list of words have something in common they are all related to a target word For example bumpy rough etc After viewing the list the subject is shown a list with a special target some words from list and some words not from list Subjects think special target was part of what they saw ln original list 75 recall Not in the List 9 recall Special Target 73 recall You remember the special target but it is not a memory from a real events in the world This suggests that memories are not necessarily accurate and that you are able to manipulate memories With every item you store you also store characteristics of the item such as the special target Good performance requires discrimination between which memories were generated by internal processes and which memories were generated by physical stimuli This is called source monitoring You must identify the correct item relative to the appropriate context or time frame 2 Know the meaning of the terms retroactive and proactive interference Be able to give at least one example of each Retroactive new information prevents recall of previous information overwriting a computer program Proactive prior learning prohibits new learning learning new cultural customs 3 Understand how proactive interference Pl might cause subjects in a memory experiment to do worse on later trials Be able to explain how this would be shown in the data and also why it might happen Previous trials make memory discrimination more challenging For example l show you a trial with three pictures the next trial has three more pictures on top of them the next trial has three more pictures on top of them You have to decide if a picture is new or old You may identify an item from trial 1 as being from trial 3 As you have more and more trials memory gets worse in data The new pictures are preventing the recall of previous information 4 Know what release from PI is Be able to give at least one example Changing the stimuli shown can create better recall and stop proactive interference As trials build up of the same stimuli it is harder to recall information lf you add stimuli such as a numbers letter or word this can create a release from proactive interference and make information easier to recall it is easier to discriminate that information from other information that has been building up 5 Be able to explain what kind of interferences operate in the phonological loop Proactive interference might prevent items from being stored properly and thereby make them unrecallable lnterference can occur by blocking ACP rehearsal When items in the phonological storage sound similar both of these items will drop out and block the storage of items 6 Be able to describe the experiment indoor vs outdoor sports that demonstrates that proactive interference operates at memory recall rather than memory storage Subjects are shown a list of indoor or outdoor sports They are asked to recall the items the subject usually does not notice that the fourth item is an indoor sport There are two groups of subjects the first has a traditional Pl experiment and the second group is told that the fourth item is an indoor sport The second group is more likely to report the correct fourth sport lf Pl prevented items from being shown then the hint should not help the data shows that it does make a difference it is affecting the recall not storage 7 Be able to describe the yearbook study of long term memory Be able to explain the two ways that discrimination might be related to why memory is poorer with time 392 students brought in their high school yearbook Asked to match names with the pictures or shown pictures and asked to recall the names llame matching performed better than picture cueing 1 Retroactive interference from subsequent faces names 2 The mental representation of temporal position becomes blurred as a function of time w Recent events are easy to discriminate in time w Long ago events are difficult to discriminate in time Lecture 19 Constructive memory 1 Be able to explain some of the difficulties of eyewitness testimony Why is memory on such task constructive The task is difficult because you have to do different things You have to recall information that might be related to the task from memory determine if the memory is actually for the correct event determine if the memory is actually for the correct moment in time and gauge your confidence in the memory s validity Eyewitnesses do not always report the correct faces with the correct events etc 2 Be able to describe the memory reports from studies by Penfield 1959 Be able to describe the problems with this line of research The skull of an awake epileptic patient is opened and electrodes are put on the brain Ask them how they are feeling Conscious patients recalled vivid memories that they would be unable to recall normally This stimulation is typically in the temporal lobes This study was interpreted as memories are stored completely but they become unreachable This study became the basis for the idea of memory suppression However only 5 of patients reported this activity The memories are nearly impossible to verify Sometimes the memories are not true the patients have epilepsy and stimulation could trigger a seizure which causes a hallucination it feels like a memory even though it is not actually a memory 3 Know the characteristics of flashbulb memories Know some of their limitations as indications of really good memory Be able to describe the experimental study of ashbulb memories compared to memories of ordinary events Highly emotional events tend to produce strong memories People vividly recall details of the event where they were what people around them said clothing worn etc People are confident about their reports On September 12 2001 they asked volunteers to answer questions about their memory of the WTC attack and an ordinary event Three groups for follow up 7 42 and 224 days later The amount of consistent details decreased over time and the inconsistencies increased over time They reported the same amount of details as they would for an ordinary event llemories were more vivid and subjects believed the memories were more accurate Confidence can be misleading the more l tell a story the more errors are introduced 4 Be able to describe the Loftus amp Palmer 1974 experiment that shows how easily memories can be in uenced by subsequent questions Understand the significance of these studies for trusting eye witness testimony Show subjects a series of slides and and ask them questions later show other slides and ask if they were shown before lf subjects were not given a misleading question 90 accurate on picture identification Subjects with a misleading question 20 accurate Asked subjects who were mislead if they thought they were mislead and 90 said no lf you paid the subjects money for correctness it had no effect The memories of the subject change to make the question non misleading The misinformation effect gets stronger with time You have to be very careful when interviewing eyewitnesses because they can convince themselves that they saw something that they actually didn t 5 Understand in general how memory misattribution can allow for memory implants and potentially cause problems for patients undergoing therapy Loftus developed a procedure that implants the memory of being lost in a mall Have a subject read a plausible story get family members to pretend that the memory is true the subject remembers something that happened to him her lt is very easy for therapists to implant false memories Therapists can inadvertently implant memories on accident by bringing up an idea and these can sometimes be terrible such as being molested by a family member Lecture 20 Amnesia 1 Be able to discuss how memory and memory confidence are cognitive events and why this matters when judging properties of memory Memory is a cognitive eXperience confidence in a memory is another cognitive eXperience you can be confident that a memory is correct and still be wrong because these are separate eXperiences Only object physical evidence can verify the accuracy of a memory 2 Know what amnesia is Know the terms anterograde and retrograde amnesia Amnesia is the loss of memory or loss of memory abilities Retrograde forgetting events prior to the injury Anterograde Forgetting events after the injury ln most cases amnesia is limited in scope and duration 3 Know the general scope and duration of retrograde amnesia for most cases Understand some of the difficulties in studying retrograde amnesia About 5 months after the accident there are 2 years of forgotten prior memory 8 months after the accident you gain one year of memory back 16 months after an accident you do not remember two weeks prior to the accident Things from childhood are fuzzy People will tell patients memories so you are not sure if they actually remember memories or just remember what people have told them and convince themselves that it it their memory When relearning things memories are there but they cannot be accessed just influence memories that are constructed llemories cannot be wiped clean it s just that the memories cannot be recalled 4 Be able to describe the difference between declarative explicit and nondeclarative implicit memory systems in LTM Declarative event recall semantic knowledge general knowledge hindered by amnesia Non Declarative Skills such as walking which are retained with amnesia 5 Know the type of amnesia suffered by patient IIM Know the basic limitations of his amnesia and understand the studies that show he and other amnesics like him could learn some new information Anterograde Amnesia Unable to learn anything new he wakes up and is shocked by his appearance he could carry on a conversation if you gave HM a set of items and asked him to put them in memory how many trials would he need before he can repeat it back perfectly The fact that they can recall the same amount of digits as a normal person in the beginning implies that there is short term memory HM walks straight to the cafeteria from his room which implies that they can learn new information When they do learn something they don t know that they have learned something Trace within the lines of a star do this in a mirror Do this every day for a month every day he does this he thinks that he has never done it before fewer errors are made with time HM is learning without realizing it 6 Be able to discuss the behavior of anterograde amnesiacs on tasks like the memory span experiment or a recall task that produces a serial position curve Primacy and recency effects still occur with memory span experiments llormal recency and deficit in primacy suggests that problems are with long term memory 7 Know What infantile amnesia is Know the basic explanation of it Most people report that they cannot remember anything that happened before age four Children younger than four view the world very differently than adults by encoding specificity one needs to be in a similar state as study to best recall something Adults are very different from children and this prevents recall of early memories 8 Know What repression is Understand why memory researchers are skeptical of the evidence used by clinicians to support the idea of memory repression lnfantile amnesia occurred because much of childhood is filled with painful events and memory of the pain is prevented by psychological defense mechanisms This is very unlikely because people remember painful events very well and laboratory studies find no evidence of repressed memories ln a laboratory showing evidence of repression requires being unable to remember something being able to recover the memory through therapy proving that the recovered memory is accurate Clinicians claim evidence of repression with dream interpretation patterns and symbols recovering a memory through hypnosis None of these techniques demonstrate a verified memory Lecture 21 Improving memory 1 Be able to describe the methods in general and results of studying in different contexts and how it affects memory of recall in a neutral context Memory is best if study and test contexts are similar Variability in study promotes more general recall Subjects studied words twice either in the same context or different contexts with a three hour interval another three hour interval and they must recall information in a neutral context studying with variability promoted higher recall if you want to remember something in a lot of contexts study in a lot of contexts 2 Understand how level of processing affects memory recall Recall is better as depth of processing increases You get more distinctive types of memory the deeper you process the information By varying the depth of processing you can construct memories that are more likely be recalled 3 Understand the study that shows that level of processing is more important than intent to learn Why is this important when studying material that you know will be tested Craik and Tulving ll groups of subjects One is a control group show you a list recall them intent group 10 experimental groups split to perform a study task 1 Pleasant Unpleasant rating of the word 2 Estimate frequency of word usage 3 E G checking Does the word contain an E or G it Part of Speech 5 Sentence framing Which sentence does the word best fit in a intentional learning we are going to test you over this information b incidental learning not told they will be tested it doesn t really matter if you know you are going to be tested vs not When you study for things you want the studying to be interactive 4 Understand What is meant by a judgment of learning J CL and how to make it more accurate How likely is it that you will be able to remember something A subject s estimate of the ability of their long term memory Study wait then estimate learning This is a good match of your actual performance 5 Understand the role of recall practice on memory Be able to describe the experiment that demonstrates this effect Subjects study 40 Swahili English word pairs Four groups of subjects that differ after an item is correctly recalled ST study test subject studies and continually tested over every pair SnT study on non recalled test on all when a subject recalls a pair it is no longer studied but it continues to be tested STn study all test only on non recalled when a subject recalls a pair it continues to be studied but it is not tested SnTn study on non recalled test on non recalled when a subject recalls a pair it is not studied or tested again A week later they are all tested ST and SnT are the best performance The time spent testing matters the most You are learning how to recall the information also do l really know this information or not 6 Understand the findings about learning styles Be able to explain what kind of data is needed as evidence that different students have different learning styles There do seem to be real differences in what style people indicate that they prefer There is absolutely no evidence that reported learning style preference has anything to do with learning There has to be a crossover effect the mean test score of one kind of learner is different from the learning method that optimized the mean test score of the other kind of learner All results from studies showed that the same learning method optimized the mean test score of both kinds of learners thereby precluding the need to customize instruction it39s a generalization of the eXperience that a given student benefits from a new eXplanation of material Lecture 22 Improving memory 1 Be able to describe in general terms how subject SF increased his memory span to 81 digits Know the limitations of this approach it took over 230 hours 20 months he was always trying to remember a set of numbers He was converting sequences into things that were memorable such as 3 min 492 sec near world record time Created a hierarchy of dates ages dates Digit span normally about 75 and a measure of STM SF learned how to do the digit span task with long term memory Technique did not transfer to other memory tasks 2 Understand the method of loci for improving memory Be sure to understand the role imagery plays in this method Remember a list of words by walking around an area with distinctive landmarks link the items to be remembered with landmarks using bizarre mental imagery to recall items in order mentally walk through area llemory piggybacks on the easy recallability of the bizarre imagery The more bizarre the better 3 Understand the peg word and link word methods for improving memory Be sure to understand the role imagery plays in these methods Repeat a rhyme that you already know Hook to be remembered items to the list example milk is associated with bun Use bizarre mental imagery a bun made of milk Foreign language vocabulary find an English key word that sounds like some part of the foreign word form a mental image of the key word interacting with the English translation of the foreign word 4 Understand the claims about brain training techniques and the warnings about these claims Several companies market activities to make you smarter Exercise your brain with games that are adapted from neuroscience Often aimed toward elderly and young children Dual n back task Does the current stimulus match the one from n trials back n is adjusted for each person so the task is always demanding n is a measure of how well subjects can do the task Reported transfer effects for a measure of fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge Training group does better than a control group amount of n back improvements is related to gain in intelligence The conclusions are based on four small studies that are varied in many ways Some selective reporting of measures of fluid intelligence measures that did not show an effect were not reported llo comparison to an active control where subjects complete a training task that should not improve fluid intelligence You can make yourself smarter by learning new information 5 Understand the importance of sleep for certain types of memory Be able to describe the experiment that demonstrates this importance Many types of memory improve with sleep some type of consolidation of memories The effect is not just time Subjects learn to identify order relationships between random shapes Example shape A is greater that shape B Only shown one pair at a time Subjects have to learn memorize the appropriate answer to each order pair Groups are tested 20 min l2hr and 24 hrs later Originally they all score about the same After time the 20 min group did the worst Split the 12 hour and 24 hour groups into people who slept and people who did not Those who slept performed much better Lecture 23 Mental representation 1 Understand why the definition approach to concepts has problems The definition approach has problems because it is too vague Some things may be considered to be that concept but the definition does not apply to it 2 Understand the prototype theory of concepts What defines a concept is similarity among its members There may be no absolutely necessary characteristics and there may be no absolutely sufficient characteristics Similarity is judged relative to a prototype example of that concept ldeal average or most frequent version of a concept 3 Be able to describe the CogLab version of the Posner amp Keele 1968 experiment on concept formation Know the methods and typical experimental results Also be able to discuss how the typical results suggest the existence of a prototype Had subjects learn category names for random dot patterns By using random dot patterns nobody will come in with concept or prototype of the dot structures Subjects learn to classify variants as A or B but are never actually shown A or B Reaction time is then recorded when the subjects are shown new variants and the prototypes The reaction time for prototypes is the fastest which suggests that the mental representation of the concepts are built to favor the prototype of the category 4 Be able to explain why the prototype theory has difficulties with some concepts eg ad hoc concepts Consider the types of concepts you have and how specific they can be You can have concepts 3 6 that are things actions goal derived Or ad hoc Things that could fall on you head things you might see while in Paris We can generate new concepts from old concepts it is inconceivable that every possible prototype exists ready to be used some must just be built as they are needed 5 Understand the exemplar theory of concepts A concept is not a thing a concept consists of a lot of examples of the concept Comparing an object to see if it is a coffee cup involves comparing it to each example in memory and seeing if it matches anything well enough 6 How do prototypicality effects appear in an exemplar model Some coffee cups seem prototypical because they match lots of exemplars That is what defines a prototype 7 Understand the properties and characteristics of propositions Higher order ideas things that are doing something A statement that is true or false Relationzx agentzy objectzz Albert threw the book 8 Understand the graphical network representation of propositions Parts of the sentence are connected by things such as time agent relation object etc 9 Understand the methods and results of the study by Ratcliff amp McKoon 1978 Wi 39 proposition priming Study phase 18 one hour sessions to learn 504 sentences Test phase show words and have subjects decide if they were in the study sentences or not lleasure reaction times for words from the sentences if the next word is part of the same proposition it has been primed and the subject will respond even faster if you show a word from a different proposition the response time is slower Takes time to activate and deactivate different propositions Second word lt between propositions lt not related in sentence Lecture 24 Mental imagery 1 Understand the con ict between memories of perceptual events being represented as propositions or concepts or as some kind of imagery Am l remembering things as images or a set of propositions llany images can be broken down into propositions if you ask someone questions about the image they can answer the questions regardless if the image in their head is like a picture 2 How do the limitations of What we can do with mental images imply that mental images are not identical to real images if you ask someone questions about an image that they have seen the answers would not necessarily identify the image You cannot rotate an image in your head and reinterpret it You would be able to look at the copy and make all kinds of judgements but you cannot Verbal descriptions tend to dominate image memories 3 How does the demo that asked you to identify relative positions of cities indicate that propositional information in uences mental images Even though we have seen maps of the United states thousands of times propositional information such as Canada is north of North America and California is west of Nevada messed up our answers to the questions 4 Be able to describe Kosslyn s 1976 experiment on size effects in mental images Why does this suggest that mental images are not only propositions Ask the subject to picture a lion in their head and ask them a series of questions that they are supposed to answer as quickly as possible Does a lion have a head big body part does the lion have claws small body part Two groups of subjects the first group is asked to form a mental picture of a lion and the second group is supposed to think about a lion without forming a mental picture For the people with the mental image there is a shorter reaction time when it comes to them identifying the head compared to claws Subjects who think about the lion respond more quickly to the claws question than the head question Different ways of thinking about a lion lead to different patterns of access to information which implies that mental images are different than propositions 5 Be able to describe the CogLab version of the mental rotation experiment Be able to describe the typical results and to explain how the typical results indicate that mental images are at least somewhat like real images There are 3D shapes rotated in plane or in depth you have to decide if the shapes are the same or different and the time it takes to make that decision is measured The more rotated the shapes the longer it takes to determine if the shapes are the same or different lnitially if the shapes were different it took more time and if the shapes were the same it took less time The imagined movement of the mental image resembles actual movement lt takes time to mentally move through a mental space and there is no reason why propositions would give data that incorporate spatial and temporal relations between aspects of the mental images 6 Be able to describe the basic properties and findings of the fMRI experiment on mental rotation Subjects performed a mental 3 D rotation task or a control task no judgement just look at 2 D oriented bars and press a button in an fMRl scanner The 3D had more activity in the superior parietal lobes Subtract the control from the experimental condition
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