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by: Tia Spears

FluidsandElectrolytesStudyGuide.pdf Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > FluidsandElectrolytesStudyGuide pdf
Tia Spears
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This is a study guide that covers the Fluids and Electrolytes
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Fluids and Electrolytes Study Guide 1. Differentiate between intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. What are the sub compartments that make up the extracellular fluid compartments?  Intracellular fluid compartment o All fluids inside cells of body o About 40% of total body weight  Extracellular fluid compartment o All fluids outside cells o About 20% of total body weight o Sub compartments  Interstitial fluid and plasma; lymph, CSF, synovial fluid 2. What are the primary intracellular ions, interstitial fluid ions, and plasma ions?  Primary intracellular ions, interstitial fluid ions, and plasma ions o Intracellular cation = K+ o Interstitial fluid cation = Na+ o Plasma cation = Na+ o Intracellular anion = Phosphate o Interstitial fluid = Cl- o Plasma anion = Cl- 3. Compare fluid movement following fluid intake with fluid movement during dehydration.  Intake o Water moves by osmosis from the capillaries into the interstitial fluid o Hypertonic  Dehydration o Water moves by osmosis to the capillaries from the interstitial fluid o Hypotonic 4. What organs are the primary regulators of water excretion in the body? What are the regulation processes? Where is the water coming from? What are routes by which water is lost?  Kidneys are primary regulators of water excretion.  Regulation processes o Osmosis o Osmolality o Baroreceptors o Learned behavior  Sources of water o Ingestion o Cellular metabolism  Routes of water loss o Urine o Evaporation  Perspiration  Respiratory passages o Feces 5. What is osmolality? What effects do the following hormones have on blood osmolality and blood pressure? How do these hormones exert their effects? How do the target organs respond?  Osmolality o Measure of water vs. solute concentration; the higher the solute concentration, the higher the osmolality o Adding or removing water from a solution changes osmolality a. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone o Renin activates angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. o Blood vessels: vasoconstriction; increased peripheral resistance and increased blood pressure o Kidneys: decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR); decreases urine output to maintain blood volume and blood pressure o Hypothalamus: activation of thirst center; increased fluid intake; increases blood volume and blood pressure; release of ADH from hypothalamus; maintains blood volume with decreased urine output o Adrenal cortex: release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex; maintains blood volume with decreased urine output o Blood pressure increases b. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) o Blood vessels: vasodilation decreases peripheral resistance and decreases blood pressure o Kidney: increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR); increases urine output to decrease blood volume and blood pressure; increased loss of NA+ and water in urine; decreases blood volume and blood pressure; decreased release of renin; decreased release of aldosterone and ADH o Peripheral resistance decreases; blood volume decreases, decreasing blood pressure c. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) o Hypothalamus: activation of thirst center; increased fluid intake, which increases blood volume and blood pressure o Kidneys: increased water reabsorption; decreases water lost in kidneys to maintain blood volume and decreases blood osmolarity o Blood vessels: vasoconstriction; increases peripheral resistance and blood pressure o Blood pressure increase; blood volume increases; blood osmolarity decreases 6. Very briefly discuss the regulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions. What pathologies are associated with abnormal concentrations of these ions?  Regulation of Na+ ions o Kidneys major route of excretion o Small quantities lost in sweat {sweat = (in decreasing amounts) water, Na+, urea, Cl-K+, NH3}. Insensible perspiration is water evaporating from skin. Sensible perspiration is secreted by the sweat glands. Contains solutes o Concentration changes only when growing, gaining or losing weight  Potassium ions o Maintained in narrow range o Affect resting membrane potentials o Aldosterone increases amount secreted  Calcium ions o Vitamin D stimulates Ca2+ uptake in intestines o Calcitonin decreases extracellular Ca2+ levels  Magnesium ions o Capacity of kidney to reabsorb is limited o Excess lost in urine o Decreased extracellular magnesium results in greater degree of reabsorption  Phosphate ions o PTH increases Ca2+ extracellular levels and decreases extracellular phosphate levels 7. What are acids, bases, and buffers? Compare respiratory regulation of acid-base balance with renal regulation of acid-base balance  Acids o Release H+ into solution  Bases o Remove H+ from solution  Buffers: Resist changes in pH o When H+ added, buffer removes it o When H+ removed, buffer replaces it  Regulation: if pH rises, respiratory rate decreases; if pH falls, respiratory rate increases 8. Compare acidosis and alkalosis. What can cause each of these conditions?  Acidosis o pH body fluids below 7.35 o Respiratory: Caused by inadequate ventilation- reduced elimination of CO2, asthma, damage to respiratory center in brain, emphysema. o Metabolic: Results from all conditions other than respiratory that decrease pH- diarrhea, vomiting, ingesting overdose of aspirin, untreated diabetes mellitus, anaerobic respiration  Alkalosis o pH body fluids above 7.45 o Respiratory: Caused by hyperventilation, high altitude (reduced partial pressure of O2 o Metabolic: Results from all conditions other than respiratory that increase pH- severe vomiting, too much aldosterone, ingestion of substances like bicarbonate of soda.


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